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A  DICTIONARY 


OF 


SAINTLY    WOMEN 


GEORGE     BELL    AND    SONS 

LONDON  :    PORTUGAL   ST.,   LINCOLN'S   INN 

CAMBRIDGE:    DEIGHTON,    BELL    &    co. 

NEW       YORK  :        THE      MACM1LLAN       CO. 
BOMBAY  :        A.      II.      WHEELER       &      CO. 


A    DICTIONARY 


OF 


SAINTLY     WOMEN 


BY 

AGNES   B.    C.   DUNBAR 


IN   TWO   VOLUMES 


VOLUME    I 


LONDON 
GEORGE    BELL    &    SONS 

YORK   HOUSE,   PORTUGAL  STREET,    LINCOLN'S   INN,   W.C. 

1904 


t)& 

v- 1 


ZTo 

CAROLINE 

VISCOUNTESS    SHEKBllOOKK 
THIS    BOOK    IS 

BY  PERMISSION 

DEDICATED 


PREFACE 

FOR  nearly  half  of  a  long  life  it  has  been  my  vocation  to  collect 
and  arrange  legends  and  records  of  women  worshipped  as  saints  or 
so  considered.  Although  the  work  has  been  to  me  a  sanctuary 
from  the  anxieties  and  vexations  of  daily  life,  I  have,  during  the 
whole  time,  been  painfully  conscious  of  my  unworthiness  to  write 
on  the  subject  of  saints,  and  my  inability  to  approach  the  degree 
of  excellence  to  which  such  a  book  might  attain  in  better  hands. 
From  the  mass  of  information— often  contradictory — concerning  this 
vast  multitude,  I  have  selected  the  most  remarkable  incidents.  Some 
of  these  are  chosen  on  account  of  the  historical  importance  of  the 
heroine,  her  noble  character  or  wonderful  gifts,  or  because  of  some 
interesting  side-light  which  they  shed  on  customs  or  beliefs  of  her 
time  and  country.  Some  few  stories  have  been  included  as  examples 
of  the  extreme  absurdity  to  which  these  memorials  have  reached. 
Where  there  are  several  saints  of  one  name  they  are  arranged 
chronologically. 

My  information  has  been  gathered  largely  from  the  Ada 
Sanctorum  of  the  Bollandists.  from  the  histories  of  the  various 
countries  and  religious  orders  to  which  these  saintly  women  belonged, 
from  collections  of  Lives  and  legends,  and  from  many  other  sources. 
Authorities  are  given  for  each  article.  A  list  of  the  books  con 
sulted  will  be  found  at  the  end  of  the  second  volume.  I  have 
generally  abstained  from  criticising  or  expressing  a  personal  opinion. 
Where  I  have  said  that  a  story  is  untrue  or  an  author  untrustworthy, 
the  statement  is  made  on  the  authority  of  some  accredited  Catholic 
writer. 

There  are  moments  when  it  seems  as  though  the  presenting  of  a 
subject  so  remote  from  modern  tendencies  almost  asks  for  an  apology. 
If  such  be  needed,  let  it  be  found  in  the  reflection  that  in  the  same 
way  as  the  monasteries  preserved  the  slumbering  germs  of  culture 
and  civilization  through  hundreds  of  years  of  barbarism,  so,  throughout 
the  darkness  of  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  spirit-deadening  struggle 


viii  PREFACE 

for  material  prosperity,  it  was  by  those  who  are  remembered  as  saints 
that  the  light  of  the  Christian  ideal  was  kept  alive. 

It  appears  that  there  is  at  present  in  English  no  complete 
dictionary  of  the  Christian  saints.  When  such  a  work  comes  to  be 
written  I  trust  that  my  book  may  be  of  use  to  the  compiler. 
Meanwhile,  I  hope  that  readers  will  find  in  these  pages  any  sainted 
woman  for  whom  they  are  likely  to  look  and  some  of  whom  they 
probably  never  heard. 

I  owe  a  great  debt  of  gratitude  to  the  kind  friends  who  have 
helped  me  in  various  ways.  Many  of  them  have  passed  over  the 
dark  river ;  to  those  who  remain  I  offer  heartfelt  thanks.  I  commend 
my  subject  to  the  toilers  and  the  idlers  of  the  busy  world,  and  my 
work  to  their  indulgence. 

A.   B.   C.   D. 

LONDON, 

September,  1904. 


ABBREVIATIONS 


AA.SS. 
A.R.M. 
B. 
c. 
M. 

Mart.  . 
O.S.A.  . 
O.S.B. . 
O.S.D. 
O.S.F. . 
Proter 
RM.  . 
Yen.  . 
V. 


.     Acta  Sanctorum. 
.     Appendix  to  Roman  Martyrology. 
Blessed. 


.     Martyr,  martyred. 

.     Martyrology. 

.     Order  of  St.  Augustine. 

.     ')rder  of  St.  Benedict. 

.     Order  of  St    Dominic. 

.     Order  of  St.  Francis. 

.     Pnutermissi. 

.     Roman  Martyrology. 

Venerable. 

Virgin. 

Died. 


ERRATA 

Abia :  for  "  THECLA  (1),"  raid  "THECLA  (16)." 
Anna  (19) :  for  "  Legnitz,"  read  "  Leignitz." 
Basilica  (2)  :  for  "  PLACIDIA  (1),"  read  "  PLACIDA." 
Benedicta  (17) :  for  "  Varasio,"  read  "  Varese." 
Britta  (1) :  for  "  July  3,"  read  "  July  13." 
Catherine  (10) :  for  "  Varasio,"  read  «  Varese." 
Dionysia  (o)  :  for  "  VICTORIA  (19),"  ra«Z  "  VICTORIA  (24). 
Emily  (1)  :  for  "  Nyassa,"  rea^  "Nyssa." 


A  DICTIONARY  OF  SAINTLY  WOMEN 


St.  Aagot,  AGATHA. 

St.  Ab,  EISBA. 

St.  Abba  or  ALLA,  May  7,  M.  in 
Africa,  with  an  immense  number  of 
others,  of  whom  about  t>0  are  named. 
AA.SS.  Boll,  from  the  Mart,  of  St. 

J<  r<m«'. 

B.  Abbatissa,  first  abbess  of  the 
Order  of  the  Holy  Ghost  at  Salamanca, 
about  1 1  th  century.  Guenebault,  Die. 
Iconographique. 

St.  Abda,  March  ;n,  M.  in  Africa. 
M<t,-t.  lllnnnn.nse.  AA.SS. 

St.  Abdela  (ADELA,  ADLA),  1.5th 
century.  Princess  of  Bohemia.  Abbess 
of  Gerenrhoda.  Half-sister  of  ST.  AGNES 
of  Bohemia.  Daughter  of  Premislaus 
Ottocar  I.,  king  of  Bohemia  (11 98-1 230), 
by  his  wife  Abdela  or  Adela,  daughter  of 
( )tto,  margrave  of  Meissen.  The  queen 
was  divorced,  cither  on  the  ground  of 
consanguinity  or  on  account  of  her 
hiding  with  her  brother  in  a  quarrel 
with  the  king.  She  then  became  a 
Cistercian  nun  at  Wassenburg,  in 
Meissen,  leaving,  besides  Abdela,  two 
daughters  and  a  son.  Fabricius, 
(ti-iijiin*  Sn.i-onum,  numbers  St.  Abddu 
nrnon^  tin-  saint  >  of  Saxony.  Chanowski, 
Bo!"  '.  Dlugoech,  JJtftl.  Pofomeo, 

ii.  i'i4'».  Palacky,  Gcscltichte  von  ]!"!/- 

//,  ii.,  Genealogical  Table. 

St.  Abia,  otherwise  MAKIAMNA  (3). 
See  THEOLA  (1). 

St.  Abiata,  V.  M.    See  BAIUTA. 

St.  Abundantia  (  I ),  Jan.  29, 
called  in  French  AKONDAM  r.  or  MONDK. 
A  widow  who  lived  at  Spoleto,  and 
buried  St.  Gregory  and  other  martyrs 


there,  during  the  persecution   by  Dio 
cletian,    c.    300.     Jacobilli,  Santi  DclV 


St.  Abundantia  (2).  V.  Jan.  10 
and  July  15.  "f"  80  4-.  Represented  as  a 
child,  before  the  imago  of  the  Virgin 
Mary,  receiving  a  golden  apple  from  the 
Infant  Jesus.  Born  at  Spoleto,  of 
parents  who  had  long  been  childless. 
I  ler  birth  was  announced  by  the  spon 
taneous  ringing  of  the  bells  of  the  town. 
At  her  baptism  lamps  were  lighted 
without  human  hands.  One  day,  when 
about  eight  years  of  age,  she  was  seized 
with  a  longing  for  a  golden  apple  she 
saw  in  the  hand  of  an  image  of  the 
Infant  Christ  in  His  mother's  arms. 
Ho  gave  it  to  her.  She  ran  to  fetch 
Him  a  bouquet  in  return,  and  although 
it  was  mid-winter,  she  found  plenty  of 
beautiful  flowers,  which  she  gathered 
and  presented  to  the  Holy  Child. 
Majolo,  or  Nicholas,  abbot  of  St.  Mark's, 
at  Spoleto,  undertook  her  education. 
He  took  her  to  Palestine,  where  she 
remained  some  years.  She  spent  five 
years  as  a  recluse  in  the  cave  of  St. 
Onuphrius,  and  then,  as  her  father  kept 
constantly  asking  to  have  her  homo 
again,  she  returned  to  Spoleto.  At  her 
father's  death  she  gave  all  her  inherit 
ance  to  the  poor.  The  same  mysterious 
ringing  of  bells  which  hailed  her  birth 
was  also  heard  at  her  death,  in  S04  ;  and 
where  her  funeral  passed,  leaves  and 
flowers  burst  forth  in  January,  and 
angels  were  heard  to  sing  V<ni  tponsa 
Clnisti.  She  performed  miracles  of 
healing  in  life  and  after  her  death. 


ST.   ABYCE 


Ferrarius,  Catalogue,  Jan.  19.  Bncelinus, 
Men.  Ben.,  July  15.  Guerin,  Dec.  25. 
Cahier,  Caraeteristiqucs,  "  Images." 
Petin,  D*V.  Hag. 

St.  Abyce  or  ABYCIA,  Aug.  24, 
prioress  in  England,  according  to  Gucrin 
and  Petin.  Perhaps  a  mistake  for  ST. 
ALICE  HIGH,  who  is  honoured  on  this 
day. 

St.    Acacia,    March     29     (ACATIA, 

ACHATIA,     ACHATIO,     AciIARTIO),     M.     at 

Antioch,  with  about  250  others.  Boll. 
AA.SS.  from  old  MS.  Martyrologies. 

SS.  Acapis,  Cionia,  and  Herene, 
with  IXGEXIAXA,  Saturninus,  and 
Secundus,  April  1.  Mentioned  in  Mart, 
of  Heiclienau.  The  first  three  appear  to 
be  AGAPE,  CHIOXIA,  and  IRENE. 

St.  Achachildis  or  ATZIX.  llth 
century.  Supposed  to  be  a  sister  of 
ST.  CUNEGUND,  the  empress.  Achachildis 
is  represented:  (1)  presenting  five  in 
fants  to  her  husband ;  (2)  performing 
various  charitable  miracles.  She  had 
five  children  at  a  birth,  after  which  she 
and  her  husband  took  a  vow  of  celibacy. 
She  passed  her  life  as  a  benefactor  of  the 
poor.  Her  tomb  was  found,  in  1-147,  at 
Wendelstein,  near  Schwabach.  On  the 
stone  was  an  inscription,  calling  her  a 
holy  woman  and  founder  of  the  parish 
church  of  the  place.  After  the  discovery 
of  the  grave,  many  miracles  of  healing 
occurred,  especially  on  behalf  of  children, 
and  gifts  of  wax  and  many  other  offer 
ings  were  made  in  consequence.  The 
place  afterwards  became  protestant,  and 
the  worship  ceased.  Stadlcr  und  Heim, 
Heiligen  Lex  ikon. 

St.  Achartio,  ACACIA. 

St.  Achatia,  ACACIA. 

St.  Achatio,  ACACIA. 

St.  Achia,  ECHEA. 

St.  Acrabonia  and  Askama,  June 
29,  otherwise  DEURIS  and  CARIA,  wives 
of  Agrippa,  who  were  converted  by  St. 
Peter  from  a  sinful  life  to  virtue  and 
Christianity.  Honoured  in  the  Abys 
sinian  Church.  Papebroch,  in  AA.SS. 

St.  Acrosia,  June  29,  a  disciple  of 
St.  Peter  the  apostle.  Honoured  in  the 
Abyssinian  Church.  Boll.  AA.SS. 
Petin,  Die.  Hag. 

St.  Acteie,  June  26,  at  Rome. 
of  Rcichenau. 


St.  Actinea  and  Grseciniana,  W. 
MM.,  Juno  10.  Time  of  Diocletian  and 
Maximian.  Their  bodies  were  dis 
covered  in  the  monastery  of  SS.  Justus 
and  Clement  at  Volterra  in  1140,  by 
persons  who  were  excavating  in  search 
of  the  body  of  St.  Clement,  a  Camaldolese 
monk.  Boll.  AA.SS. 

St.  Acuta  (i;,  Jan.  3,  M.  in  Africa. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Acuta  (2),  April  15,  M.  in 
Mesopotamia.  AA.SS. 

St.  Acuta  (3),  May  G,  M.  at  Milan, 
supposed  in  the  time  of  Maximian. 
Mentioned  this  day,  among  many  others, 
in  the  MS.  Martyrology  of  Eptornac  and 
others.  St.  Ambrose,  bishop  of  Milan 
(4th  century),  in  a  sermon  on  the 
festival  of  SS.  Nazarius  and  Celsus, 
says,  "  Other  cities  boast  if  they  have 
the  relics  of  one  Martyr,  but  Milan 
possesses  a  population  of  Martyrs." 
Boll.  AA.SS. 

St.  Acutina  or  AGUTINA,  April  12, 
one  of  79  martyrs,  commemorated  to 
gether  in  the  Martyrolony  of  St.  Jerome. 
Henschenius,  Boll.  AA.SS. 

Ada.  The  following  are  among  the 
variants  of  the  names  commonly  written 
Ada,  Alice,  Adelaide  : — ADALHEIDIS, 
ADALINDA,  ADDULA,  ADELA,  ADELAIDE, 
ADELA'IS,  ADELEIDIS,  ADELHEIT,  ADELIZA, 
ADELOJA,  ADENETA,  ADILIA,  ADXA,  AD- 
NETTA,  ADOXETTE,  ADRECHILD,  ADRE- 
HILDIS,  ADULLA,  AELICIA,  AELIZ,  AETHEL- 
IIEITHA,  ALAIDES,  ALAIS,  ALAYSIA, 
ALETIIA,  ALEYDIS,  ALITH,  ALIX,  ALIZ, 
ALIZETTE,  ALIZOX,  ATEIS,  ATIIALA, 
ATHILA,  ATHELAIS,  AZELIA,  ELIZAHKTII, 
ETHEL,  EZELIND,  HADALA,  HADELOGA, 
ODILIA,  OTHILIA,  ZELIE,  etc. 

St.  Ada,  Dec.  4  (ADENETA,  ADXA, 
ADNETTA,  ADONETTE,  ADRECHILD,  ADRE- 
HILDIS),  (3th  or  7th  century.  Abbess. 
Niece  or  granddaughter  of  St.  Engelbert, 
bishop  of  Lo  Mans  (Nov.  7).  She  was  a 
nun  at  Soissons,  and  Eugelbert  promoted 
her  to  be  abbess  there,  and  afterwards 
transferred  her  as  abbess  to  the  monastery 
of  Pre  (St.  Julian  do  Prato)  at  Le  Mans. 
Bucelinus,  Men.  Ben.  Petin,  Die.  Hay. 
Die.  ties  AM>ayes.  Gynecseum. 

St.  Adalasenda,  Dec.  2:,,  June  30 
(  ADAI.SKXDIS,  ADALSIXD  ),  V.  Daughter  of 
ST.  RICTRUDE,  and  nun  under  her  at 


ST,    ADKLA 


ICarohiennee.  Died  very  young,  but 
had  already  attuned  to  great  perfection 
in  holinos.  One  of  a  family  of  saints. 
Imtler,  Lires.  Petin,  Die.  Hay.,  says, 
Xun,  under  her  sister,  ST.  EUSKBIA,  at 
llamay. 

St.  Adalinda,  the  KMPIIESS  ADELAIDE. 

St.  Adalqja,  HAI»I-:LO<;A.  abbess  of 
Kitzingen. 

St.  Adalsendis  or  ADAI.SIM>.  ADALA- 

SKVDA. 

St.  Adausia  or  AI.AVISA,  Aug.  i>i«, 
31.  at  Borne.  Boll.  AA.SS. 

St.  Addula,  ADELA  OF  PFALZEL. 

B.  Adela  <  1  >,  Nov.  23.  e.  «•:;<)  or 
864.  Of  the  blood  of  the  dukes  of 
Anstrasia.  Mother  of  St.  Tron,  or 
Trndo,  or  Trnyen,  priest.  Buried  on 
her  own  estate  at  Zeleem,  near  Dist,  in 
Brabant.  Some  of  Adela's  bones  are 
preserved  in  the  Benedictine  monastery 
founded  by  her  son,  at  the  place  since 
called  St.  Trond.  He  died  in  693.  Le 
Mire,  Fasti  Bdy.  Butler,  Lives  of  ilf 
/•''///.  n,  "  St.  Tron,"  Nov.  23.  Gynecseum. 

St.    Adela   (2j,   Dec.   24    (ADDUI.A, 
A  mi: i. A,  and  perhaps  ADOLEXA  ),  founder 
and  abbess  of  Pfalzel  ( Palatiolum  ),  "f  c. 
7:51.     ST.    IRMINA    of    Horres   and   ST. 
ADKI.A     of    Pfalzel   were   daughters   of 
Dagobert  II.,  king  of  Austrasiu,  some 
times  called  Saint,  and  honoured  Dec. 
23.       Adela  married   Alberic,  and    had 
several  children.      About  7"",  being  a 
widow,  she  took  the  veil  in  a  monastery 
built  for  her  by  Dagobert  and  St.  Mod- 
wald,  or  llodcald,  archbishop  of  Treves, 
at  Pfal/el  on  the  Moselle.     The  arch 
bishop's  sister,  ST.  SEVER  A,  was  the  first 
abbess,    and    was    succeeded    by    Adela. 
She  is  probably  that  ADOLKXA  to  whom 
ST.  ELFLEDA  wrote  to  bespeak  her  kind 
ness  and  hospitality  for  another  English 
abbess  on  her  way  to  Koine,  supposed  to 
!«•    J).     Wrnir.n:  ,\    (2),     St.    Boniface 
visited    her   convent   OH  his  way  from 
Frisia   to    Thuringia,    about    722.     She 
had   at   the    time    a    grandson,    named 
»ry,    staying    with    her,    a     boy    of 
1'mirtccn  or  iit'teen,  who  read  aloud  from 
the  Holy  Scriptures  while  the  nuns  and 
their  guest  were  at  dinner.'    St.  Boniface 
remarked    that    he  read  very  well,  and 
bade  him  explain  the  passage.     This  the 
boy  could  not  do,  and  Boniface  took  up 


the  subject  and  preached  to  the  whole 
community  with  so  much  eloquence  ami 
impressi veness  that  Gregory  told  his 
grandmother  he  must  go  with  the  holy 
man  and  become  his  pupil.  Adela  ob 
jected  to  let  her  darling  go  and  travel  in 
heathen  lands  and  unexplored  wilds  ;  but 
he  feared  no  danger,  and  far  from  listen 
ing  to  any  dissuasion,  he  said  if  his 
grandmother  would  not  give  him  a  horse, 
as  became  the  grandson  of  a  king,  ho 
would  follow  the  missionaries  on  foot. 
Adela  saw  in  the  earnestness  of  the  child 
a  divine  call,  and  furnished  him  with 
what  wr.s  necessary  for  the  expedition. 
From  that  day  Gregory  never  left  St. 
Boniface,  until  he  witnessed  his  martyr 
dom  at  Docking,  or  Dockum,  in  Fries- 
land. 

Achery  and  Mabillon  give  a  copy  of 
Adela's  will,  in  which  she  leaves  every 
thing  to  her  convent,  except  an  estate 
which  she  bequeaths  to  her  son  Alberic. 
They  call  her  "  pious "  rather  than  " saint," 
as  her  worship  seems  uncertain.  She  is 
commemorated  in  the  French  Mar  tyro- 
logy,  Dec.  24,  and  honoured  with  her 
sister  Irmina  in  several  martyrologies. 

Wion,  Liynnin  Yitic,  p.  520,  calls  her 
"Saint  Athela."  TVrx  <1,-8  S<u'ntt#  </<• 
France.  Lelong,  Bill.  Hist  de  France. 
Achery  and  Mabillon,  AA.SS.  O.S.B.,  II. 
498,  Saic.  iii.  pars.  i.  p.  531,  etc.  Petin, 
Die.  Hag.  Brower,  Sidcra.  Ceillier, 
Auteurs  sacrcs.  Adela,  Irmina.  and  Clo 
tilda  form  one  of  the  TRIADS,  who  were 
probably  heathen  tribal  goddesses.  The 
pilgrimages  to  their  shrines  and  the  rites 
there  observed  retain  traces  of  paganism. 
Eckenstein. 

St.  Adela  (3),  Jan.  8  (AI.KI.AIS, 
ADELAIDE).  -flOTl.  Princess  of  France. 
( 'oiintess  of  Flanders.  Abbess  of  Mee- 
sene.  The  countess-queen.  Daugi 
of  Robert  the  Pious,  king  of  France,  {)!>•;_ 
Ki31.  Sister  of  Henry  I.  1031-1000. 
Wife  of  Baldwin  V.  (of  Lille),  count  of 
Flanders,  1084-1067.  Mother  of  Bald 
win  VI.  Mother-in-law  of  William  the 
Conqueror.  This  appears  to  be  the  same 
prim-ess  who  was  married  in  her  infancy 
tn  Hie-hard,  duke  of  Normandy.  Whether 
Baldwin  of  Lille  was  her  first  or  second 
husband,  she  was  married  to  him  in  lie/ 
childhood,  and  was  taken  by  his  father, 


•    ST.   ADELA 


Baldwin  IV.,  to  Flanders,  to  be  brought 
up   in  his  own    family.     The    town    of 
Corbio  was  her  dowry.    Baldwin  rebelled 
against  his  father,  stirred  up,  says  Sis- 
mondi,  by  the  pride  of  his  wife,  who, 
being  a   king's   daughter,  thought   she 
ought  to  have  the  first  place  in  the  house 
of  a  count.     Finding  the  fortune  of  war 
against  him,  and  no  help  coming  from 
the  king  of  France,  he  craved  mercy  and 
pardon.     A  reconciliation  was  made,  on 
Baldwin   swearing,  in   presence   of   the 
Flemish  bishops  and  barons  and  of  the 
bodies  of  SS.  PHARAILDIS,  WALBURGA,  and 
other  famous  patron  saints  of  Flanders, 
to  submit  to  the  count's  authority   and 
keep  the  peace.    In  the  same  year,  1031, 
Robert,  king  of  France,  Adela's  father, 
died,    and   was    succeeded    by   his    son 
Henry  I.     In  1036  died  count  Baldwin 
IV.,'  Belle    Barle,    after    a    long    and 
prosperous  reign.     He  left  his  country 
at  peace,  both  with  the  Emperor  and  the 
king  of  France — a  circumstance  which 
had    seldom,   if    ever,   occurred   before. 
Adela's  husband  succeeded  as  Baldwin  V. 
He  was  constantly  at  war,  either  refusing 
to  do  homage  to  the  Emperor  or  to  the 
king  of  France  for  his   possessions,  or 
punishing  others  for  refusing  to  acknow 
ledge  his  suzerainty.     Nevertheless,  he 
was  considered  the  best  prince  of  his 
time,  and  was  loved  by  his  subjects  and 
respected  by  his   neighbours.      On   the 
death  of  his  brother-in-law  Henry  I.  of 
France  (1060),  he  was  chosen  regent  of 
France  and  guardian  of  the  young  king 
Philip  I.,  the  Fair,  Adela's  nephew,  then 
only  eight  years  old.    His  letter  of  foun 
dation    to  the   church   of  St.  Peter   at 
Lille  says — 

"I  Baldwin,  marquis  of  the  Flemings, 
Count,  regent  of  France,  guardian  of 
King  Philip  .  .  .  considering  that  by 
building  a  house  of  God  on  earth,  I  pre 
pare  for  myself  a  dwelling  in  heaven, 
.  .  .  and  acquiescing  in  the  good  advice 
of  my  wife  Aclela,  and  my  son  Baldwin 
.  .  .  have  founded  a  college  of  canons  to 
implore  day  and  night  the  clemency  of 
God  for  .  .  .  my  soul,  the  souls  of  my 
predecessors,  my  wife  and  children,  and 
all  faithful  souls.  .  .  . 

"Done  at  Lille,  in  the  Basilica  of 
St.  Peter,  in  the  presence  of  Philip  king 


of  France,  in  the  seventh  year  of  his 
reign." 

King  Philip  also  signed  the  deed. 
Baldwin  and  Adela  built  the  Bene 
dictine  monastery  of  Meescne.  Several 
grants  by  them,  to  Mecseno  and  other 
churches,  arc  to  be  found  in  Le  Mire's 
Notitia  Ecclesiarum  Belyii.  They  rebuilt 
the  monastery  of  Einham,  or  Iham,  on 
the  Scald,  and  gave  it  to  the  Benedic 
tines  in  1063.  Baldwin  made  the  Fosse' 
ncuf,  a  great  canal  between  Flanders 
and  Artois.  In  1069  he  gave  his  whole 
attention  to  his  approaching  death  and 
the  completion  of  his  pious  works.  His 
last  public  act  was  the  dedication  of  his 
new  church  of  St.  Bavo,  on  the  site  of 
the  former  one,  at  Ghent.  (See  ADEL- 
TRDDK.)  Ho  died  Sept.  1,  ln<59,  and 
was  buried  in  the  church  of  St.  Peter 
at  Lille,  where  his  tomb  and  epitaph 
wrere  to  be  seen  in  the  1 8th  century.  After 
his  death,  Adelaide  chose  the  monastery 
of  Meesene  as  her  residence,  that  she 
might  spend  the  remainder  of  her  life  in 
silent  prayer.  She  wished  to  receive  the 
religious  veil  from  the  hands  of  the  Pope, 
and  for  that  purpose  went  to  Rome.  She 
travelled  in  a  car,  covered  with  a  cur 
tain,  to  protect  her  from  wind  and  rain, 
that  her  prayers  might  not  be  inter 
rupted  on  the  journey.  She  obtained 
from  the  Pope  some  of  the  relics  of  St. 
Sidronius,  as  well  as  the  veil  and  the 
papal  blessing.  She  then  returned  to 
Meesene,  and  remained  there  until  her 
death  in  1071. 

Her  children  were  Baldwin  VI.  of  Mons 
(the  Good),  Robert  the  Frisian,  Henry, 
Matilda  (married  William  the  Conqueror, 
duke  of  Normandy,  and  king  of  Eng 
land),  Judith  (married,  1st,  Tosti,  brother 
of  Harold,  king  of  England;  2nd,  Guclph, 
duke  of  Bavaria,  founder  of  the  younger 
line  of  the  house  of  Guclph,  from  whom 
the  present  royal  family  of  England  are 
descended).  Baldwin  VI.  was  a  good 
prince ;  in  his  time,  doors  were  left  open, 
and  people  could  go  about  without  sticks 
or  daggers.  His  secretary,  Thomellus, 
a  monk,  has  left  an  account  of  the  youth 
of  his  master,  valuable  as  illustrating 
the  manners  of  the  time. 

A  story  of  the  wooing  of  Matilda  by 
William  of  Normandy  has  often  been 


ST.   ADELAIDE 


rejected  by  modern  writers  as  incredible; 
but  Lo  Glay  thinks  it  not  at  all  incon 
sistent  with  what  is  known  of  the  times 
and  the  people,  and  says  it  is  related  in 
some  very  old  chronicles.  The  account 
is  as  follows  : — 

William,  duko  of  Normandy,  sent  a 
message  to  Ualdwin,  count  of  Flanders, 
to  ask  the  hand  of  his  daughter  Matilda. 
Baldwin  was  pleased  with  the  offer,  but 
when  ho  told  Matilda  of  it,  she  answered 
that  she  would  never  marry  a  bastard. 
Iluldwin  made  the  most  polite  excuses 
he  could  for  his  refusal.  A  considerable 
time  passed  before  William  heard  what 
the  young  lady  had  said.  He  was  ex 
tremely  sensitive  on  the  subject  of  his 
birth,  and  bitterly  resented  any  slight 
or  insult  grounded  on  that  misfortune. 
When  Matilda's  answer  was  told  to 
him,  ho  went  to  Lille;  rushed,  unan 
nounced,  into  Adela's  apartment,  where 
her  daughters  wero  sitting  with  her; 
seized  Matilda  by  her  long  plaits,  dragged 
her  through  the  room,  threw  her  down, 
and  kicked  her;  then,  disappearing  as 
suddenly  as  he  had  entered,  mounted 
his  horse  and  rode  away  to  his  own 
dominions.  Very  soon  alter  this  strange 
incident,  the  young  people  were  recon 
ciled  and  betrothed.  As  Pope  Leo  IX. 
raised  objections  to  the  marriage,  on  tho 
ground  of  consanguinity,  there  was  some 
delay ;  they  were  married,  nevertheless, 
at  Eu,  in  1050,  and  afterwards  obtained 
a  dispensation,  on  condition  that  each 
should  build  a  church.  William  built 
the  abbey  of  St.  Etieune,  at  Caen,  and 
Matilda  that  of  tho  Holy  Trinity,  in  tho 
same  town.  Matilda  had  a  great  deal  of 
influence  over  her  husband,  which  she 
always  used  for  good. 

Mineus  (Le  Mire  j,  Aunalcs  Btlyici  and 
Notitid  Ecderiarum  7>' /<///'.  lfioyr<ifi<t 
K'-flesiastlca  (Madrid,  1  ^  IS).  Putin,  Die. 
Jl'i'j.  L'Art  ilr  I'- '/•///</•  li:s  dates.  Le 
(ilay,  7//.sV.  il,-n  Cinuli-x  de  Flandrr.  Sis- 
moudi,  lli-t.  ill1*  I'\iniri'is.  Freeman, 
-V •/•//«///  ('••nijuext,  iii.  GJ7.  Palgravc, 
History  <f  A'"/'///'///<///  ami  /•«'//_'//'(//</,  iii. 
l;>7,  L'(1>i.  Biographic  UniverteUe,  Lap- 

pcnbcrg,  Sit.rim  KIIKJ-  <>/  /•,'// <//r/m/,  ii. 

St.  Adela  (4;,  of  Bohemia,  A.BDELA, 

^  St.  Adelaide  ( ij,  Juno  i>,  27,  of 

Bergamo,     Wife  of  St.  Lupo,  prince  of 


that  city,  a  virtuous  ruler  though  a 
heathen.  They  had  a  daughter,  ST. 
(IKATA,  who  was  the  first  of  the  three  to 
become  a  Christian.  Ho  built  a  church, 
and  was  baptized  there,  with  many  of 
his  subjects  ;  ho  lived  fifteen  years  more, 
and  was  buried  in  his  church.  Adelaide 
and  Grata  were  widows  for  many  years, 
and  built  several  churches.  Legend 
places  tho  lives  of  these  three  saints  in 
tho  time  of  Diocletian,  but  Henschenius, 
AA.SS.,  thinks  it  more  likely  that  they 
lived  in  the  7th,  8th,  or  !>th  century. 
The  mother  and  daughter  are  commemo 
rated  together  Juno  9 ;  and  separately, 
Adelaide,  June  27  ;  and  Grata,  Aug.  25. 

St.  Adelaide  (2),  Feb.  2.  Abbess  of 
Kit/ingen,  HADELOQA. 

St.  Adelaide  (:i)»  J)cc.  10,  12,  and 
17.  992.  Empress!  Queen  of  Italy. 
Queen  of  Germany.  Called  "  the  Happy" 
and  "  the  Mother  of  the  Kings."  Tho 
richest  woman  in  Europe.  For  variants  of 
her  name,  sec  ADA.  Adelaide,  daughter 
of  liudolph  or  Italph  II.,  king  of  Bur 
gundy,  and  his  wife  P>ertha  of  Suabia, 
was  born  about  931.  At  sixteen  she 
was  married  at  Milan,  to  Lothaire,  who 
soon  afterwards  succeeded  her  father  as 
king  of  Italy.  Pavia  was  given  to  Ade 
laide  as  a  dowry.  In  950  Lothairo 
died.  His  death  was  attributed  to 
poisoned  wine,  given  to  him  during  a 
feast  at  Turin,  by  Berengarius,  who 
immediately  proclaimed  himself  king,  as 
Berengarius  II.  He  sought  to  strengthen 
his  position  by  marrying  his  son  Atlel- 
bert  to  Lothaire's  widow.  But  Adelaide 
indignantly  answered  that  if  she  ever 
married  again  it  should  bo  a  man  who 
could  avenge  her  husband's  death.  She 
was  besieged  in  Pavia,  and  in  spite  of 
tho  devotion  of  her  people,  and  the 
heroism  and  generosity  with  which,  when 
provisions  failed,  she  shared  everything 
with  them,  a  traitor  was  found  to  open 
tho  gates,  and  before  tho  queen  knew 
that  tho  town  was  taken,  tho  enemy 
stood  before  her.  At  first  Berengarius 
and  Villa,  his  wife,  treated  her  well; 
but  as  she  persisted  in  her  refusal  to 
marry  Adalbert,  she  was  imprisoned  at 
Como,  where  she  was  subjected  to  all 
kinds  of  insults  from  Villa,  who  is 
described  by  Liutprand  as  tho  very  worst 


0 


ST.   ADELAIDE 


of  all  the  many  very  bad  women  in 
Italy.  In  vain,  when  words  of  flattery 
and  of  abuse  alike  failed,  did  Villa  cuff 
and  kick  Adelaide,  and  drag  her  by  her 
hair,  to  induce  her  to  become  her 
daughter-in-law.  From  Como  she  was 
transferred  to  a  castle  on  the  lake  of 
Garcia,  and  only  allowed  the  attendance 
of  her  chaplain,  Martin,  and  one  maid 
servant.  Both  were,  however,  devoted 
to  her ;  and  Adelhard,  bishop  of  Reggio, 
having  promised  to  receive  her  into  a 
place  of  safety,  if  she  could  manage  to 
escape,  Martin  succeeded  in  making  a 
hole  in  the  wall  of  Adelaide's  room, 
through  which  she  and  her  maid  crept 
in  men's  clothes.  After  enduring  many 
fatigues,  and  narrowly  escaping  recap 
ture,  they  succeeded  in  reaching  the 
town  of  Cauossa,  a  strong  fortress  on  a 
steep  rock  at  the  foot  of  the  hills  close 
to  Garda,  and  held  by  Azo,  Adelaide's 
uncle,  as  a  fief  of  Eeggio.  From  there 
she  wrote  to  Otho,  emperor  of  Germany 
(936-973),  imploring  help ;  and,  at  the 
same  time,  the  Pope,  Agapetus  II.,  ap 
plied  to  him  to  settle  the  disturbances 
in  Italy. 

The  beauty  and  accomplishments  of 
the  young  queen,  combined  with  her 
misfortunes  and  wrongs,  aroused  the 
sympathy  and  indignation  of  civilized 
Europe.  The  princes  whose  lands  bor 
dered  on  the  kingdom  of  Italy  took  a 
double  interest  in  her  cause,  as  there 
was  always  the  hope  of  acquiring  for 
themselves  some  little  slice  of  that 
pleasant  land.  Among  these  were  Henry, 
duke  of  Bavaria,  the  brother  of  Otho ; 
and  Liudolph,  the  Emperor's  son  by  his 
first  wife,  B.  EDITH  of  England.  Otho 
was  touched  by  the  sad  fate  of  Adelaide, 
and  resolved  to  help  her,  and,  at  the 
same  time,  to  turn  the  present  crisis  to 
his  own  advantage.  He  immediately 
sent  promises  of  help  and  proposals  of 
marriage.  The  knight  who  carried  the 
despatches,  unable  to  make  his  way  into 
Canossa,  watched  as  it  was  by  the 
enemy's  soldiers,  fastened  the  Emperor's 
letter  to  an  arrow  and  shot  it  over  the 
wall.  As  soon  as  possible,  Otho  has 
tened  to  Pavia,  whose  gates  opened  at 
his  approach,  and  there  ho  was  pro 
claimed  king  of  the  Franks  and  Lom 


bards.  At  the  same  time,  he  sent  a 
strong  force  to  Canossa  to  escort  Ade 
laide  to  Pavia.  She  was  received  at 
the  gate  of  the  city  by  the  Emporor  and 
his  two  brothers,  Henry,  duke  of  Bavaria, 
and  St.  Bruno,  archbishop  of  Cologne. 
In  951  Adelaide,  who  little  more  than 
a  year  ago  had  left  Pavia  a  prisoner, 
re-entered  it,  amid  the  acclamations  of 
the  people,  as  the  bride  of  the  Emperor. 
Otho,  although  nearly  twenty  years 
older  than  Adelaide,  was  still  in  the 
prime  of  life,  a  man  of  gigantic  strength 
and  great  beauty,  with  long  fair  hair 
and  blue  eyes  of  extraordinary  brilliancy, 
and  to  these  personal  advantages  he 
added  barbaric  splendour  of  dress. 
Moreover,  he  was  by  far  the  ablest  king 
who  had  reigned  in  Germany  since 
Charlemagne.  Throughout  Germany 
the  new  empress  was  hailed  as  an  angel 
of  peace,  and  the  events  of  after-years 
justified  the  good  impression  she  had 
made  on  the  people. 

Adelaide  and  Otho  sent  missionaries 
to  convert  the  Sclavonians,  and  induced 
the  Pope  to  appoint  bishops  in  the 
countries  now  called  Prussia  and  Poland. 
St.  Adalbert,  archbishop  of  Magdeburg, 
was  sent,  in  961,  to  the  Rugi,  or  Rani, 
a  people  living  in  Pomerania,  between 
the  rivers  Oder  and  Wipper ;  but  when 
the  bishop  and  his  companions  arrived, 
the  people  massacred  some  and  sent  the 
others  out  of  the  country.  The  liugi 
continued  heathen  for  two  centuries 
longer. 

In  course  of  time  Berengarius  broke 
an  agreement  which  had  been  made  with 
Otho,  but  was  soon  defeated,  and  sent 
as  a  prisoner  to  J  >ambcrg ;  his  wife, 
Villa,  who  had  taken  refuge  in  the 
citadel  of  St.  Julius,  in  the  midst  of  the 
lake  of  Orta,  was  obliged  to  surrender, 
and,  loaded  with  chains,  was  brought 
before  Adelaide.  When  the  empress 
mildly  remonstrated  with  her  on  her 
crimes,  the  prisoner  replied,  "  The  only 
crime  with  which  I  reproach  myself  is 
that  I  did  not  kill  you  when  I  had  you 
in  my  power."  Adelaide  instantly  had 
her  fetters  struck  off,  and  sent  her  in 
safety  to  her  husband.  Their  son  Adal 
bert  had  to  cede  his  possessions  to  the 
bishop  of  Mocleua,  but  Adelaide  adopted 


ST.   ADELAIDE 


liis  t\vo  daughters,  and  brought  them  up 
at  her  n-urt. 

On  Feb.  2,  W2,  the  long-deferred 
coronation  of  Otho  and  Adelaide  took 
place  at  Uome,  whither  they  were  in- 
1  by  .lolm  XII. ;  but,  before  leaving 
Germany,  Otlio  had  liis  ymmg  son,  Otho, 
crowned  at  Aix-la-Chapelle.  The  next 
year,  at  the  instance  of  a  council  of 
bishops,  the  Emperor  deposed  Popo 
John,  on  account  of  his  crimes,  and 
appointed  instead  liis  own  secretary,  a 
layman,  as  Leo  VIII.  In  973  Otho 
<lied  ivt  Menileben,  universally  and 
heartily  regretted,  having  been  king  of 
Germany  thirty-six  years,  and  Emperor 
nearly  eleven.  He  was  buried  at  Magde 
burg  by  the  side  of  his  first  wife,  Edith 
of  England,  and  Adelaide  spent  much 
of  her  time  there  in  religious  retirement. 
He  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Otho  II., 
who,  under  the  influence  of  his  wife, 
Theophauie,  banished  his  mother  from 
court.  Adelaide  went  to  her  native 
land.  The  empire,  however,  did  not 
prosper  in  her  absence ;  the  people  were 
anxious  for  her  return ;  and  a  recon 
ciliation  having  been  effected  by  St. 
Majolus,  Adelaide  kept  the  Easter 
festival  of  t'Sl  at  Home,  with  her  son 
and  his  wife. 

Otho  died  at  Home  in  9 S3,  leaving 
Theophanie  regent  for  his  sou,  Otho  III., 
then  nine  years  old.  Adelaide  and 
Theophunie,  although  not  always  in 
perfect  harmony,  agreed  in  bestowing  an 
excellent  education  on  the  young  king, 
who,  for  his  beauty  and  acquirements, 
was  called  "the  Wonder  of  the  World." 
One  of  his  tutors  was  a  Frenchman, 
Gerbert  dAurillac,  a  man  so  learned 
that  he  was  accused  of  using  magic  arts. 
Ho  was  made  archbishop  of  Jiheims,  and 
ultimately  1'opn  Sylvester  II.  Tho 
empresses  quarrelled,  and  Theophanio 
boasted  that,  if  she  lived  a  year,  Adelaide, 
should  not  have  a  foot  of  ground  left  in 
her  possession.  It  seemed  probable  at 
the  moment  that  her  life  had  not  one, 
but  many  years  to  run,  but  in  one 
mouth  it  was  cut  oft',  and  Adelai.lt:  ruled 
uluiie.  Jl.-r  love  for  ht •:•  grandson  kept 
her  at  court  when  she  had  grown  weary 
of  its  splendour ;  and  for  his  sake  she 
continued  to  employ  herself  in  worldly 


affairs  and  politics  when  their  yoke  had 
grown  irksome.  In  980  the  two  greatest 
crowned  heads  in  Europe  were  her 
grandsons,  namely,  Otho  III.,  tho  Em 
peror,  and  Louis  V.,  king  of  France; 
and  this  circumstance  led  Sylvester  II. 
(Gerbert)  to  style  her  "  tho  Mother  of 
tho  Kings."  About  this  year,  if  at  all, 
occurred  the  extraordinary  incident  of 
the  crime  and  punishment  of  the  em 
press  Mary.  It  rests  on  no  contemporary 
authority,  but  is  spoken  of  as  a  i'act  by 
accredited  historians  who  lived  within 
half  a  century  of  the  events. 

Historians  do  not  record  the  marriage 
of  Otho  III.,  but  the  legend,  which  is 
very  ancient,  has  it  that  he  was  married 
to  Mary  of  Aragou.  Mary  had  fallen 
in  love — as  Isolde  with  Tristram — with 
Count  Emmeran,  when  he  was  tho  Em 
peror's  ambassador  to  bring  her  from 
her  father's  court.  As  Emmeran  was 
devoted  to  his  own  wife,  and  loyal  to  his 
master,  he  ignored  the  empress's  pre 
ference,  until  her  love  changed  to  vindic 
tive  hatred,  and  she  determined  that  he 
should  pay  for  his  coldness  with  his  life. 
She  accused  him  to  her  husband.  Otho, 
in  his  distress,  sought  counsel  of  that 
wisest  of  women,  his  grandmother.  She 
advised  him  to  make  no  scandal.  "  Let 
it  not  be  known,"  said  she,  "  that  any 
one  mistook  the  empress  for  a  woman 
who  could  be  disloyal."  Mary  stood  in 
awe  of  tho  old  empress,  who  had  some 
times  gently  reproached  her  for  a  certain 
lack  of  circumspection ;  she  kept  quiet 
for  a  time,  but  her  vengeance  suffered 
her  not  to  rest ;  she  so  wrought  on  Otho's 
feelings  that  he  charged  Emmeran  with 
the  crime.  Emmoran  would  not  toll  the 
real  circumstances  ;  he  thought  it  uoblor 
to  bear  the  unjust  imputation  than  to  dis 
grace  her,  and  wreck  the  young  king's 
happiness  by  disclosing  the  real  occur 
rences,  so  he  kept  silence,  and  was  be 
headed.  The  court  was  now  at  Modcna ; 
and  tho  Emperor,  in  accordance  with 
immemorial  custom,  sat  in  tho  hall  to 
hear  complaints  and  redlOM  wrongs. 
] found  him  stood  many  knights  and 
nobles,  but  he  was  sad  for  tho  loss  and 
tho  supposed  treachery  of  one  of  his 
best  and  bravest  companions,  and  as  he 
sighed  and  mused,  there  entered  a  palo 


8 


•  ST.   ADELAIDE 


lady   in   a   long   black   cloak,   and   she 
cried — 

"  Justice,  my  lord  king ! " 
"  Wliat  is  your  complaint,  lady  ?  " 
"My  husband  has  been  cruelly  slain, 
and  I  crave  vengeance  on  his  murderer." 
"You  shall  have  it.     But  who   was 
your  husband  ?  " 

Anna  produced  from  under  her  cloak 
the  ghastly  head  of  Emmcran,  and  de 
manded  to  prove  his  innocence  by  "  the 
judgment  of  God." 

Here,  two  forms  of  the  story  diverge. 
The  Golden  Legend,  which  does  not  give 
the  name  of  Emmeran,  but  calls  him 
"  the  governor  of  Modena,"  says  Anna 
walked  barefooted  and  uninjured  over 
nine  red-hot  ploughshares,  which  proved, 
to  the  satisfaction  of  every  one,  that  her 
cause  was  just,  and  that  she  spoke  the 
simple  truth  when  she  said  her  husband 
was  innocent.  Otho  confessed  himself 
guilty  of  the  unjust  death  of  his  knight, 
and  said  he  was  ready  to  submit  to  be 
beheaded,  but  the  nobles  and  prelates 
gave  him  a  delay  of  ten  days,  in  which 
to  investigate  the  matter;  these  being 
ended,  they  gave  him  seven  days  more, 
then  six  more,  by  which  time  all  were 
convinced  that  the  real  criminal  was  the 
empress  Mary.  Then  Otho  "dyde  do 
brenne  his  wyfe  all  quycke,"  and  gave 
four  castles  as  u'crc-gcld  to  the  widow  of 
Emmeran.  According  to  another  and 
probably  older  tradition,  the  ordeal  con 
sisted  of  plunging  her  arms  into  molten 
lead.  She  did  not,  indeed,  take  them 
out  uninjured,  but  she  bravely  held  them 
there,  with  unmoved  countenance,  keep 
ing  her  eyes  fixed  on  the  empress  Mary, 
who  gazed  at  her  in  horrible  fascination. 
Anna  died  with  her  arms  in  the  boiling 
lead  and  eyes  fixed  on  the  queen,  who, 
seized  by  an  impulse  beyond  her  own 
control,  threw  herself  at  the  Emperor's 
feet  and  confessed  her  crime.  She  was 
at  once  pronounced  guilty  of  the  death 
of  Emmeran  and  Anna,  and  of  untruth 
to  her  husband,  and  was  then  and  there 
condemned  to  be  burned  alive.  The 
sentence  being  executed  the  next  day, 
Otho  declared  his  own  life  forfeited  for 
having  condemned  an  innocent  man  ;  but 
his  nobles  and  the  great  ecclesiastics 
unanimously  granted  him  a  reprieve  of 


seven  years,  at  the  end  of  which  it  would 
doubtless  have  been  further  extended 
had  he  lived. 

Meantime  Adelaide  had  completed 
many  of  the  works  she  had  desired  to 
do,  and  she  saw  that  the  accomplishment 
of  other  projects  must  remain  unfulfilled 
or  be  left  to  other  hands,  for  her  work 
ing  day  was  done,  and  she  must  now 
prepare  for  her  final  rest ;  she  had  out 
lived  many  of  her  dearest  friends,  and 
all  the  near  relations  who  at  all  ap 
proached  her  own  age.  A  great  afflic 
tion,  too,  was  the  death  of  her  daughter, 
the  abbess  MATILDA,  who  had  fulfilled 
her  dearest  aspirations,  and  to  whom  she 
looked  for  comfort  to  the  last ;  but  she 
was  cut  off  about  a  year  before  her 
mother.  After  Adelaide  had  retired 
from  all  worldly  affairs,  she  thought  it 
right  to  leave  her  seclusion,  in  response 
to  the  call  of  her  nephew,  lludolph  III., 
of  Burgundy,  who  had  quarrelled  with 
his  subjects,  and  wanted  her  to  make 
peace.  She  accomplished  this  for  him, 
visiting  on  her  way  several  churches  and 
monasteries  she  had  built  or  endowed. 
He  came  to  meet  her  at  Lausanne,  and 
conducted  her  to  Orbe,  where  the  desired 
reconciliation  took  place.  She  now  be 
took  herself  to  the  monastery  of  Saltz, 
in  the  diocese  of  Strasburg,  where  she 
spent  the  very  short  time  she  still  had 
to  live. 

Her  talents,  her  wealth,  her  piety,  her 
beauty,  her  superior  education,  her  dis 
cretion,  and  the  universal  confidence  and 
admiration  inspired  by  her  character, 
combined  with  her  exalted  station  to 
render  her  a  conspicuous  figure  in  Europe 
for  half  a  century.  She  is  a  rare  ex 
ample  of  a  woman  having  immense  power 
and  influence  and  invariably  using  it  for 
good;  almost  as  rare  was  the  courage 
with  which  she  bore  misfortune  and  in 
justice  ;  for  this  woman,  so  great  and  so 
happy,  had  also  known  the  depths  of 
misfortune,  insults,  blows,  starvation,  the 
hardships  and  privations  of  a  prison,  the 
hairbreadth  escapes  of  flight.  St.  Majolus, 
abbot  of  Cluny,  who  was  at  one  time  her 
confessor,  considered  that  she  never  would 
have  been  the  noble,  magnanimous,  chari 
table  woman  she  was,  but  for  these  four 
months  of  imprisonment  at  Garda ;  she 


ST.   ADELAIDE 


had  time  to  reflect  on  a  great  many 
things,  and,  by  God's  grace,  she  resolved 
nevi-r  t<>  condescend  to  spiteful  retalia 
tions.  Years  after,  when  her  enemies 
were  in  her  power,  she  returned  them 
good  for  evil.  She  never  forgot  a  kind 
ness  or  remembered  an  injury.  Besides 
many  benefactions  to  divers  churches, 
nunneries,  and  other  monasteries,  she 
resolved  to  make  a  thank-offering  to  God 
for  her  worldly  prosperity,  by  building 
a  church  for  each  of  the  three  crowns 
worn  by  her  husband  and  son ;  namely, 
those-  of  Germany,  Italy,  and  the  Empire. 
Accordingly,  she  built  a  monastery  in 
the  kingdom  of  Burgundy,  at  Paterniac, 

•  •filled    also    Paterae    and    Peterlingen 

•  Mabillon),  where  her  mother  was  buried. 
It  was  dedicated  in  honour  of  the  Mother 
of  God,  and  she  gave  it  to  St.  Majolus, 
who   was   afterwards    abbot   of    Cluny, 
and  was   succeeded,  first   at   Paterniac, 
and  then  at  Cluny,  by  St.  Odilo.     She 
next  built  a  grand  church,  dedicated  to 
the  Saviour  of  the  world,  in  her  own  town 
of  Pavia.     In  l'S7,  twelve  years  before 
her  death,  she  founded  a  monastery  at 
Salsa,  or  Seltz,  "sub  liliertate  Bomana" 
dedicated  to  God  and  St.  Peter.     It  was 
eight  years  in   building,  and  was   con 
secrated  by  Widerald,  bishop  of  Stras- 
burg,  in  905.     These  arc  the  three  great 
foundations  named  in  St.  Odilo's  Life  of 
Adelaide.     Phele  was  also  of  her  build- 
in. L%    and   her   friend   and   director,    St. 
feamagne,  was  its  first  abbot. 

By  her  first  marriage,  she  had  one 
child,  Emma,  who  married  Lothaire,  king 
«•!'  France,  and  was  the  mother  of  Louis 
V..  called  le  Faineant,  the  last  of  the 
Oarlovingian  kings;  ho  only  reigned  a 
io\v  months,  and  was  succeeded  by  Hugh 
<  'apet,  (JS7,  who  was  Adelaide's  second 

•  •uiisiu  by  birth,  and  nephew  by  marriage. 
l>y  her  second  marriage,  besides  children 
who  died  young,  she  had  Otho  II.  and 
I>.  MATILDA,  abbess  of  Qucdlinburg. 

Adelaide's  romantic  adventures  were 
the  subjects  of  song  and  legend  for  a 
:ury,  particularly  in  Italy.  Her  life 
is  promised  by  the  Uollandists  when 
their  calendar  arrives  at  the  middle  of 
December.  The  short  life  of  her  by  St. 
Odilo,  abbot  of  Cluny,  her  friend  and 
.-sur.  i<  a  narrative  of  facts  related 


to  him  by  herself.  It  is  preserved  in 
Bouquet,  Becneil  de  Documents  ;  Pertz, 
HI utirni cut"  :  Mabillon;  Leibnitz;  and 
other  collections.  Among  the  contem 
porary  Minuiin-nfn  of  her  time  must  bo 
mentioned  the  writings  of  Hrotswitha,  a 
nun  of  Gandersheim,  which  was  one  of 
the  great  nunneries  founded  by  the  house 
of  Saxony.  (Sen  ST.  HADUMADA.)  She 
was  one  of  the  earliest  authoresses  of 
Germany,  and  besides  her  dramas  she 
has  left  a  panegyric  on  Otho  the  Great. 

Many  interesting  particulars  of  the 
reign  of  Adelaide's  husband,  son,  and 
grandson  are  pleasantly  told  by  Giese- 
bivdit,  Deutschlands  Kaiserzeit.  The 
Golden  Legend  gives  the  nucleus  of  two 
wonderful  legends  of  Otho  II.  and  Otho 
III.,  which  are  told  at  greater  length 
and  from  older  sources  by  Collin  do 
Plancy.  Bryce,  Holy  Roman  Empire, 
and  Gregorovius,  Bom.  in  Mittelalter, 
give  much  interesting  information  about 
the  state  and  the  customs  of  Europe 
during  the  reigns  of  the  three  Othos. 
See  also  Ditmar's  Chronicle;  Muratori, 
Anna  les ;  Nouvellc  Bioyraph  ie  Un  iversellc  ; 
Menzol,  Hist,  of  Germany^  Yepez, 
Baillct,  Butler,  Wetzer  u.  Welt,  Wattem- 
bach,  etc. 

St.  Adelaide  (4),  Feb.  5  (ADA, 
ALICE),  V.  of  Willich.  c.  1015.  Daughter 
of  SS.  Mengo  or  Megeugoz  and  Gerbcrg, 
count  and  countess  of  Gueldres.  Abbess 
of  the  Benedictine  monastery  at  Willich, 
near  Bonn,  and  afterwards  of  that  of  Our 
Lady  of  the  Capitol  at  Cologne.  She 
was  educated  in  a  cloister,  and  was  a 
pious,  sensible,  and  studious  girl.  Her 
parents,  having  lost  a  much-loved  son  in 
battle,  determined  to  dedicate  a  largo 
portion  of  their  wealth  to  the  service  of 
God.  They  accordingly  built  and  richly 
endowed  a  monastery  at  Willich.  Ade 
laide  was  appointed  abbess  of  the  new 
house,  but  before  entering  on  this 
important  charge  she  went  to  learn  the 
regular  observance  in  the  monastery  of 
Notre-  Dame  du  Capitolo  at  Cologne. 
She  ruled  the  houso  at  Willich  for 
several  years,  and  was  distinguished  for 
her  charity,  humility,  and  self-denial. 
Il<r  mother,  (  |KI:I:I-:KI;,  became  a  nun 
under  her.  and  died  at  Willieh  ;  her 
father,  15.  Mengo,  lived  three  yearn 


10 


ST.   ADELAIDE 


longer,  and  Adelaide  buried  him  at 
Willich  beside  her  mother.  His  day  is 
Dec.  19.  Her  sister  Bertrade  was 
abbess  of  Notre  Dame  at  Cologne.  The 
fame  of  Adelaide's  sanctity  spread  over 
the  whole  diocese,  so  that,  on  the  death 
of  Bertrade,  the  bishop  invited  Adelaide 
to  be  her  successor.  She  removed  to 
Cologne,  and  spent  the  remaining  three 
years  of  her  life  there,  still,  however, 
maintaining  constant  intercourse  with 
and  a  motherly  interest  in  her  Willich. 
She  is  said  to  have  wrought  many 
miracles  both  before  and  after  her  death. 
She  procured  by  her  prayers  an  abundant 
and  unfailing  spring  of  water  in  a  place 
near  Willich,  where  the  peasants  were 
in  great  distress  for  want  of  it.  One  of 
her  nuns  had  so  harsh  a  voice  that  she 
destroyed  the  harmony  of  the  choir  when 
she  joined  in  the  hymns  ;  but  Adelaide 
struck  her  on  the  cheek,  and  she  became 
permanently  possessed  of  a  voice  so 
sweet  and  powerful  as  to  be  a  great 
acquisition  to  the  musical  services  of 
the  community.  Certain  nuns  were  long 
too  ill  to  join  in  the  common  employ 
ments  of  the  rest,  but  when  she  rebuked 
them  as  useless  and  expensive,  they  at 
once  recovered.  She  died  at  Cologne 
about  1015,  and  the  nuns  of  Willich 
wished  to  have  her  buried  amongst 
them ;  but  St.  Heribert,  the  bishop,  said 
he  would  not  give  up  the  body  of  the 
holy  abbess  on  any  account,  not  even  if 
they  could  give  him  the  body  of  ST. 
AGATHA  for  it.  Adelaide,  however, 
showed  her  preference  for  her  first 
monastery,  for  her  coffin  floated  up  the 
Rhine  without  oars  to  Willich,  and  there 
she  was  buried.  AA.SS.  Helyot,  Ordres 
Monastiqucs,  v.  53.  Bucelinus,  Men. 
Ben. 

B.  Adelaide  (5)  of  Susa,  Dec. 
19.  c.  1010-1091.  "  The  mighty  Mar 
chioness,"  countess  of  Turin.  Regarded 
as  one  of  the  founders  of  the  house  of 
Savoy.  That  family  was  already  extend 
ing  its  borders  on  the  ruins  of  the 
kingdom  of  Burgundy,  but  its  first 
footing  in  Italy  was  given  to  it  by  the 
marriage  with  Adelaide,  elder  daughter 
and  heir  of  Manfred,  marquis  of  Susa, 
whose  rule  extended  from  the  top  of  the 
Alps  to  the  Dora  Baltea  and  the  Po. 


His  wife  was  Bertha,  daughter  of  Aubert, 
marquis  of  Ivrca,  and  sister  of  Hardouiu, 
king  of  Italy. 

Adelaide  married  three  times:  (1) 
Herman,  duke  of  Suabia  ;  (2)  Henry  of 
Montferrat;  (3)  Odo  of  Savoy.  It  is 
supposed  that  she  was  not  very  young  at 
the  time  of  her  first  marriage.  The 
marquisate  of  Susa  could  not  be  held  by 
a  woman,  but  she  could  transfer  her 
claim  to  her  husband.  Accordingly, 
Herman  obtained  the  investiture  of  the 
marquisate  from  his  stepfather,  the 
Emperor,  Conrad  II.  Herman  died,  still 
young,  in  1038,  and  Adelaide  took  upon 
herself  the  government  of  her  father's 
inheritance.  She  soon  married  again, 
and  it  was  not  long  before  she  was  again 
a  childless  widow.  In  1044  she  married 
Odo,  son  of  Humbert,  of  the  race  of  the 
counts  of  Savoy,  lord  of  the  countships 
of  Maurienue  and  Tarantaise,  one  of  the 
most  powerful  princes  of  the  kingdom  of 
Burgundy.  Humbert  died  in  1048, 
and  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  son 
Amadeus  I.,  surnamed  Cauda,  and  he, 
in  1069,  was  succeeded  by  his  brother 
Odo,  the  husband  of  Adelaide.  Little 
is  known  of  him ;  Adelaide  is  the  more 
prominent  person.  With  masculine 
courage  and  energy,  she  knew  right  well 
how  to  rule.  It  was  of  immense  import 
ance  to  the  family  destined  to  become  so 
great  that  Adelaide  could  hold  the 
command  of  the  Burgundiau  as  well  as 
the  Italian  possessions  of  the  house. 
Far  and  wide  the  marchioness  of  Susa 
was  known  as  a  woman  of  no  less  decision 
than  prudence.  As  her  sous  Peter  and 
Amadeus  grew  up,  she  used  them  as 
assistants,  but  kept  the  power  in  her  own 
hands.  She  maintained  order  and  justice 
in  her  territories.  She  was  grasping 
and  hard,  rather  feared  and  respected 
than  beloved.  Her  neighbours  had  to 
bo  on  the  alert.  She  more  than  once 
took  up  arms  against  her  own  towns. 
She  waged  a  long  war  with  the  citizens 
of  Asti,  and  in  1070  she  took  the  town 
and  destroyed  it.  The  year  before  that 
she  had  besieged  Lodi  and  reduced  it 
almost  to  a  heap  of  rubbish.  Thousands 
of  persons  were  killed ;  cloisters  and 
churches  were  not  spared.  She  inflicted 
so  much  misery  that  when  she  asked  the 


ST.  ADELAIDE 


11 


Pope  for  absolution  ho  had  difficulty  in 
devising  u  sufficient  penance  for  her. 
was  in  touch  with  all  the  conflicting 
movements  of  that  restless  time,  yet 
carried  away  by  none  of  them,  and 
ttlthoiigh  upright  and  conscientious,  she 
ki-pt  hi-r  eye  constantly  on  the  interests 
of  her  own  family  and  country.  She 
was  an  enthusiastic  partisan  of  the 
(iinnan  Imperial  side  against  the  Papal 
party  ;  but  still  she  was  religious,  and 
favoured  the  ecclesiastical  reforms  then 
tmanating  from  Rome,  including  steps 
and  protests  against  simony  and  the 
marriage  of  the  clergy.  Such  was  the 
woman  whoso  alliance  was  sought  by 
the  Emperor,  Henry  III.,  the  lUack,  in 
order  to  balance  the  power  of  two  other 
masculine  and  masterful  women,  the 
marchioness  Beatrice  of  Tuscany,  and 
her  daughter  the  countess  Matilda, 
whose  influence  was  often  in  the  opposite 
scale  to  his  interests.  In  1055  he  be 
trothed  his  son  Henry  at  five  years  old 
to  P>ertha,  the  eldest  daughter  of  Ade 
laide.  In  less  than  a  year  that  good 
Emperor  died.  Henry  IV.  and  l>ertha 
were  married  July  13,  1066,  but  the 
young  Emperor  meantime  had  fallen  into 
bad  hands,  and  suspected  everybody. 
He  supposed  his  wife  to  be  a  tool  of  his 
enemies,  and,  notwithstanding  her  beauty 
and  amiability,  he  lived  apart  from  her, 
and  in  1  "<)'.>  declared  his  intention  of 
being  divorced,  although  he  made  no 
accusation  against  her.  This  resolution 
was,  however,  overruled,  and  when 
almost  under  compulsion  he  brought  her 
to  court,  he  fell  in  love  with  her,  and 
they  continued  to  be  devotedly  attached 
to  each  other  as  long  as  Bertha  lived. 

•id  of  the  brotherly  co-operation  of 
the  Emperor  and  Pope  when  Henry  III. 
planned  reforms  with  Leo  IX.  and  his 
successor,  Victor  II.,  twenty  years  after 
wards,  there  was  a  long  and  obstinate 
struggle  going  on  between  Gregory  VII. 
(the  famous  Hildebrand  i  and  Henry  IV. 
A  violent-tempered,  self-indulgent  youth 
like  Henry  could  never  be  the  victor  in 
a  long  and  complicated  dispute  and 
rivalry  with  Gregory,  ft  far-seeing, 
patient,  determined  man  of  extraordinary 
ability  and  blameless  life.  In  1076 
Henry  drew  upon  himself  the  ban  of  the 


Church,  which  gave  strength  to  many 
powerful  rebels  in  his  own  country, 
while  it  hampered  and  depressed  his 
adherents.  It  was  most  important  to  all 
his  interests  to  have  the  sentence  re 
scinded,  and  for  this  purpose  ho  resolved 
to  go  and  meet  the  Pope,  who  was  now 
on  his  way  to  cross  the  Alps  and  enter 
Germany,  there  to  hold  a  council,  which 
would  probably  depose  the  Emperor  and 
set  up  in  his  place  Rudolph  of  Suabia, 
who  was  married  to  Adelaide's  younger 
daughter  Adelaide.  Henry's  mother, 
li.  AGNES,  empress,  was  in  great  grief 
about  him,  but  although  Gregory  had  a 
warm  regard  for  her,  she  was  of  little 
account  in  politics,  and  was  powerless  to 
help  or  guide  her  son.  In  his  dire 
distress  Adelaide  of  Susa  undertook  to 
assist  him,  and  but  for  her  aid  ho  would 
probably  have  lost  his  crown  and  his 
liberty.  At  the  same  time,  she  exacted 
from  his  necessity  some  increase  to  her 
own  dominions,  for  she  bargained  for  tho 
cession  of  five  rich  bishoprics  as  tho 
reward  of  her  assistance. 

Beauregard  supposes  that  the  advan 
tage  she  then  obtained  from  her  son-in- 
law  was  tho  right  to  certain  territories 
and  privileges  in  tho  marquisate  of 
Ivrea,  to  which  she  had  a  claim  through 
her  mother,  but  which  she  could  not 
grasp  without  the  imperial  sanction. 
She  must  now  have  been  very  near 
seventy ;  but  she,  with  her  son  Amadous, 
came  to  meet  the  fugitive  Emperor,  his 
wife  and  infant  son  Conrad,  and  braved 
with  them  the  hardships  and  difficulties 
of  the  passage  across  tho  Alps  in 
January,  1077.  It  was  one  of  tho 
coldest  winters  ever  known,  and  tho 
snow  lay  deep  in  Rome  for  weeks ;  tho 
Rhone  and  tho  Po  were  frozen  so  hard 
that  horses  and  carriages  passed  over 
on  tho  ice.  The  usual  routes  were  well- 
nigh  impassable.  They  had  oxen  led 
by  the  peasants  to  trample  a  path  Ixjforj 
them  through  tho  masses  of  snow.  TIi 
horses  proceeded  with  tho  greatest  diffi 
culty,  and  some  of  them  perished  in  tho 
struggle.  Arduous  as  was  tho  ascent, 
their  plight  was  even  worse  when  they 
had  passed  the  summit  and  begun  to 
descend  on  the  Italian  side — tho  way  was 
so  steep  and  so  slippery  that  they  almost 


12 


ST.  ADELAIDE 


despaired  of  getting  any  further.  Creep 
ing,  climbing,  scrambling,  rolling,  came 
the  men,  cutting  their  hands  on  the  ice. 
The  women  were  dragged  along  in 
sledges  made  of  ox-hides,  the  guides 
holding  on  to  the  ice  by  grappling-irons. 
At  last  they  arrived  at  a  hospitable 
monastery  in  the  Val  cVAosta.  They 
were  well  received  in  Italy,  where  there 
seemed  more  favour  for  the  king,  and 
less  for  the  Pope,  than  in  Germany ; 
but  even  now  all  would  be  lost  if  Henry 
did  not  receive  the  Holy  Father's  abso 
lution,  so,  leaving  his  wife  and  child  at 
Reggio,  he  hurried  on,  accompanied  by 
his  heroic  old  mother-in-law,  to  Canossa, 
where  Gregory  was  resting  in  the  im 
pregnable  castle  of  his  devoted  partisan, 
the  countess  Matilda.  These  two 
famous  women  had  so  much  power  in 
the  affairs  of  Italy  that  the  king's  fate 
was,  to  a  considerable  degree,  in  their 
hands.  Matilda,  though  devoted  to 
Gregory,  pitied  the  humiliations  and 
sufferings  to  which  the  Emperor  was 
subjected,  and  it  was  she  who  at  length 
prevailed  on  her  guest  to  put  an  end 
to  the  cruel  delays  and  abasement  of  his 
unfortunate  penitent,  so  that  after  days 
of  miserable  entreaty,  during  which  he 
shivered  outside  the  gate  in  the  garb 
of  the  humblest  penitent,  on  Jan.  28, 
1027,  he  was  admitted  to  the  Pope's 
presence,  and  threw  himself  at  his  feet. 
Gregory  gave  him  absolution,  but  made 
his  own  hard  terms,  to  which  Henry  was 
obliged  to  agree. 

Adelaide's  other  son-in-law,  Rudolph 
of  Snabia,  who  still  had  a  large  party 
on  his  side,  did  not  at  once  give  up  the 
struggle  for  the  crown.  He  won  a  battle 
against  Henry,  but  died  of  his  wounds 
the  next  day.  Adelaide  lived  fourteen 
years  after  the  melancholy  expedition 
to  Canossa.  She  was  still  alive  when, 
in  1084,  Henry  led  an  avenging  army 
to  Rome,  and  compelled  Gregory  to  take 
flight  to  Salerno. 

In  her  old  age  her  conscience  was 
troubled,  not  apparently  by  the  slaughter 
of  her  rebellious  subjects,  but  because 
she  had  had  three  husbands.  She  tried 
to  atone  for  her  sins  by  works  of  bene 
ficence,  and  gave  bountifully  to  reli 
gious  institutions.  Fructuaria  and  other 


monasteries  throve  under  her  patronage. 
She  died  very  old,  Dec.  19,  1091,  at 
Canischio,  where  the  remains  of  her 
tomb  are  still  to  be  seen.  By  her  third 
marriage  she  left  five  children — Peter, 
to  whom  she  bequeathed  the  marquisato 
of  Italy  ;  Amadeus,  called  by  the  Italians 
Adelao;  Odo,  bishop  of  Asti;  Bertha, 
the  empress ;  and  Adelaide,  who  married, 
as  his  second  wife,  Rudolph  of  Suabia, 
the  rival  Emperor.  He  was  unkind  to 
his  wife,  and  this  circumstance  was, 
perhaps,  not  without  weight  in  Ade 
laide's  ardent  espousal  of  the  fortunes 
of  Henry  and  Bertha. 

Her  life  is  promised  by  the  Bollan- 
dists  when  their  calendar  comes  down 
to  her  day.  She  appears  in  Ferrarius5 
Catalogue  of  the  Saints  who  are  not  in 
the  Roman  Martyrology.  She  occupies 
an  important  place  in  every  history  of 
the  house  of  Savoy.  Frezct,  Uistoire 
de  hi  Maison  de  Savoie.  Costa  do  Beau- 
regard,  Memoire  Historique  de  la  Maixon 
royale  de  Savoie.  Saiut-Genis,  Savoie. 
Paradin,  Chroniquc  de  Savoie.  Sismondi, 
Hi»toire  des  Fran^ais,  iii.  161.  Stephen, 
Hildebrand  and  his  Times.  Giesebrecht, 
Dcutscldands  Kaiserzcit,  iii.  Biographic 
Universelle. 

Yen.  Adelaide  (6)  Dec.  15.  llth 
and  perhaps  the  beginning  of  the 
12th  century.  Countess  of  Mispilin- 
gen.  With  her  husband,  Aewic,  or 
Alwic,  count  of  Sultz,  she  built  the  con 
vent  of  Alberspac,  O.S.B.,  in  Wittem- 
berg,  dedicated  in  honour  of  the  Holy 
Cross,  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  and 
All  Saints.  In  1095,  at  her  husband's 
death,  she  became  a  nun.  She  is  vene 
rated  in  the  monastery  of  Zwifalt,  on 
the  Danube,  three  miles  above  Ulm. 
This  abbey,  in  1482,  was  joined  to  the 
congregation  of  Bursfeld.  Gal.  Christ., 
v.,  1064,  "  La  serie  de  douze  abbes." 
Migne,  Die.  Buceliiius,  Men.  Ben. 

B.  Adelaide  (7),  April  4,  Sept.  1; 
translation,  May  3  (ALAYSIA,  ALICE, 
ALEYDIS,  ELISABETH,  etc.),  c.  1105  or 
1110.  Mother  of  St.  Bernard  of  Clair- 
vaux.  Called  by  Husenbeth  "Saint.'* 
Represented  in  a  window  on  the  north 
side  of  Cossey  Hall  Chapel,  standing 
behind  her  son,  St.  Bernard.  Daughter 
of  Bernard,  lord  of  Mombard.  Wife  of 


ST.   ADKLAIDE 


Tescelin  Sorus  (sometimes  called  1*. 
Tescelin  >,  lord  of  Fontaines,  a  member 
of  the  ancient  and  powerful  Burguncian 
nobility.  Tescelin  and  Adelaide  lived 
at  the  castle  of  Fontaines,  near  Dijon. 
They  were  kind  and  good  to  their  vassals 
and  the  poor  ;  they  maintained  order  and 
propriety  and  religious  observances  in 
their  own  house.  Tescelin  was  dis 
tinguished  by  his  valour  in  war,  but 
from  religious  motives  ho  would  never 
fight  a  duel.  Adelaide  nursed  her  seven 
children  at  her  own  breast,  and  tended 
them  with  her  own  hands,  lest  they 
should  imbibe  evil  tempers  or  dis 
tempers  from  the  milk  of  hirelings,  or 
be  taught  anything  unseemly  by  the 
attendants  of  their  infant  days.  Both 
Tescelin  and  Adelaide  were  careful  to 
bring  up  all  their  children  in  the  fear 
of  God  and  the  love  of  their  neighbours. 
Their  only  daughter  was  ST.  HUMBELINE. 
Their  sons  were  Guy,  B.  Gerard,  St. 
Bernard  (Aug.  20),  Andrew.  Bartho 
lomew,  and  Xivard.  They  all  became 
monks  eventually.  Adelaide  offered 
]'> niard  more  especially  to  God  from 
his  infancy,  and  brought  him  up  with 
double  care  and  tenderness  until  ho  was 
old  enough  to  be  sent  to  the  college  of 
( 'hatillon,  to  be  trained  for  the  priest 
hood.  Her  prayers  for  him  were  an 
swered,  even  in  her  life ;  for  his  piety, 
charity,  innocence,  and  self-denial  were 
wonderful  in  one  so  young.  His  greatest 
fame  arose  from  his  preaching  the 
second  Crusade,  1147,  under  Pope 
Eugcnius  III.,  who  had  been  one  of  his 
monks.  Adelaide  was  considered  a 
saint  during  her  life,  on  account  of  her 
fasts,  her  hospital-visiting,  and  her  other 
good  deeds.  She  had  a  great  devotion 
to  St.  Ambrose,  and  used  to  invite  a 
number  of  clergy  from  Dijon  to  celebrate 
his  festival.  On  the  vigil  of  that  day 
(the  Great  St.  Ambrose's  day  is  Dec. 
7  ;  but  perhaps  this  is  St.  Ambro- 
sinian,  ] nitron  of  Fontaines,  near  Di 
jon,  Sept.  1,  as  Adelaide  seems  to  bo 
honoured  on  that  dayj,  in  the  year 
111",  she  was  taken  ill  of  a  fever,  and 
next  day  she  received  the  last  sacra 
ments,  and  while  all  her  clerical  com 
pany  commended  her  soul  to  (n>d,  she 
joined  in  the  prayers  and  responses, 


and  died.  St.  Bernard  was  then  I'.i 
years  old,  and  from  that  time  he  daily 
recited  seven  psalms  for  her  soul.  She 
was  buried  in  the  church  of  the  mon 
astery  of  St.  Benignus,  at  Dijou  ;  but, 
in  1250,  the  abbot  of  Clairvaux  begged 
to  have  her  body  as  a  precious  relic ;  it 
was  therefore  solemnly  taken  up  and 
translated  to  Clairvaux,  and  the  transla 
tion  is  celebrated  May  3.  Mrs.  Jameson, 
Sacred  and  Legendary  Art,  and  Legends 
of  the  Monastic  Orders.  Henriquez, 
Lffia  Clstercii.  Husenbeth,  Emblems  of 
Saints. 

B.  Adelaide  (8),  of  Lanckuvade,  or 
Lcnkwend,  in  Germany,  Feb.  113,  also 
called  Aleyd  the  Penitent,  c.  1200.  She 
led  a  wicked  life,  and  the  devil  tried  to 
stifle  her  repentance  and  prevent  her 
conversion  by  horrible  apparitions.  She 
became,  however,  a  holy  penitent  and 
nun  in  the  Cistercian  convent  of  Lenk- 
wend.  Bucelinus,  Men.  Ben.  Henriquez, 
Lilia  Ci*t. 

B.  Adelaide  (9),  Aug.  29,  1211. 
Daughter  of  Casimir  IT.,  king  of  Poland. 
Cistercian  nun  at  Trebnitz,  in  the  mon 
astery  built  by  ST.  HEDWIG.  Adelaide 
is  probably  the  nun  Aleydis  Virgo,  to 
whom  St.  Hedwig  told  her  prescience, 
or  second  sight,  of  the  death  of  her  son. 
Heuriquez,  Lilia  Cist.  No  authority  for 
her  worship.  AA.SS. 

St.  Adelaide  (10),  June  11,  15 
(ALETH,  ALIX,  ALIZETTE,  ALIZON,  etc.), 
1250.  At  the  ago  of  11,  Adelaide  of 
Scarbek,  or  Scharembeka,  went  into 
the  Cistercian  convent  of  La  Cainbro 
(Camera  S.  Maria)),  near  Brussels.  She 
wus  soon  the  best  scholar  among  the 
children,  and  continued  to  bo  distin 
guished  more  and  more,  for  all  good 
qualities,  for  several  years.  One  day, 
when  they  were  all  singing  in  the  choir, 
the  candle  fell  out  of  its  stand,  which 
was  a  sort  of  lantern,  called  abseonsa,  in 
use  in  convents.  Adelaide  took  it  in  her 
hand,  and  it  lighted  again  of  itself.  In 
on  lor  that  she  might  have  no  regard  for 
anything  earthly,  God  afilictod  her  with 
leprosy;  and  in  consequence,  she  was 
separated  from  all  her  sister  nuns,  which 
was  a  great  trial.  A  little  building  was 
erected  for  her.  She  was  received  there 
by  her  heavenly  Spouse,  who  promised 


B.  ADELAIDE 


to  remain  witli  her  as  long  as  she  lived. 
One  night  a  pious  woman  saw  Adelaide's 
dwelling  brilliantly  lighted  up,  and  going 
nearer,  saw  the  saint  as  if  she  were 
made  of  flame.  Once  when  she  was  very 
ill,  it  was  revealed  to  her  that  she  should 
live  a  whole  year  longer  and  suffer  much, 
and  that  her  torments  should  avail  for 
the  living  and  for  the  dead ;  therefore, 
when  she  lost  her  right  eye,  she  offered 
that  for  the  salvation  of  William,  count 
of  Holland,  who  had  just  been  elected 
king  of  the  Komans,  1247  ;  and  when 
she  lost  her  left  eye,  she  assigned  the 
fruit  of  that  penance  to  St.  Louis,  king  of 
France  (IX.  of  his  name),  who  was  then 
in  Palestine  with  the  crusading  army. 
Although  herself  a  leper,  she  had  the 
privilege  of  curing  other  lepers  by  her 
touch.  A  golden  cross  was  sent  to  her 
from  heaven.  On  St.  Ursula's  day,  she 
heard  the  nunssinging  Matins,and  prayed 
that,  although  excluded  from  the  choir 
on  earth,  she  might  be  associated  with 
the  sainted  virgins  in  heaven ;  she  was 
answered  that  she  should  be  placed  not 
only  with  the  companions  of  ST.  URSULA, 
but  in  a  higher  rank.  She  died  1250, 
and  her  spirit  wras  seen  to  be  received 
by  Christ  and  the  angels.  Henschenius, 
in  AA.SS.  Boll.,  from  a  Cistercian  writer 
of  the  13th  century,  June  11.  Buce- 
linus,  MCJT.  Ben.,  June  11.  A.R. M.  Ci*t., 
June  15. 

B.  Adelaide  (11),  or  ALIX,  Aug.  2, 
countess  of  Blois.  1243-1288.  Daughter 
of  John  I.,  duke  of  Brittany.  Married, 
1254,  to  John  de  Chatillon,  first  count 
of  Blois.  She  went  to  the  Holy  Land 
in  1287,  and  died  on  her  return,  Aug. 
2,  1288.  Her  body  was  placed  near  that 
of  her  husband,  in  the  abbey  of  la  Guiche 
(which  she  had  founded),  near  Blois. 
Collin  de  Plancy,  Saintcs  ct  licnhciuruses. 

St.  Adelberga,  ETHELBURGA,  queen 
of  Northumberland. 

B.  Adelina  (1),  ADELIND. 

St.  Adelina  (2),  Oct.  20.  c.  li;>2. 
V.  Abbess.  Granddaughter  of  William 
tho  Conqueror.  Sister  of  St.  Yitalis, 
abbot  and  founder  of  the  famous  Cister 
cian  monastery  of  Savigny,  in  Anjou. 
He  built  a  house  near  his  own,  for 
Adelina  and  a  community  of  nuns ;  but 
after  a  few  years  he  transferred  them  to 


Mortain,  in  La  Manche,  in  Normandy, 
founded  by  their  brother  William,  count 
of  Mortain.  Adelina's  nunnery  was 
popularly  called  L<s  Blandics,  the  White 
Ladies  of  Mortain.  She  died  about  the 
middle  of  the  12th  century,  and  was 
buried  at  Mortain  ;  and  about  100  years 
afterwards,  was  translated  to  Savigny, 
and  laid  beside  her  brother  Yitalis  and 
another  brother,  Godfrey,  also  abbot  of 
Savigny.  The  church  of  Little  Sod- 
bury,  in  Gloucestershire,  is  dedicated  in 
her  name.  Boll.,  AA.8S.  Migne,  Die. 
aes  allay es.  Miss  Arnold  Forster,  Dedi 
cations. 

B.  Adelind,  Aug.  28  (ADELINA  (1), 
ADELINE).  8th  and  perhaps  part  of 
i'th  century.  Founder  and  first  abbess 
of  Buchau,  or  Buchen,  in  Suabia.  Born 
in  the  castle  of  Andechs.  Represented 
distributing  loaves  to  the  poor.  Sister 
of  St.  Hildegard,  wife  of  Charlemagne. 
Married  Hatto  or  Otho,  count  of  Kessel- 
burg,  who  was  killed,  with  their  three 
sons,  in  a  great  battle  against  the  Huns, 
at  a  place  called  afterwards  the  Valley 
of  Tears.  They  had  another  son,  a 
deacon,  who  died  of  grief  soon  after  the 
'death  of  his  father  and  brothers.  After 
the  Huns  were  driven  out  of  Germany 
by  Charlemagne,  Adelind  founded  a 
monastery  in  memory  of  her  husband 
and  sons ;  buried  them  within  its  pre 
cincts  ;  took  the  veil,  and  became  first 
abbess  there.  She  died  Aug.  28,  and 
is  honoured  on  this  day  or  Aug  2 1 . 
Perier,  the  Bollandist,  in  AA.SS.  Petin, 
Die.  Hag.  Moustier.  Guenebault,  Die. 
d'Icon. 

St.  Adeliza,  ADA,  ADKLA. 

St.  Adeloga,  HADELOGA. 

St.  Adeltrude  (1),  Feb.  24,  25 
(ALDETUUDE,  MADELTRUDE),  V.  7th 
century.  Abbess.  Daughter  of  B. 
Vincent  and  ST.  WALTRUDE,  and  grand 
daughter  of  SS.  Walbert  and  BEUTILLA 
(1).  Represented  with  rats  and  mice; 
but  this  is  supposed,  by  Cahier,  to  bo 
a  mistake  for  ST.  GERTRUDE.  While 
Adeltrude  was  a  young  girl,  her  aunt, 
ST.  ALDEGUNDIS,  like  a  careful  house 
wife,  ordered  all  the  scraps  of  wax  to 
be  gathered  together  and  melted  into- 
one  mass  in  a  pot.  It  was  allowed  to- 
get  too  hot,  ran  over  the  edge  into  the 


ST.   ADFALDU1) 


15 


fire,  and  1  dazed  up.  Adcltrudo  rushed 
to  the  fire,  and  took  oft"  the  pot,  which 
she  placed  safely  on  the  ground  without 
burning  her  hands  or  arms  in  the  least — 
a  miracle  which  was  attributed  to  her 
great  devotion  to  the  Virgin  Mary.  In 
660  she  succeeded  St.  Aldcgundis  as 
abbess  of  the  convent  of  Maubeugc. 
Boll.,  AA.SS.,  Feb.  25.  Martin,  Feb. 
25. 

St.  Adeltrude  (2),  March  19  (ADEL- 
TIIUDIS,  AxoLKTurDE),  V.  7th  century. 
Daughter  of  Allowin,  afterwards  St. 
Bavo,  patron  of  Ghent.  Niece  of  ST. 
ADILIA.  Adeltrude  showed  very  early 
signs  of  piety.  An  angel  foretold  that 
she  should  never  have  any  children,  but 
should  bring  forth  many  good  works. 
Her  father  was  a  worldly  and  dissipated 
man,  until  he  was  converted  by  the 
preaching  of  St.  Amandus.  He  then 
betook  himself  to  a  life  of  solitude  and 
penance,  and  eventually  gave  his  estate 
to  Amandus,  to  found  a  monastery  and 
church,  which,  in  1559,  became  the 
cathedral  of  St.  Bavon,  of  Ghent.  Bavo 
died  about  657.  Boll.,  AA.SS.,  Mar.  19, 
"Lives  of  St.  Bavo  and  St.  Landoald." 
Butler,  Lives.  Baillet,  Vies.  Wion, 
Lignum  Vitse.  Le  Glay,  Gaule  Belgique. 
St.  Adeltrude  (:);,  Nov.  14.  yth 
century.  Wife  of  a  count  of  Aurillac, 
who  built  a  church  and  abbey  there, 
under  the  invocation  of  St.  Clement  and 
rule  of  St.  Benedict.  In  855  they  had 
a  son,  Gerald,  whom  they  brought  up  so 
piously  that  ho  became  a  great  saint. 
Adeltrude  was  buried  in  St.  Clement's 
Church,  where  her  miracles  drew  a  great 
concourse  of  pilgrims,  until  the  IGth 
century,  when  the  Calvinists  dispersed 
her  relics.  P.B.  Butler,  "  St.  Gerald," 
Oct.  i;;. 

St.  Adelviva,  Jan.  25  (ADELWII-T, 
ADUX.U.IF,  ADI-\.\I.I\  A.lvrui'LViVE).  !<>!<. 
Mother  of  St.  1'oppo,  abbot.  She  mar 
ried  Tizekin,  a  valiant  warrior  of  Flan 
ders.  Her  son  was  a  seven-months' 
child,  and  such  a  poor  little  Hpe.-imrn 
of  humanity  that  he  would  have  died  M 
soon  as  ho  was  born  had  not  hi-;  pious 
grandmother,  by  direction  of  God,  or 
at  least  of  the  common  sense  with  which 
Ho  had  endowed  her,  wrapped  him  in  a 
very  soft  woollen  cloth,  and  taken  great 


care  of  him  until  ho  had  attained  tho 
size  and  strength  of  other  babies.  To 
wards  tho  end  of  tho  loth  century, 
Tizekin  was  killed  at  Hasbain,  in  Bra 
bant,  in  a  war  between  Arnulf,  count  of 
Flanders,  and  tho  sons  of  Ragner,  or 
Keguior,  tho  Long-necked,  count  of 
Mons  and  Valenciennes.  Adelviva  was 
left  a  young  widow.  Poppo,  like  other 
lads  of  his  rank,  went  to  the  wars  as 
soon  as  ho  was  old  enough.  Ho  had 
not  long  been  a  soldier  when  he  joined 
some  monks  in  a  pilgrimage  to  Jeru 
salem.  After  his  return,  he  persuaded 
his  mother  to  take  tho  veil.  According 
to  Mcuard,  she  lived  for  some  time  in  a 
nunnery  at  Verdun ;  and  afterwards  in 
a  cull  adjoining  the  monastery  of  St. 
Vitus,  in  tho  same  town,  for  it  was  an 
ancient  custom,  long  continued  in  the 
Order  of  St.  Benedict,  that,  attached  to 
a  monastery  of  men,  were  a  few  cells, 
called  dusaSj  or  inclusoria,  in  which  one 
or  more  nuns  might  live.  They  were 
under  tho  rule  of  the  abbot,  and  none 
but  ho  had  access  t  j  them.  Her  miracles 
began  before  she  had  retired  from  secu 
lar  life.  She  relighted  an  extinguished 
candle  by  merely  taking  it  in  her  hand 
while  she  was  at  her  prayers.  While 
she  prayed  at  tho  tomb  of  St.  Cyricus> 
he  and  St.  Amandus  of  Utrecht  and 
many  other  saints  appeared  to  her. 
1'oppo  became  abbot  of  Stavelo,  a 
monastery  founded  by  St.  Eemacle,  in 
the  7th  century.  A  contemporary  Life 
of  St.  Poppo,  by  Everhelm,  abbot  of 
Haumont,  is  preserved  by  Mabillou, 
AA.SS.9  O.S.B.  T£fau*jtm*de France. 
Ituiuart,  Ada.  Saussaye,  Mart.  Gnlll- 
fnnnni,  calls  Adelviva  "Saint."  Buce- 
liinis  and  Meiiard  say  "  Blessed." 
St.  Adeneta,  ADA  OF  LK  31  LHB, 
St.  Adeodata,  July  5.  Tamayo, 
say  the  I.olhmdists,  is  a  wonderful 
digger  up  of  saints,  and  appears  to 
consider  that  St.  Gregory  tho  Great  has. 
canonized  every  person  whose  name  he 
mentions  in  his  writings.  Tamayo  calls 
Adeodata  a  Benedictine  nun,  and  says 
slie  WHS  adorned  with  supernatural  gifts, 
and  died  in  Etruria.  Boll.,  AA.SS. 
St.  Adfalduid  or  ATAI.I>UII>,  Sept. 

V.      .Daughter  of  St.   Itomarif,  I1 
8.     .  A    holy    nun    with    her  sister,   >  i . 


16 


ST.  ADILIA 


GEGOBERGA,  tinder  ST.  MACTAFLEDE. 
The  BollandisU  mention  her  among  the 
prsetermissi,  Sept.  o<>.  There  seems  to  bo 
a  doubt  about  this  daughter  of  Komaric  ; 
she  is  not  named  in  the  oldest  accounts 
of  his  family.  Saussaye  calls  her 
"  Blessed."  Mart.  Gallicanum. 

St.  Adilia  or  ODILIA  (2),  June  30, 
Oct.  1,  V.  Abbess.  O.S.I*.  7th  cen 
tury.  Daughter  of  the  count  of  Hainault. 
Sister  of  St.  Bavo.  Aunt  of  ADEL- 
TRUDE  (2).  Abbess  of  St.  Martin  du 
Mont,  a  large  Benedictine  house  at  Orp, 
in  Namur.  Her  convent  was  on  a  hill, 
and  many  pilgrims  passed  by  the  bottom 
of  it  without  coming  up.  As  hospitality 
was  part  of  the  rule  of  her  Order,  she 
built  a  church  and  hospice  for  beggars 
and  travellers  at  the  foot  of  the  hill, 
and  removed  her  community  thither, 
that  she  might  relieve  their  wants  and 
be  edified  by  the  conversation  of  holy 
persons  who  were  on  pilgrimage.  Migne's 
Dictionary  says,  honoured  at  Orp-le- 
Grand,  near  Judoque,  in  Brabant.  Pape- 
broch.  AA.SS.  Boll.  Bucelinus,  Men. 
Ben.  Martin,  Surius,  and  French  Mart. 
Molanus,  Indiculo.  88.  Beljii,  places 
Adilia  in  the  time  of  Childeric.  Chil- 
deric  II.  reigned  during  part  of  670, 
and  was  the  son  of  ST.  BATHILDIS. 

St.  Adisela,  Nov.  18,  M.,  appears 
in  the  Lalbean  Mart.  Boll.,  AA.SS. 
Supplement,  iii. 

St.  Adjola  or  AJOLA,  June  1,  abbess 
at  Bourges  in  the  7th  century.  AA.SS. 
Boll. 

St.  Adla,  ABDELA. 
St.  Adnetta,  ADA  OF  LE  MANS. 
St.  Adolena,  ADELA  OF  PFALZEL. 
St.   Adonette,  ADA   OF  LE  MANS. 
Gahicr,  Cfirarteristiqucs. 

St.  Adozina,  Aug.  5,  V.  O.S.B. 
]  i  >th  century.  Daughter  of  the  count 
of  Agueda,  in  Portugal.  She  imitated 
the  heroic  virtues  of  her  brother,  St. 
Rozendo,  and  followed  him  to  the 
monastery  of  Cella  Nova,  in  Galicia, 
where  they  took  the  habit  of  the  Brothers 
of  the  Order  of  St.  Benedict,  and  kept 
their  rule.  She  died  in  the  convent  of 
Oporto.  Azevedo,  Pantheon. 

St.  Adrechild,  ADA  OF  LE  MANS. 
St.  Adrehild,  ADA  OF  LK  MANS. 
St.  Adriana  (1),  Sept.  17,  M.  in  the 


time  of  the  Emperor  Adrian.     AA.SS. 
Appendix. 

B.  Adriana  (2),  or  UADUIANA,  Aug. 
10,  27,  July  16,  O.8.F.  tJ2U2.  Sister 
of  ST.  MAUGAIIET  of  Cortona,  converted 
by  the  example  of  her  penitence,  and 
like  her,  took  the  habit  of  the  Third 
Order  of  St.  Francis,  as  did  their  friend 
Pi.  GILIA  or  EGIDIA  of  Cortona,  and, 
both  became  companions  of  Margaret, 
in  her  works  meet  for  repentance,  un<l 
died  before  her.  All  three  are  buried 
in  the  church  of  the  Friars  Minors,  in 
Cortona  (Jacobilli,  SS.  dcW  Umbrin  I. 
S.  F.  Ordenskalcndar  says  Adriana  died 
immediately  after  winning  the  indul 
gence  of  Portiuncula  at  Assisi,  and  went 
straight  into  heaven,  without  passing 
through  the  fires  of  purgatory.  A  note 
in  the  same  calendar,  Aug.  2,  the  Feast 
of  Portiuncula,  says  that  plenary  in 
dulgence  is  to  be  had  once  for  one's  self, 
and  afterwards  for  the  poor  souls  in 
purgatory,  as  often  as,  after  Absolution 
and  Holy  Communion,  one  visits  a  church 
of  the  Franciscan  brothers,  and  prays, 
"nach  der  Mcinumj  der  katholischen 
Kir  die." 

St.  Adumade,  HADUMADA. 
St.  Adunalif,  ADELMYA. 
St.  -/Egina,  May  18  (AcxA,  EGENA), 
M.  at  Constantinople.     AA.SS.  Boll. 

St.  -£imiliana.  There  are  two  of 
this  name  in  the  R.M.  See  EMILIANA. 

St.  -^Erais  or  HERAIS,  March  4.  Put 
to  the  sword,  with  15o  other  martyrs 
mentioned  in  a  MS.  Mcnca  at  Grotta 
Ferrata,  and  in  some  other  Greek 
calendars.  AA.SS. 

St.  Aesia,  June  G  (AYKSIA,  EUSEBIA), 
M.  1st  century.  Matron.  Commemo 
rated  with  ST.  ZEXAIS,  or  Si  >\\.  Dis 
ciple  of  St.  Pancras,  bishop  of  Tauro- 
meiiium  (now  Taonnina),  in  Sicily. 
AA.88. 

St.  Affidia,  or  AITII.IA,  May^G,  M. 
at  Milan,  under  Maximian.  AA.88. 

St.  Affrenia,  or  AFI:A,  Oct.  i),  M. 
P.13. 

St.  Affrica,  abbess  of  Kildare,  7:;s. 
Colgan. 

St.  Afra  (1),  May  24,  M.  at  Brescia, 
c.  133.  Patron  of  Brescia.  Wife  of  the 
prefect  of  Brescia,  under  the  Emperor 
Hadrian.  This  Emperor  is  represented 


ST.  AM;  A 


17 


in  the  legend  as  a  determined  persecutor 
of  the  Christians.  When  ho  visited 
Brescia,  part  of  the  entertainment  pro 
vided  for  him  was  that  two  Christian 
brothers,  SS.  Fanstus  and  Jovita,  were 
placed  in  the  arena,  to  be  devoured  by 
lions  and  leopards  ;  the  beasts,  however, 
lay  down  at  tho  feet  of  the  saiuts,  and 
defended  them  from  the  bears  that 
attacked  them.  Tho  confessors  chal 
lenged  the  Emperor  to  order  tho  lord  of 
the  town  and  his  pagan  priests  to  bring 
their  idol  Suturnus  into  the  arena,  say 
ing  that  if  he  would  deliver  them,  they 
would  worship  the  Deity.  The  idol  was 
brought ;  tho  bears  instantly  broke  it  in 
pieces,  then  threw  themselves  on  the 
priests  and  the  governor,  and  toro  them 
limb  from  limb.  As  soon  as  Afra  heard 
her  husband's  fate,  she  rushed  to  tho 
amphitheatre  and  assailed  the  Emperor 
with  cries  and  reproaches.  She  said  he 
had  made  her  a  widow,  and  his  god  was 
powerless  to  help  her.  She  threw  her 
self  at  the  feet  of  the  servants  of  Christ, 
and  begged  them  to  give  her  a  sign 
whereby  she  might  believe  in  tho  one 
true  God.  The  Emperor  tried  in  vain  to 
comfort  her.  He  promised  her  a  nobler 
husband,  but  she  said,  "  I  do  not  weep 
for  my  widowhood,  but  because  my  hus 
band  has  lost  his  soul."  To  put  a  stop 
to  her  abuse  of  his  gods,  Hadrian  broke 
up  the  assembly.  Tho  two  martyrs 
commanded  the  wild  beasts  to  conduct 
Afra  safely  into  the  desert,  which  they 
did,  followed  by  the  bulls  which  had 
been  turned  into  the  arena  to  fight  with 
them.  Fanstus  and  Jovita  were  led  in 
bonds  to  Milan.  There  they  were  given 
for  a  prey  to  tigers  and  bears.  These 
they  ordered  to  go  and  join  tho  lions  and 
leopards  in  the  deserts,  and  guard  St. 
Afra  until  they  should  be  sent  for.  Tho 
beasts  obeyed  them.  Tho  martyrs 
Faustus  and  Jovita  were  dragged  hither 
and  thither,  and  at  last  came  to  Rome, 
Y.-IMTO  they  were  again  pitted  against 
wild  beasts  to  make  sport  for  tho  people. 
The  savage  creatures  humbled  them- 
s«-lves  at  the  feet  of  the  saints.  Tho 
gates  flow  open,  and  the  beasts  that  had 
been  despatched  from  Jlrescia  and  Milan 
appeared,  bringing  Afra  with  them. 
She  lifted  up  her  voice,  and  warned  tho 


people  to  believe  in  tho  one  true  God 
and  to  repent  of  their  sins.  Faustus  and 
Jovita  reminded  the  Emperor  of  the  cir 
cumstances  under  which  he  had  first  seen 
Afra,  and  ho  said  she  must  bo  a  sor 
ceress.  The  people  began  to  cry  out 
that  the  God  of  Faustus  and  Jovita  must 
be  the  true  God.  The  two  confessors 
commanded  the  beasts  which  had  brought 
Afra  to  slay  those  which  they  found  in 
the  Roman  amphitheatre.  They  did  so 
in  a  moment,  and  then  harmlessly  de 
parted.  Faustus  and  Jovita  next  led 
Afra  to  tho  catacombs,  to  bo  baptized 
by  tho  bishop.  (The  legend  calls  him 
Linus,  but  Linus  was  not  bishop  of 
Rome  at  this  date.)  They  then  all  went 
to  Milan,  and  thence  to  Brescia,  where 
the  people  came  out  to  meet  them,  and 
brought  them  into  the  city  with  hymns 
of  joy.  They  and  many  of  their  fellow- 
Christians  wore  soon  condemned  to 
death.  The  soldiers  led  them  out  on 
the  road  to  Cremona,  where  they  all 
knelt  down.  Tho  men  were  beheaded 
by  gladiators,  arid  Afra  was  smitten  on 
the  head  by  tho  guards  with  their  swords, 
and  so  completed  her  happy  martyrdom. 
B.M.  May  :>4.  The  Bollandists  give  her 
Acts,  which  are  manifestly  fabulous,  on 
May  2o.  Her  church,  on  the  site  of  a 
temple  of  Saturn,  is  the  oldest  ecclesi 
astical  foundation  in  Brescia.  It  was 
entirely  rebuilt  in  the  17th  century,  and 
is  now,  of  course,  very  ugly.  Hare, 
Cities  of  Italy. 

St.  Afra  (2),  Aug.  10,  M.  Honoured 
with  11  men,  13  virgins,  and  seven, 
soldiers.  AA.SS. 

St.  Afra  (3),  Dec.  18,  V.  M.     Mart. 


St.  Afra  (4)  of  Augsburg,  Aug.  5 
AuKA,  APKA,  etc.),  M.  307.  Patron  of 
Augsburg,  Meissen,  and  female  peni 
tents.  Represented  with  her  hands  tied 
to  a  stake  (Liber  Cronicarum)  ;  bound  to 
a  tree  in  flames  (Ikonograpltie)  ;  sur 
rounded  with  flames  (Die  Attrilnifc  der 
Jldliiji  //)  ;  1  toiled  in  a  cauldron  (Husen- 
beth,  Kmblfitix)  ;  holding  a  log  or  faggot, 
to  denote  that  she  was  bnrncd  alive 
(Guenebault,  Die.  Icon.). 

St.  Narcissus,  a  Spanish  Christian 
priest,  and  his  deacon,  Felix,  being 
driven  from  their  own  country  in  the 

c 


IS 


ST.   AFRA 


persecution  under  Diocletian,  happened 
to  come  to  Augsburg,  and  asked  for 
hospitality  at  the  house  of  Afra,  not 
knowing  that  she  was  a  courtesan.  She 
and  her  three  maids  prepared  supper  for 
them,  supposing  them  to  be  the  sort  of 
guests  they  were  accustomed  to  enter 
tain.  Narcissus  said  a  prayer  and  sang 
a  psalm  before  beginning  to  eat.  Afra 
asked  what  he  meant  by  it,  and  hearing 
that  her  visitors  were  Christians,  she 
said,  "  You  have  made  a  mistake  in 
coming  here,  for  we  are  sinners."  Nar 
cissus  told  her  Christ  came  to  save  sin 
ners,  and  exhorted  her  at  once  to  break 
with  her  wicked  life,  and  repent  and 
Income  a  Christian.  The  four  women 
were  converted  by  his  persuasion,  and 
when  the  persecutors  came  to  look  for 
the  two  Christians,  she  hid  them  under 
heaps  of  flax,  first  in  her  own  and  then 
in  her  mother's  house,  until  she  could 
send  them  away  in  disguise.  Her 
mother's  name  was  HILARIA  ;  she  was 
already  a  Christian,  and  had  tried  in 
vain  to  convert  Afra.  Very  soon  Afra 
was  accused  of  being  a  Christian,  and  of 
having  aided  the  escape  of  persons  re 
sisting  the  laws.  She  was  brought 
before  a  judge,  who  said,  "  How  is  it 
that  a  courtesan  can  be  a  Christian  ? 
Where  is  the  purity  of  life  which  the 
followers  of  Christ  profess  ? "  She 
answered,  "  I  am  indeed  unworthy  of  the 
name  of  Christian,  but  Christ  came  to 
save  sinners.  He  will  accept  my  mar 
tyrdom,  and  wash  me  from  my  sins." 
She  was  condemned  to  be  burned  on  an 
island  in  the  river  Lech.  Her  maids 
stood  on  the  bank  and  watched  her  mar 
tyrdom.  A  boy  went  and  told  Hilaria 
that  her  daughter  had  been  burnt  to 
death,  not  accepting  deliverance.  A  few 
days  afterwards  Ililaria  and  the  three 
maids  were  taken  and  put  to  death,  and 
are  honoured  as  saints  and  martyrs. 
The  names  of  the  maids  were  DKJNA, 
I -li  \OMIA,  and  EUTROPIA.  The  skeleton 
of  Afra  is  shown  at  Augsburg,  in  the 
church  dedicated  in  her  name  and  that 
of  St.  Ulrich  ;  the  bones  appear  through 
the  most  exquisite  lace,  and  the  skull 
and  fingers  are  resplendent  with  jewels. 
EM.  Baillet,  Vies.  Butler,  Lives. 
Dr.  J.  M.  Neale.  Mrs.  Jameson,  tincred 


<m<l  Li'fjrndimj  Art.  One  of  the  Saints 
VALERIA  is  said  to  be  identical  with  St. 
Afra  of  Augsburg. 

St.  Afra  (5)  of  Poitiers,  Dec.  13 
(ABRA,  APIA,  APRA),  V.  4th  century. 
Daughter  of  St.  Hilary,  bishop  of 
Poitiers.  Ho  was  of  an  illustrious  family 
in  Gaul;  was  converted  about  350,  and 
became  bishop  about  353.  On  account 
of  his  opposition  to  Arianism,  he  was 
banished  by  the  Emperor  Constantius  to 
Phrygia,  35G,  and  remained  in  exile 
three  years.  He  left  his  wife  at  Poitiers 
with  their  only  child,  a  girl  of  13 
or  thereabouts.  From  the  time  of  his 
conversion,  the  bishop  had  wished  and 
prayed  that  his  daughter  should  never 
be  a  worldly  woman,  but  live  and  die  a 
virgin  consecrated  to  Christ ;  so  when, 
during  his  banishment,  his  wife  wrote  to 
him  on  the  subject  of  a  marriage  that 
seemed  to  promise  well  for  her  happi 
ness,  he  wrote  to  Afra,  giving  her  leave 
to  decide  the  matter  for  herself.  The 
man  whom  her  mother  was  inclined  to 
accept  for  her  was  young,  beautiful,  of 
good  character,  very  rich,  and  in  every 
way  a  fit  mate  for  a  Christian  maiden  of 
good  family  ;  but  Hilary  told  her  that  if 
she  would  refuse  him  she  might  have  a 
Husband  more  noble,  more  beautiful, 
more  powerful,  kinder,  richer ;  if  she 
would  renounce  all  jewels  and  gay 
clothes,  her  Bridegroom  would  give  her 
robes  of  dazzling  whiteness,  and  jewels 
of  unimaginable  splendour  ;  a  life  above 
all  petty  vexations  and  ambitious ;  trea 
sures  that  rust  and  moth  could  not  in 
jure  ;  possessions  that  death  itself  could 
not  take  away.  Afra  followed  her 
father's  advice,  and  on  his  return  ho 
prayed  that  the  Lord  would  take  her  to 
Himself.  She  died  happily  about  360, 
without  pain  or  disease.  Her  mother 
then  entreated  Hilary  to  obtain  of  God 
the  same  favour  for  her.  In  the  words 
of  the  Golden  Legend,  "  He  sent  toforo 
his  wyf  and  doughter."  Hilary  did 
about  308.  His  letter  to  Afra  is  still 
extant,  and  so  is  one  of  two  hymns  which 
he  wrote  and  sent  her  at  the  same 
time.  It  begins,  "  Lucis  Lnrgitor  s^lii- 
dide."  Tillemont.  P>utlcr.  AA.SS. 

St.  Agaieta  or  GAIANA,  Sept.  3'  >.    See 
RlPSIMA. 


SS.   AGAPE,   CHIOXIA,   AND   IRKNK 


19 


Agapa,  ACAIM:,  AOAIM-S,  and  AUAI-IA 
eeein  to  bo  forms  of  the  same  name, 
generally  called  AGAI-I:. 

St.  A.2:apa,  Nov.  u< >,  V.,  is  mentioned 
in  the  Jl/ar////v.A  <>//"//<  Bichfnoviente^  i.> . 
the  copy  of  the  Mart,  of  St.  Jerome  used 
in  the  old  German  monastery  of 
Reichenau.  AA.8S. 

SS.  Agape  <  1  >,  Pistis,  and  Elpis, 
Sept.  17,  VV.  MM.  FAITH,  HOIT:,  and 
CHAUITY  i  //./•.  >  are  so  called  in  the 
]5yzantinc  Church.  Xeale,  Ifolij  Eastern 
Church. 

St.  Agape  (  2  i,  Feb.  15,  V.  M.  27& 
Patron  of  Terano.  A  disciple  of  St. 
Valentine,  bishop  of  Interamna.  There 
are  several  places  called  Interamna ; 
this  IB  probably  Terauo.  She  and  her 
companions  led  a  religions  life  there, 
and  were  put  to  death  soon  after  their 
master.  The  inhabitants  hold  the 
festival  of  their  patrons,  of  whom 
A'alentinc  is  chief,  on  four  days,  Feb.  1 4, 
K  17.  EM.  AA.SS.  Jacobilli 
says  St.  Agapo's  house  was  not  at 
Terano,  but  at  a  place  called  Fra  le 
Torri.  outside  the  town  of  Terni ;  that 
the  house  was  built  in  255  by  St.  Valen 
tine  ;  that  with  Agape  were  her  sister, 
ST.  THIOMA  or  TEOXIA,  and  33  nuns, 
the  chief  of  whom  were  SS.  CHIOXIA, 
CASTTLA,  and  STNCA.  .  Santi  dclV  Umbria, 
Hi.  1M5. )  ST.  DOMMNA  i  1)  seems  to  bo 
one  of  those  honoured  with  them,  but 
Jacobilli  places  her  martyrdom  three 
centuries  later,  in  the  time  of  Totila. 

SS.  Agape  (3)  and  Chionia,  April 

•I  Irene,  April  5.    c.304.     Famous 

martyrs  in  the  tenth  persecution,  which 

red    in    the    time    of    Diocletian. 

Their  names  are  in  tlio  li<nnan  Martyro- 

/«;/./  as  martyrs  sit  Thessalonica.     The 

down   to   us  in  different 

forms.       I    give    one    from    the    .FA* 

.'  :     a    second    from     the    Aftn 

N///r/, ,/•//„/.   when-   Hcnschenius    derives 

it  from  ;ui  ancient  /,//»•  of  St.  Anastn.- 

and  a  third  from  P>aillet  ( April  1  ),  win. 

considers  their  authentic  Acts,  published 

by    Kuinart,    more    reliable    than    the 

Authority  followed  by  I  lenschcnius. 

Vega,  in  the  FA/x  Sanctonm^  says  that 
•>S.  Agape,  Chionin,  and  Irene  or  Yrnea 
were  the  maids  of  ST.  A  \\-i\-i\,  and 
shared  her  imprisonment.  Instead  of 


putting  them  immediately  to  death — as 
recorded  in  the  story  of  St.  Anastasia — 
the  governor  thought  them  too  beautiful 
for  such  a  fate,  and  determined  to  save 
them  as  slaves  for  himself.  As  they 
despised  his  clemency  and  admiration, 
ho  shut  them  up  in  a  kitchen.  When 
he  went  to  visit  them,  they  became 
invisible.  The  pots  and  pans  took  their 
forms,  so  that  the  three  saints  remained 
unmolested  while  the  deluded  governor 
embraced  and  kissed  the  unresisting 
kitchen  utensils  till  his  face  and  clothes 
were  black  and  dirty.  When  he  came 
out  his  servants  took  him  for  a  devil, 
struck  him  with  their  fists  and  sticks, 
and  then  ran  away  from  him.  lie  went 
to  the  Emperor  to  complain  of  their 
conduct,  but  every  one  thought  he  was 
mad,  and  began  to  beat  him,  spit  at  him, 
and  throw  sticks  and  stones  at  him. 
The  devil  had  so  completely  deceived 
him  that  he  could  not  see  his  own 
disfigurement,  nor  understand  the  reason 
of  all  this  ill  treatment.  He  thought  he 
and  his  clothes  were  white  and  clean, 
and  as  everybody  told  him  the  contrary 
he  supposed  himself  bewitched  by  the 
three  girls.  He  next  ordered  their 
clothes  to  be  taken  off.  This  was  found 
impossible  ;  the  more  the  servants 
pulled,  the  tighter  the  saints'  garments 
stuck  to  them.  At  last  the  governor, 
exhausted  and  puzzled,  fell  asleep,  and 
slept  so  long  and  so  soundly,  and  snored 
so  loudly  that  no  one  could  awake  him, 
and  if  the  devil  hasn't  taken  him  he  is 
snoring  there  still.  The  three  Christian 
maidens  were  put  to  death. 

The  second  version  of  the  story  is  as 
follows : — 

When  St.  Chrysogonus  was  sent  to 
Aquileia  by  Diocletian,  St.  Anasta 
his  disciple  and  friend,  followed  him  to 
visit  the  imprisoned  Christians  and  bury 
tin-  martyrs  there  as  she  had  dono  at 
Home.  Chrysogonus  was  beheaded  at 
A.pia  Gradata  (Grao,  in  Friuli),  and  his 
I fuly  thrown  into  the  sea.  It  was  soon 
washed  ashore  at  a  place  called  Adsaltns. 
a  small  estate  where  throo  sisters, 
Christian*,  named  Ajrapc,  ( 'liionia,  and 
Irene,  lived  with  an  aged  priest  named 
Xoilus.  They  took  up  the  body  of  the; 
martyr,  and  buried  it  with  great  care 


20 


SS. 


,   CHIONIA,   AND   IRENE 


and  reverence  in  a  subterranean  chamber 
of  the  house.  St.  Chrysogonus  after 
wards  appeared  in  a  dream  to  Zoilus, 
and  told  him  that  Diocletian  would  order 
the  three  sisters  to  be  seized  in  nine 
days,  that  God  would  cause  them  to  bo 
comforted  by  His  servant  Anastasia,  but 
that  Zoilus  himself  should  not  live  to 
see  their  imprisonment.  While  he  was 
telling  his  dream  to  the  sisters,  Anas 
tasia  entered  the  house,  saying,  "  Where 
are  my  three  sisters  whom  my  master 
Chrysogonus  recommended  to  my  care  ?  " 
They  received  her  gladly,  showed  her 
the  place  where  Chrysogonus  was  buried, 
and  begged  her  to  stay  some  time  with 
them.  She  stayed  one  night,  and  then 
returned  to  Aquileia  to  attend  to  the 
wants  of  the  Christians  who  were  in 
prison.  As  she  left  the  house  St. 
Zoilus  went  to  the  Lord.  Diocletian 
soon  sent  for  the  three  sisters,  and  asked 
them  who  had  taught  them  their  vain 
superstitions.  He  offered  them  husbands 
out  of  his  own  palace  as  the  reward  of 
their  renunciation  of  Christianity.  As 
they  were  steadfast  in  the  faith,  he  sent 
them  to  prison,  where  they  were  visited 
by  Anastasia.  There  was  great  poverty 
among  the  Christians  in  those  days. 
They  all  used  to  come  to  Anastasia  for 
help.  She  daily  prayed  that  she  might 
not  die  until  she  had  expended  on  them 
the  last  farthing  of  the  sum  she  had 
obtained  by  the  sale  of  her  patrimony. 
Diocletian  took  the  Christian  prisoners 
to  Macedonia.  On  his  arrival  there  he 
ordered  Dulcicius,  the  governor,  to  try 
them  all,  and  torture  and  slay  those  who 
persisted  in  their  religion,  but  to  offer 
honours  and  other  rewards  to  such  as 
consented  to  sacrifice  to  the  gods.  When 
the  three  sisters  were  brought  before 
him  in  their  turn,  he  was  struck  by  their 
beauty. 

Here  follows  almost  exactly  the  kitchen 
scene  given  in  the  Spanish  Flos 
^onctorum,  except  that  in  this  version  of 
the  story  Dulcicius  falls  asleep  on  the 
judgment-seat,  and  awakes  when  carried 
into  his  own  house.  Sisinnus  is  then 
appointed  to  continue  the  trial.  Ho 
condemns  Agape  and  Chionia  1o  bo  burnt. 
They  die  praying  in  the  midst  of  the 
flames,  but  their  bodies  and  even  their 


clothes  are  uninjured  by  the  fire.  Irene, 
who  was  younger,  was  condemned  to  a 
more  cruel  fate.  As  she  was  being  led 
away  by  guards  to  the  place  of  her  doom, 
two  soldiers  appeared,  and  said,  "  The 
governor  sends  us  after  you  to  order  you 
to  take  Irene  to  the  place  that  wo  will 
show  you."  They  proceeded  to  the  top 
of  a  mountain  and  sat  down.  The  t\vo 
soldiers  told  the  guards  to  go  and  tell 
Sisinnus  that  Irene  was  there,  according 
to  his  orders.  When  Sisinnus  saw  that 
he  was  the  subject  of  a  trick,  he  was  very 
angry,  and  rode  off  in  haste  to  the 
mountain,  where  he  saw  the  beautiful 
Irene  praying  and  singing  hymns.  He 
rode  round  and  round  from  morning  until 
evening  without  ever  being  able  to  get 
near  her.  At  last  he  was  so  enraged 
that  he  took  a  bow  from  one  of  his 
attendants  and  shot  her  with  three 
arrows.  She  died  rejoicing  that  she  was 
accounted  worthy  to  rejoin  her  sisters  so 
soon.  Her  body  was  taken  by  the 
servants  of  St.  Anastasia  and  buried  with 
those  of  Agape  and  Chionia. 

The  third  form  of  the  legend  says 
that  SS.  Agape,  Chionia,  and  Irene  were 
martyred  at  Thessalonica,  in  Macedonia, 
with  their  companions,  CASIA,  PHILIPPA, 
and  EUTYCHIA,  and  a  man  named  Agatho. 
The  three  sisters  lived  in  their  father's 
house  at  Thessalonica.  They  are  called 
virgins  in  some  calendars ;  but  it  is  more 
probable,  from  their  answers  during  the 
trial,  that  they  were  all  married.  When 
Diocletian  ordered  the  destruction  of  a]l 
the  sacred  books  of  the  Christians,  they 
found  a  safe  hiding-place  for  their  own 
and  some  others  that  belonged  to  the 
community.  They  fled  to  a  mountain, 
where  they  remained  hidden  from  their 
persecutors  for  a  year.  When  they  were 
brought  to  trial,  they  were  careful  not 
to  betray  those  who  had  fed  or  otherwise 
assisted  them  in  their  trouble.  They 
declared  that  their  father  did  not  know 
where  they  were  during  that  time,  and 
that  the  books  were  hidden  from  their 
most  intimate  friends ;  "  even,"  said 
Irene,  "  from  our  husbands."  Agape 
and  Chionia  were  burnt  to  death.  Eut  v- 
chia,  who  was  a  widow,  was  remanded  to 
prison  until  after  the  birth  of  her  child, 
which  was  imminent.  Dulcicius,  the 


ST.   AGATHA 


21 


governor,  tried  to  persuade  Irone,  who 
was  much  younger  than  her  sisters,  to 
nice  their  superstitious.  lie  was 
-'•i -riitcd  ut  her  firmness.  Seeing  that 
she  wished  to  share  the  martyrdom  of 
her  <i>ti-rs,  and  did  not  fear  the  flames, 
he  condemned  her  to  degradation,  and 
ordered  her  to  bo  kept  in  a  place  where 
every  one  should  have  power  to  insult 
her.  She  was  to  bo  guarded  by  one 
7.  -imus,  who  was  to  bring  her  a  loaf 
from  the  governor's  palace  every  day. 
Zosimus  and  all  his  servants  were  to  bo 
put  to  death  if  Irene  stirred  from  tlio 
phii-e.  She  was,  however,  miraculously 
defended  from  all  harm,  and  after  a  feu- 
days  Dulcicius  had  her  burnt  in  tho 
place  where  her  sisters  had  glorified 
in  the  same  manner  a  few  days 
before. 

Tho  subsequent  fate  of  their  com 
panions  is  not  told,  but  the  Church 
honours  them  among  the  martyrs. 

SS.  Agape  (4),  Domna  ( 1 '),  and 
Theophila  (2),  Dec.  28.  E.M.  See 
DOMNA. 

Besides  the  above,  seven  saints  of  tho 
name  of  Agape  are  commemorated  as 
martyrs  in  the  early  persecutions. 

St.  Agapia,  May  ;U,M.  at  Gerona, 
in  Spain.  AA.SS. 

St.  Agapia  sometimes  means  AGAPE. 

St.  Agatha  ( 1 ),  Feb.  5,  V.  M.  251. 
Called  in  Norway  AAGOT  ;  in  Spain 
AOUEDA  and  GADEA  ;  in  different  parts 
of  France,  APT,  APIITE,  APTHE,  CIIAPHTE, 
CHAPTHE,  CHATTE,  YK;  in  tho  Iluthe- 
nean  Calendar,  AGATA. 

She  is  one  of  tho  great  patronesses  of 
the  Western  Church ;  her  name  is  iu  the 
canon  of  the  Mass.  She  is  patron  saint 
of  the  island  and  Order  of  Malta ;  of 
Scala  near  Amain,  Gallipoli  in  Italy, 
Capua,  Messina,  Catania,  Mirandola ; 
and  of  nurses.  Her  aid  is  specially  in 
voked  against  fire,  colic,  and  diseases  of 
tho  1.: 

ii'-pivs'-nled  in  the  midst  of  flames,  or 
with  her  breasts  being  cut  off.  Ilusen- 
beth  says  there  is  a  picture  of  her  in  the 
Pitti  Palace  at  Florence,  by  Sebastian 
del  Piombo,  iu  which  executioners  aro 
cutting  off  her  breasts,  and  that  a  repre 
sentation  of  her  was  formerly  to  be  seen 
on  tho  rood  screen  of  St.  John's  Church 


in  tho  Maddermarket  at  Norwich,  hold 
ing  her  left  breast  in  pincers. 

Palermo  disputes  with  Catania  tho 
honour  of  being  her  birthplace.  She 
was  living  at  Catania  when  Quintianus, 
governor  of  Sicily,  persecuted  the  Chris 
tians  in  the  reign  of  the  PJmperor  Decius, 
in  the  seventh  general  persecution  of  the 
Church.  He  wished  to  take  St.  Agatha 
for  himself,  on  account  of  her  great 
beauty ;  but  being  unable  to  make  any 
impression  on  her,  ho  gave  her  in  charge 
to  Froudisia,  a  wicked  woman  with  nine 
daughters  worse  than  herself,  promising 
them  great  rewards  if  they  could  seduce 
Agatha  from  Christianity  and  virtue. 
As  they  failed  to  do  so,  she  was  brought 
before  the  governor  and  tried  as  a  Chris 
tian.  Being  asked  who  she  was,  she 
answered,  "I  am  a  Christian,  and  the 
servant  of  Jesus  Christ."  "  Abjure  thy 
Master,"  said  Quintianus,  "  and  servo 
our  gods,  or  I  will  have  theo  tortured." 
She  was  then  bound  to  a  pillar,  and  her 
breast  torn  with  iron  shears ;  she  was 
rolled  on  potsherds,  and  after  various 
other  tortures,  she  was  cast  into  a  dun 
geon.  St.  Peter,  attended  by  an  angel 
carrying  a  torch,  appeared  to  her  and 
healed  her  wounds  with  ointment.  Quin- 
tiauus,  finding  that  she  was  healed  of 
tho  wounds  inflicted  by  tho  torturers, 
ordered  her  to  be  burnt  alive ;  bnt  no 
sooner  was  she  placed  in  the  fire  than  an 
earthquake  shook  the  city.  Tho  people, 
believing  it  to  bo  on  account  of  the 
Christian  maiden,  insisted  on  her  imme 
diate  release  from  the  flames,  and  threat 
ened  to  burn  down  the  governor's  palace 
if  he  did  not  comply  with  their  demand. 
She  was  again  put  in  prison,  but  prayed 
that  she  might  die  at  once,  which  she 
did,  and  was  buried  by  tho  Christians  in 
a  porphyry  tomb.  About  a  year  after 
wards  the  city  was  threatened  with  de 
struction  by  an  eruption  of  Mount  Etna. 
All  the  inhabitants  fled  for  refuge  to  St. 
Agatha's  tomb.  They  took  her  veil, 
which  was  kept  there,  fixed  it  on  a  lance, 
and  went  in  procession  to  meet  tho 
torrent  of  lava.  The  glowing  mass  was 
coming  close  to  tho  walls,  but  when  con 
fronted  with  tho  sacred  relic  it  turned 
aside.  All  tho  heathen  who  witnessed 
this  miracle  were  converted  and  baptized. 


22 


•      ST.   AGATHA 


Solomon's  Song  viii.  8  is  supposed  by 
some  theologians  to  foretell  the  tortures 
of  St.  Agatha. 

Her  name  is  in  the  Roman  Nartyro- 
logy,  the  Canon  of  the  Mass,  the  Leg- 
gendario  dclle  Santa  Vergini,  and  all  the 
chief  collections  of  lives  or  legends  of 
saints.  Her  Acts  are  said  by  Baillet  to 
be  of  doubtful  authenticity,  especially 
those  preserved  in  the  Greek  Church. 
Her  worship  is  undoubtedly  very  old. 
It  was  universal  in  Italy  in  the  4th 
century,  and  in  Africa  in  the  5th.  Her 
commemoration  by  the  Church  has  this 
peculiarity,  which  it  shares  with  that  of 
ST.  AGNES,  that  the  psalms  of  her  office 
are  taken  from  the  "  Common  of  Saints  " 
of  the  male  sex,  to  remind  the  faithful 
of  the  super-feminine  courage  of  the 
holy  maiden.  He  adds  that  the  schis 
matic  English,  though  they  have  ex 
punged  her  name  from  their  new  liturgy, 
have  retained  it  in  their  calendars,  that 
the  people  may  not  forget  the  virtues  of 
the  early  martyrs.  E.M.  Golden 
Legend.  Villegas,  from  Bede,  Usuard, 
and  Metaphrastes.  Mrs.  Jameson,  Sacred 
and  Legendary  Art.  AA.SS.  Thiers, 
Traite  dcs  superstitions. 

In  Norway,  the  legend  is  that  she  was 
brushed  to  death,  wherefore  girls  abstain 
from  brushing  their  hair  on  her  day. 
Another  legend  in  that  country  is  that  a 
lady  named  Agathe,  or  Aagot,  had  her 
nose  and  ears  eaten  off  by  mice.  They 
only  spared  the  rest  of  her  body  on  her 
vowing  to  keep  St.  Agatha's  day  holy 
ever  after.  This  story  is  told  also  of 
ST.  GERTRUDE  of  Nivelle.  The  day  is 
marked  on  the  clogs  (runic  calendars) 
by  a  mouse.  Aagot' s  Mcsxa  was  the 
Norwegian  name  of  the  day.  Report 
xx.  of  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian 
Society,  "  Description  of  a  Norwegian 
Calendar  of  tlie  Fifteenth  Century:' 

St.  Agatha  ( 2  ),  May  8.  One  of  the 
many  martyrs  at  Byzantium,  commemo 
rated  with  St.  Acacius,  a  native  of  Cap- 
padocia  and  a  Roman  centurion.  Their 
names  are  not  mentioned  in  his  Acts, 
given  by  Henschenius  from  a  Greek 
manuscript  at  Grotta  Fcrrata,  but  the 
martyrs  commemorated  with  him  in  the 
old  martyrologies  are  supposed  to  be  his 
fellow  -  prisoners  and  converts;  about 


28  of  them  were  women.  Henschenius, 
AA.SS.,  gives  the  date  20;j ;  but  if  St. 
Acacius  was  put  to  death,  as  his  Acts 
say,  under  Maximianus,  it  must  have 
been  a  century  later. 

St.  Agatha  (3),  April  3,  M.  in  Misia. 
Mart.  lUiinovicnse. 

St.  Agatha  (4),  Dec.  12.  Sth  cen 
tury.  Nun  at  Weinbrunn,  in  Germany. 
Disciple  of  ST.  LIOBA.  Bucelinus,  Men. 
Ben.  AA.SS.  prsefer,  June  12,  28,  Sept, 
28,  Dec.  12.  Ferrarius,  Cat.  Gen., 
makes  her  a  nun  at  Wimborne,  which  is, 
perhaps,  a  mistake ;  but  she  may  have 
gone  from  Wimborne  with  Lioba,  and 
lived  with  her  in  Germany.  Wion, 
Lignum  Vitoe,  says  Wimbrun  in  Germany. 

St.  Agatha  (5)  Hildegard,  Feb. 
5.  •(•  1024.  Sometimes  called  by  either 
name  alone.  Patron  of  Carinthia.  Wife 
of  Paul,  count  palatine  of  Carinthia. 
They  lived  either  at  Stein  or  at  Rech- 
berg,  a  castle  on  a  rock  rising  abruptly 
to  a  considerable  height  above  the  river 
Drave.  Paul,  having  rashly  listened  to  a 
false  accusation  against  his  wife,  rushed 
furiously  to  her  room  at  the  top  of  the 
castle,  where  she  was  saying  her  prayers 
with  Dorothy  her  maid,  and  threw  them 
both  out  of  the  window.  Instead  of 
being  killed,  they  arrived  unhurt  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  river,  at  the  village- 
of  Mochlingen.  Paul,  struck  by  the 
miracle  and  horrified  at  his  own  violence, 
built  the  church  of  St.  Paul  of  Moch 
lingen  on  the  spot.  As  soon  as  he  had 
heard  Mass  there,  he  set  out  on  a  seven 
years'  pilgrimage,  as  a  penance  for  his 
injustice  and  violence.  On  his  return, 
he  sat  down  to  rest  under  a  tree,  and 
there  he  heard  the  bells  of  his  church 
ring  for  midday  prayer.  Then  he  died. 
Agatha  survived  him  for  a  few  years, 
and  made  some  charitable  religious  foun 
dations. 

The  messengers  of  the  Bollandists 
heard  this  story  from  the  curates  and 
peasants  of  Carinthia,  but  never  found 
it  in  books.  Some  of  the  narrators  also 
added  that  the  woman  who  had  accused 
the  countess  was  turned  iuto  stone,  with 
the  cow  she  was  milking,  and  that  her 
stool  and  her  pail  of  milk  might  bo 
seen  there  still.  The  messengers,  how 
ever,  not  only  never  saw  the  stones 


ST.   AGATHOCUA 


themselves,  but  never  found  any  man 
who  could  assert  that  he  had  seen  them. 
Bollandus,  AA.8S. 

St.  Agatha  (0),  grand  -  princess 
of  Iiiissia,  commemorated  Feb.  7,  with 
her  daughters-in-law,  SS.  MAKY  and 
CHKISTINA,  massacred  with  the  other 
inhabitants  of  Vladimir  by  the  Mongol 
Tartars.  Agatha  was  the  wife  of  George 
Vsevolodovitch,  grand-prince  of  Russia 
(1224-1238).  When  the  Tartars  were 
devastating  Kussia  in  the  dreadful  winter 
of  1238,  the  grand-prince  went  to  tho 
province  of  Yaroslav  to  raise  troops 
and  obtain  help  from  his  brothers  and 
nephews.  He  left  his  sons — Mstislaf 
and  Vsevolod — to  hold  the  town  of 
Vladimir.  They  had  in  their  care  their 
wives,  Mary  and  Christina,  their  mother 
tho  grand-princess  Agatha,  some  chil 
dren,  and  other  members  of  the  family. 
As  the  Tartars  marched  through  tho 
country  they  killed  and  destroyed,  with 
brutal  ferocity,  "tho  burning  towns  and 
rifled  shrines  proclaimed  where  they  had 

•d."  Instead  of  living  inhabitants 
coming  and  going,  were  corpses  lying 
on  the  frozen  ground,  torn  by  wild 
beasts  and  birds  of  prey.  At  Moscow 
the  Tartars  butchered  every  man,  woman, 
and  child,  except  Vladimir,  tho  second 

if  the  grand-prince,  and  some  youni^ 
monks  and  nuns,  whom  they  carried  off 
with  their  army.  On  Feb.  2,  12:  IS 
they  arrived  before  the  town  of  Vladi 
mir,  and  asked  whether  the  grand-prince- 
was  at  home.  The  Vladimirians,  for 
all  answer,  sent  a  flight  of  arrows  into 
their  camp.  The  Mongols  then  sot 
Agatha's  son,  the  young  prince  Vladimir, 
in  front  of  their  line,  crying  out,  "  Do 
you  recognize  your  prince  ?  "  Indeed, 
he  was  so  altered  by  the  grief  and  horror 
of  his  situation  and  the  ill  treat 
ment  he  had  received,  that  they  hardly 
knew  him.  After  a  few  days  of  brav-- 
defence,  it  became  evident  that  tho  case 
was  desperate.  Tho  princes,  princesses, 
and  nobles  determined  not  to  fall  alivo 
into  the  hands  of  the  barbarians.  \ 
volod,  his  wife,  and  a  number  of  tin; 
most  illustrious  nobles  and  citizens 
assemlilt  1  in  tin;  church  of  Our  La  ly. 
They  begged  Metrophancs,  the  bisin»j>, 
to  give  them  tho  monastic  tonsure.  This 


solemnity  was  performed  in  profound 
silence.  They  took  leave  of  tho  world 
and  of  life,  but  prayed  Heaven  to  pre- 
s«  rvo  tho  existence,  the  glory,  and  tho 
cherished  name  of  Kussia.  On  Feb.  7, 
the  Sunday  of  the  carnival,  after  Matins. 
the  assault  began.  The  Tartars  rushed 
into  the  new  city  by  its  four  gat*  s. 
Mstislaf  and  Vsevolod  withdrew  with 
their  guard  into  the  old  town  called 
Petcherni,  where  they  perished  at  tho 
hands  of  the  invaders.  Their  mother, 
tho  grand-princess  Agatha,  with  her 
daughter,  her  brothers,  her  daughters- 
in-law,  and  her  granddaughter,  shut 
themselves  up  in  the  cathedral.  The 
Mongols  set  it  on  fire.  The  bishop  cried 
aloud,  "  Lord !  stretch  out  Thine  in 
visible  arms  and  receive  Thy  servants  in 
peace."  Then  he  gave  his  blessing  to 
all  present,  devoting  them  to  death. 
Some  were  suffocated  in  the  smoke,  some 
were  burnt,  some  fell  by  the  sword  of 
the  Tartars,  who  broke  in  at  last, 
attracted  by  tho  treasures  they  expected 
to  find.  The  names  of  the  three  prin 
cesses,  Agatha,  Mary,  and  Christina,  are 
given  in  tho  ancient  manuscript,  Lives  of 
the  Saints,  "  Saints  of  Vladimir."  Ka- 
ramsin,  Histoirc  de  Itussie,  iii.  o44,  :J47, 
4<  '2,  etc. 

B.  Agatha  (7  )  of  Gubbio,  also  called 
AGATETTA.  loth  or  14th  century.  Nun 
O.S.A.  in  the  monastery  of  Santa  Maria, 
called  Paradise.  Jacobilli,  Sattti  </>//' 
Uitbria* 

St.  Agathpclia,  Sept.  17,  M.  1st 
century.  Christian  slave  of  Nicholas 
and  Paulina,  who  were  apostates  from 
( 'hristianity.  By  another  account  she 
was  the  slavo  of  a  heathen  woman  and 
the  daughter  of  Nicholas  and  Paulina, 
who  were  Christians.  Her  mistress 
treated  her  with  great  cruelty  for  eight 
years,  and  tried  every  means  to  induce 
h«  r  to  renounce  her  religion;  she  need 
to  send  her  barefooted  in  tho  coldest 
weather  to  gather  wood.  When  she  was 
locked  up  without  food,  a  nightingale 
fed  her  by  bringing  her  fruit  from  the 
.  At  last  her  mistress  came  int<> 
tin-  prison  and  killed  her  with  a  red-hot 
iron  liar.  >h«!  is  claimed  as  a  Spaniard 
by  Salazar,  who  says  she  suffered  at 
Andiijsir  in  tho  year  i>4  ;  but  it  is  more 


•ST.   AGATHOXIA 


likely  that  she  lived  and  died  in  the 
East,  as  her  story  only  comes  to  us 
through  the  Greek  Church.  H.M. 
Stilting  in  AA.SS. 

St.  Agathonia  (1),  March  :*o,  M. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Agathonia  (2),  April  1:5,  M. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Agathonica  (1),  April  i:'>,  M. 
251.  Sister  of  the  deacon  Papylus, 
martyred  under  Decius ;  after  many  tor 
tures  he  was  burnt  with  Carpus,  bishop 
of  Thyatira,  and  many  others.  Aga 
thonica,  seeing  her  brother  in  the  fire, 
threw  herself  into  the  flames  and  died 
with  him.  Their  Acts  are  quoted  by 
Eusebius.  R.M.  Men.  Basil,  Oct.  13. 
Baillet.  Guenebault,  Die.  Icon ,  says 
sister  of  Bishop  Agathodorus ;  M.  with 
him  and  their  servant  in  the  3rd  century. 

St.  Agathonica  (2),  Aug.  in,  M.  at 
Carthage,  with  BASSA  and  PAULA.  R.M. 

St.  Agatia.  ST.  AGATHA  is  so  called 
in  the  Ruthenian  Calendar. 

St.  Agatodia,  Sept.  17.  In  the  Bio- 
cjrafia  Celesicisticci,  Agatodia  appears  to 
be  a  clerical  error  for  AGATHOCLIA. 

St.  Agetrue  or  AGERTRUDIS,  GER 
TRUDE  of  Nivelle. 

St.  Agia  (1),  Sept.  1  (AGA,  AIE, 
AroiA,  AUSTREGILD).  c.  609.  Mother  of 
St.  Lupus,  bishop  of  Sens.  Wife  of 
Betto,  a  lord  of  the  court ;  and  sister  of 
two  holy  bishops,  Austrenus  of  Orleans 
and  Aunarius  of  Auxerre.  There  are 
about  10  saints  called  Lupus,  or  Leu,  or 
Loup.  This  one  was  born  at  Orleans. 
He  was  banished  from  his  see  by  king 
Clothaire,  through  the  covetousness  of 
a  minister  to  whom  ho  would  not  give 
bribes,  and  of  an  abbot  who  wanted  to 
take  his  bishopric.  The  king  afterwards 
recalled  St.  Lupus,  kneeled  at  his  feet  to 
ask  his  forgiveness,  and  treated  him  with 
the  greatest  honour.  Lupus  died  at 
Sens  in  G23.  AA.SS.  Bailiet.  Butler. 

St.  Agia  (2),  AYA. 

St.  Aglae  (1),  May  14  or  8.  Peni 
tent,  c.  317.  A  woman  of  great  wealth, 
so  fond  of  the  luxuries  and  the  pomps 
and  vanities  of  the  world  as  to  give 
public  games  to  the  people  at  her  own 
expense.  She  lived  at  Komc  apparently 
about  the  beginning  of  the  4th  cen 
tury,  but  she  is  supposed  to  have  been  a 


foreigner.  She  led  a  sinful  life  with 
Boniface  the  manager  of  her  aftairs,  a 
drunken  and  dissipated  man,  who,  though 
stained  with  many  vices,  had  three  good 
qualities — pity  for  the  unfortunate,  liber 
ality  to  the  poor,  and  hospitality  towards 
strangers.  After  many  years  it  pleased 
God  to  touch  the  heart  of  Aglae  with 
compunction,  and  she  said  to  Boniface, 
"  We  arc  living  in  sinful  pleasure  with 
out  reflecting  that  we  shall  have  at  last 
to  give  an  account  to  God  of  all  that  we 
do  in  this  life  ;  I  have  heard  some  of  the 
Christians  say  that  those  who  honour 
Saints  and  Martyrs  who  fight  for  Jesus 
Christ  shall  be  made  partakers  of  their 
glory  in  the  other  life.  I  hear  that  a 
great  many  Christians  are  tortured  and 
put  to  death  now  in  the  East  for  Christ's 
sake.  Go  there,  and  bring  back  some 
relics  of  these  holy  martyrs,  that  we  may 
build  oratories  to  them  here  and  honour 
their  memory  that  so  we  may  escape  the 
punishment  of  our  vices  and  be  saved 
with  them."  This  was  probably  in  307 
or  300,  under  Galerius  Maximiauus,  who 
continued,  in  the  East,  to  persecute  the 
Church  which  had  already  had  peace  in 
the  West  since  the  abdication  of  Dio 
cletian,  305.  Boniface  obeyed  her,  and 
as  he  took  leave  of  hei',  he  said  he  would 
bring  back  the  bodies  of  some  martyrs 
if  he  could  find  any,  and  added,  *s  But 
what  if  my  body  should  be  brought  back 
to  you  as  that  of  a  martyr,  would  you 
honour  it  as  such  ?  "  Aglae  rebuked 
him  for  what  she  considered  an  untimely 
jest,  and  said  that  he  must  reform  his 
life,  and  consider  that  he  was  going  to 
seek  for  holy  relics.  Boniface  was  so 
impressed  by  the  earnestness  of  his 
mistress  that  he  fasted  from  wine  and 
meat  during  the  whole  of  his  journey, 
and  prayed  to  God  for  grace  to  repent 
and  reform.  He  arrived  in  due  time  at 
Tarsus  in  Cilicia.  Leaving  his  servants 
and  horses  at  the  inn,  he  went  at  once 
to  make  inquiries  about  the  Christians, 
and  see  what  was  going  on  with  regard 
to  them.  He  was  soon  satisfied  on  this 
point,  for  he  saw  2o  of  them  under 
going  different  forms  of  torture  in  the 
Forum;  one  of  them  was  hung  up  by 
the  feet  over  a  fire.  The  spectators, 
instead  of  beiiig  imbued  with  a  horror 


ST.    ACNKS 


25 


of  Christianity,  wcro  struck  with  admi 
ration  at  the  constancy  of  the  martyrs. 
Boniface,  having  found  what  ho  came  to 
seek,  boldly  embraced  these  men  con 
demned  as  malefactors  and  undergoing 
the  sentence  of  the  law,  and  openly  en 
treated  them  to  pray  for  him,  that  he 
might  have  a  share  in  their  merits.  He 
t'orted  them  by  saying  that  their 
sufferings  would  soon  be  over,  and  their 
recompense  would  bo  eternal.  The 
judge,  SimpliciuB,  governor  of  Cilicia, 
considered  the  conduct  of  Boniface  as  an 
insult  to  himself  and  his  gods,  and  had 
him  arrested  on  tho  spot.  Boniface, 
thinking  this  was  his  last  opportunity 
of  speaking,  prayed  to  Christ,  and  cried 
out  to  the  martyrs  to  pray  for  him, 
which  they  all  did  so  loudly  that  a 
tumult  arose  among  the  people,  which 
caused  the  judge  to  fear  for  his  safety ; 
he  therefore  sent  Boniface  to  prison  till 
the  disturbance  was  over.  Next  day, 
finding  him  firm  in  his  adherence  to  the 
Christians  and  their  God,  he  condemned 
him  to  be  beheaded  at  once.  Thus  was 
Boniface  rewarded  for  his  kindness  to 
the  martyrs  by  sharing  their  sufferings 
and  triumph.  Meantime,  his  servants 
began  to  be  uneasy  at  his  continued 
absence,  and,  knowing  his  habits,  they 
sought  him  in  wine-shops  and  taverns, 
expecting  to  find  him  drunk  in  bad 
company.  It  happened  that  one  of  the 
persons  of  whom  they  inquired  was  the 
gaoler's  brother.  When  they  described 
their  master  as  a  stout,  square-built, 
fair  man,  with  curly  hair,  and  wearing  a 
scarlet  mantle,  he  told  them  that  must 
be  the  man  who  had  just  been  beheaded 
on  account  of  his  profession  of  Chris 
tianity.  He  then  took  them  to  the  place 
of  execution,  where,  much  to  their  sur 
prise,  they  recognised  the  body  of  tin: 
martyr.  They  ransomed  it  for  500 
golden  pence,  embalmed  it,  and  brought 
it  buck  t<>  Homo.  Aglao  went  to  meet 
her  dead  friend  a  milo  out  of  Home, 
on  tho  Via  Latina,  where,  thanking 
God  for  His  mercy,  sho  built  a  tomb 
to  his  memory,  and,  some  years  after 
wards,  a  chapel.  According  to  Humans' 
Unman  JIiiiiHinrnln,  the  church  was  on 
the  Aveiitine,  near  the  house  of  Aquihi 
and  Priscilla.  The  dedication  of  St. 


Boniface  *vas  afterwards  changed  to  that 
of  the  young  pilgrim.  St.  Alexius.  Aglae 
renounced  the  world,  liberated  her  sluv-  g, 
LMVO  her  goods  to  tho  poor,  and  spent 
the  remaining  KJ  years  of  her  life 
in  devotion  and  penance,  accompanied 
only  by  two  or  three  women  who  had 
been  her  attendants,  and  who  remained 
Asith  her  after  her  conversion,  and 
adopted  her  altered  way  of  living.  She 
died  in  peace,  and  was  buried  beside 
St.  Boniface.  The  day  of  her  death  is 
supposed  to  bo  May  8,  but  she  is 
generally  honoured  with  St.  Boniface  on 
the  14th.  Her  day  in  the  Greek  Church 
is  Dec.  19. 

Baillet  gives  the  story  from  the  Acts 
of  St.  Boniface,  which  he  says  are  ancient 
and  founded  on  fact,  but  not  authentic. 
Henschenius,  in  a  note,  Feb.  25,  says  it 
is  possible  Aglae  lived  and  died,  not  at 
Home,  but  at  Tarsus  in  Cilicia. 

B,  Aglae  (2),  or  AGLAA,  Aug.  25, 
Dec.  19,  in  the  Greek  Calendar.  Nurse 
of  St.  Patricia  (4).  Nutrix,  perhaps, 
means  a  relation  or  governess  who 
brought  her  up.  (See  ST.  AMMIA.)  St. 
Aglay  built  a  church  and  convent  at  tho 
tomb  of  St.  Patricia,  at  Naples ;  there 
many  holy  women  took  tho  veil,  and 
many  miraculous  cures  were  wrought. 
AA.SS.  in  tho  Life  of  St.  Patricia. 

St.  Agliberte,  or  AILBEBT,  Aug.  11. 
Second  abbess  of  Jouarre. 

St.  Agna  fl),  May  18  (/EGINA, 
EGEXA  ),  M.  at  Constantinople.  AA.SS. 

St.  Agna  ( 2 ),  July  5,  in  tho  Graco- 
Slavonic  Calendar,  is  supposed  to  mean 
AN\A  or  AGNES. 

St.  Agne,  Jan.  10.  A  mother,  and 
perhaps  a  martyr.  Her  name  is  in  a 
table  of  48  Russian  saints,  given  in 
the  introduction  to  vol.  i.  of  Bollandi 
A<-t<t  SS.  Maii.  Her  name  is  one  of 
2<>,  marked  with  an  asterisk  to  denote 
that  it  is  not  known  whether  they 
wcro  Russian,  or  only  adopted  into  the 
calendar  by  tho  Russians.  She  may  bo 
ST.  AGNES,  V.  M.,  Latin  Church,  Jan.  21, 
(iivek  Church,  July  5;  or  she  may  bo 
a  native  saint.  She  may  bo  actually  a 
mother,  or  only  so  called,  in  accordance 
with  tho  Russian  custom,  as  a  mark  of 
ivspect  and  atVection. 

St.  Agnes  <  1 ),  July  5,  of  Reggio,  in 


26 


ST.   AGNES 


Calabria.  1st,  2nd,  or  3rd  century. 
Three  women,  Agnes,  PEKPETUA,  and 
FELICITAS  are  commemorated  as  fellow- 
martyrs  with  the  bishops,  Stephen  and 
Suera,  who  wcro  put  to  death  for  their 
religion  at  Rhcgium,  in  Calabria,  now 
( according  to  Graesse)  Sta.  Agata  delle 
Galline.  Janning,  the  Bollandist,  gives 
their  story,  but  does  not  seem  to  think 
it  authentic.  AA.SS. 

St.  Agnes  (2),  Jan.  21,  28,  July  5 
( Spanish,  INEZ  or  YNEZ  ;  in  some  Greek 
calendars,  HAGNE),  V.  M.  302,  303,  or 
304.  One  of  the  four  great  patronesses 
of  the  Western  Church.  Joint  patron 
with  the  VIRGIN  MARY  and  ST.  THECLA, 
of  innocence  and  purity ;  special  patron 
of  meekness.  In  art,  her  attribute  is  a 
lamb,  the  emblem  of  meekness,  and 
typical  of  her  Divine  Master.  She  is 
sometimes  represented  attended  by  angels, 
who  cover  her  with  her  own  hair ;  some 
times  standing  in  or  near  flames  ;  in 
common  with  all  martyrs,  she  holds  a 
palm ;  and  often,  in  common  with  many, 
a  sword ;  sometimes  she  wears  a  crown. 

The  son  of  Sempronius,  prefect  of 
Rome,  observed  a  girl  of  12  or  13 
passing  daily  on  her  way  to  and 
from  school,  and  was  struck  with  her 
beauty  and  innocent  childlike  appear 
ance.  Having  ascertained  her  name  and 
parentage,  he  tried  to  win  her  favour  and 
that  of  her  family  by  gifts  and  other 
attentions,  all  of  which  were  declined. 
The  young  man  fell  ill,  and  in  time  con 
fessed  to  his  anxious  father  that  he  was 
dying  for  love  of  a  little  Christian  maiden 
who  would  have  nothing  to  say  to  him. 
The  prefect  did  not  doubt  that  Agnes' 
parents,  though  rich,  would  be  glad  to 
secure  for  her  so  advantageous  &  parti  as 
his  son.  Ho  endeavoured  to  arrange  the 
matter,  but  with  no  better  success.  He 
found,  moreover,  that  the  young  lady 
was  vowed,  from  childhood,  to  a  single 
life,  in  honour  and  for  love  of  her  Lord, 
Jesus  Christ,  the  God  of  the  Christians. 
He  therefore  ordered  that  she  should 
either  renounce  her  resolution  and  marry 
his  son,  or  join  the  sacred  virgins  who 
served  the  goddess  Vesta.  Agnes  replied 
that  she  would  never  serve  or  acknow 
ledge  any  god  or  goddess  but  Jesus 
( 'hrist.  Diocletian  had  already  published 


his  famous  edict  for  the  suppression  of 
Christianity,  which  led  to  the  tenth,  the 
last  and  greatest,  general  persecution  of 
the  Church.  Sempronius  took  advantage 
of  the  law  to  gain  his  own  ends  or  satisfy 
his  vengeance.  Agnes — like  many  others 
whom  the  Church  honours  as  martyrs, 
many  more  whose  names  are  known  only 
to  God,  some  who  were  miraculously 
protected  from  insult,  and  some,  as  inno 
cent  in  heart  and  will,  whom  God  suffered 
to  pass  through  the  lowest  depths  of 
infamy — was  condemned  to  degradation. 
She  was  deprived  of  her  garments,  but 
was  clothed  with  a  miraculous  light,  so 
that  every  one  who  attempted  to  look  at 
her  was  struck  blind.  Her  hair  fell  all 
round  her  like  a  veil.  In  the  place  of 
infamy  to  which  she  was  taken  she  prayed 
for  Divine  protection,  and  was  provided 
with  a  white  robe  which  seemed  to  be 
brought  to  her  from  heaven.  Her  good- 
for-nothing  lover,  bent  on  continuing 
his  suit,  approached  her  with  words  of 
insult  and  with  wicked  intent,  but  fell 
down  dead,  and  was  only  restored  when 
the  young  martyr,  at  the  entreaty  of  his 
parents,  prayed  for  his  return  to  life. 
She  was  then  accused  of  sorcery  and 
condemned  to  be  burnt.  A  prayer  iu 
a  service-book  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church  speaks  of  "  the  Blessed  Agnes 
standing  in  the  middle  of  the  flames 
like  a  ship  in  the  midst  of  the  sea, 
praying  and  stretching  out  her  hands 
to  God."  As  she  remained  unhurt  amid 
the  flames  till  they  went  out,  she  was 
beheaded. 

Such  is  the  legend  of  the  Western 
Church  ;  that  of  the  East  says  that,  as 
by  her  instructions  she  converted  a 
great  many  wicked  women,  she  was  put 
to  torture,  and  then  condemned  to 
the  station  held  by  her  disciples  before 
their  conversion.  She  was  miraculously 
defended  from  evil,  and  finally  burnt  as 
a  sorceress. 

She  was  the  first  martyr  of  any 
celebrity  in  the  West,  as  St.  George  was 
the  first  in  the  East,  in  this  great  tenth 
persecution.  Her  name  is  in  the  Canon 
of  the  Mass.  She  ranks  next  to  the 
VIUGI.V  MAIIY  among  women  honoured 
as  saints,  and  is  the  chief  of  virgin 
martyrs  in  the  Latin  Church.  She  is 


ST.   AGXES 


one  of  tho  few  saints  distinguished  in 
the  offices  of  tho  ancient  Church  by  the 
title  "  Virgin,"  which  was  then  reserved 
almost  exclusively  for  tho  Blessed  Virgin 
Mary,  though  in  later  times  it  was  be 
stowed  on  every  nun  or  young  girl  with 
any  claim  to  sanctity,  and  sometimes  even 
on  matrons  who  became  nuns  late  in  life. 
St.  Augustine  says  that  tho  name 
"Agnes"  means  "chastity"  in  Greek, 
and  "  a  lamb  "  in  Latin  ;  it  is  not  certain 
whether  she  bore  this  name  in  her  life, 
or  whether  it  was  given  to  her  after 
wards.  Her  Acts  are  not  older  than  the 
7th  century ;  but  she  was  honoured 
throughout  tho  ( 'hristian  world  in  tho 
same  century  in  which  her  martyrdom 
occurred.  She  is  mentioned  by  St. 
Jerome,  who  says  that  in  his  time  her 
praisi-  was  heard  in  all  languages;  by 
St.  Augustine,  St.  Ambrose,  and  other 
writers  of  the  4th  and  the  beginning  of 
the  5th  centuries.  Numbers  of  Christians 
used  to  resort  to  her  grave  to  pray, 
especially  on  the  anniversary  of  her 
martyrdom.  ST.  EMERENTIANA,  who  is 
supposed  to  have  been  her  foster-sister, 
was  stoned  to  death  while  praying  at 
the  tomb  of  Agnes,  which  was  near  tho 
Via  Xomentana.  The  Christians  were 
sometimes  joined  by  heathens,  from 
motives  of  curiosity,  veneration,  or  super 
stition  ;  among  them  ST.  CONSTANTLY, 
daughter  of  tho  Emperor  Constantino, 
pri  vioiis  to  her  conversion,  commended 
herself  to  the  mercy  of  St.  Agnes,  for 
tho  cure  of  a  distressing  and  disfiguring 
disease.  As  she  immediately  recovered, 
she  became  a  Christian,  and  persuaded 
her  father  to  build  a  church  over  tho 
grave  of  the  martyr.  There  she  and 
several  other  women  devoted  themselves 
to  a  religious  life.  This  church  was  re 
paired  by  Pope  Honorius  in  tho  7th 
century,  and  gives  titlo  to  a  cardinal. 
In  it  yearly,  on  her  festival,  two  lambs 
an-  blessed  at  high  Mass  ;  they  are  then 
taken  to  the  Tope  to  bo  blessed  again, 
afterwards  they  are  consigned  to  certain 
nuns  who  make  pallimns  of  their  wool  ; 
these  are  blessed  by  tho  Pope,  who  pn- 
ts  them  to  archbishops.  Another 
chun-h  was  biiilt  by  Innocent  IX. 
iio  site  of  her  death,  and  dedicated 
t<>  (Jod  in  her  nam> •.  HIT  martyrdom 


is  commemorated  on  Jan.  21,  and  her 
appearance  in  glory  to  her  relations  and 
fellow-Christians  on  the  28th.  Inno 
cent  III.  made  St.  Agnes  the  first  patron 
of  tho  new  Order  of  the  Most  Holy 
Trinity  for  the  Redemption  of  Captives. 
ST.  ELISABETH  of  Schouau,  12th  century, 
known  by  her  visions  and  revelations, 
asserted  that  St.  Agnes  was  little  and 
plump,  and  had  red  cheeks  and  curly 
hair.  It.M.  \Eol\tmduB,  A  A. SS.  Butler. 
Baillet.  Flos  Sanctorum.  Golden  Legend. 
Leyendario  delle  Santissime  VeryinL 
Nenology  of  the  Emperor  Basil.  Cahicr. 
Husenbeth.  Mrs.  Jameson. 

St.  Agnes  (3),  Oct.  18,  V.  M.  with 
Victor  or  VICTORIA,  and  BASSA,  at  Ostia 
or  Xicomcdia.  Supposed  to  be  a  njistako 
for  the  great  ST.  AGNES,  V.  M.  at  Rome. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Agnes  (4),  Aug.  28,  V.  M.  383. 
A  native  of  Britain,  of  royal  or  noblo 
birth.  One  of  the  companions  of  ST. 
URSULA,  and  martyred  with  her  at 
Cologne.  Tho  French  Martyroloijy  says 
she  was  martyred  in  England,  whence 
her  relics  were  translated  to  Cologne. 
Both  accounts  are  probably  fabulous,, 
the  story  of  St.  Ursula  being  enveloped 
in  mystery  and  improbability,  and  the 
story  of  tho  1 1 ,000  martyred  virgins 
offering  a  field  for  unlimited  specula 
tion  and  romance.  Tho  only  authority 
on  which  the  history  of  St.  Agnes  of 
Britain  rests  is  that  of  the  man  to  whom 
she  appeared  and  revealed  it.  Watson, 
English  Martyrology* 

St.  Agnes  <  .*> ).  There  is  a  dedica 
tion  in  Cornwall  always  written  St.  Agues 
:u nl  always  pronounced  St.  Anne.  Per 
haps  to  this  saint  belongs  tho  legend  in 
Dr.  Cobham  Brewer's  Header's  Handbook. 
There  are,  in  the  rocks  on  tho  coast, 
holes  communicating  with  tho  sea.  A 
sort  of  ogre,  or  evil  spirit,  spoken  of  in 
that  region  as  a  "  Wrath,"  was  in  love 
with  St.  Agnes.  She  said  if  ho  could 
fill  a  certain  one  of  thcso  holes  with  his 
blood,  she  might  regard  him  with  favour. 
He  began  at  once  to  bleed  himself,  and 
tho  saint  encouraged  him  until  he  w:is 
dying  of  exhaustion,  and  then  pushed 
him  over  tho  cliff. 

St.  Agnes  (0),  May  13.  V.  7th  cen 
tury.  Abbess  at  Poitiers.  Patron  of 


28 


B.   AGNES 


the  Trinitarians,  and  against  perils  at 
sea.  Brought  up  by  ST.  RADEGUND, 
queen  of  France,  who  founded  the  abbey 
of  Ste.  Croix,  at  Poitiers,  and  gave  it 
the  rule  of  ST.  CESARIA  ;  she  appointed 
Agnes  first  abbess  of  her  convent,  and 
went  with  her  to  Aries  to  be  instructed 
in  the  rule.  Radegund  died  a  nun  in 
the  same  convent  in  687,  leaving  to  it  a 
large  endowment  by  a  will,  in  which 
Agnes  is  mentioned.  The  existence  of 
these  two  saints  within  their  "  narrowing 
nunnery  walls"  was  enlivened  by  the 
friendship  and  sympathy  of  a  poet  whose 
works  have  come  down  to  us.  Venantius 
Fortunatus,  the  last  Latin  poet  of  Gaul, 
was  for  many  years  an  inmate  of  the 
monastery  of  Ste.  Croix.  After  visiting 
the  kings  and  bishops  of  F"rance,  he 
came  to  pay  his  respects  to  the  widowed 
queen  Radegund,  stepmother  of  the 
kings,  and  was  so  charmed  with  the 
amiable  and  intellectual  society  and 
the  superior  cultivation  of  the  sisterhood, 
that  he  stayed  there  as  chaplain  and 
almoner  till  the  death  of  St.  Radegund. 
The  queen  often  sent  him  on  important 
missions  to  various  personages,  and  thus 
the  community  were  kept  informed  and 
interested  concerning  what  was  going  on 
in  other  places.  He  managed  the  ex 
ternal  business  of  the  nuns,  and  took 
part  in  their  occupations.  They  read 
and  transcribed  books,  they  acted  plays, 
they  received  visitors,  they  had  little 
feasts  on  birthdays.  Fortunatus  made 
himself  agreeable  to  them  as  he  had 
done  to  saintly  bishops  and  half-civilized 
kings ;  and  he  found  their  house  an 
oasis  of  peace  and  refinement  in  a  desert 
of  barbarism.  His  writings  describe 
the  convent  life  and  the  food,  in  which 
he  seems  to  have  been  a  connoisseur. 
He  takes  Christ  to  witness  that  his 
affection  for  Agnes  was  that  of  a  brother. 
Among  his  poems  are  two  hymns  adopted 
by  the  Church  —  Panqv,  lingua  and 
Vexilla  Regis.  He  wrote  a  Life  of  St. 
ll'tilnjmul,  which,  as  well  as  another  by 
one  of  her  nuns,  is  preserved  by  the 
Bollandists.  He  was  born  in  Italy 
about  53o,  and  died  bishop  of  Poitiers 
early  in  the  7th  century.  SS.  Radegund 
and  Agnes  had  a  great  deal  of  trouble 
with  two  very  naughty  princesses, 


Chrodielde  and  Basiue  (xee  AUDOVERA), 
who  were  placed  under  their  care,  and 
who,  after  the  death  of  these  first  rulers 
of  Ste.  Croix,  rebelled  against  Ludovcra, 
the  next  abbess,  one  of  them  demand 
ing  that  office  as  a  king's  daughter, 
though  utterly  unqualified  for  the  post. 
A  great  scandal  ensued  ;  bishops  and 
kings  had  to  interfere  before  the  re 
fractory  ladies  were  removed,  to  the 
great  relief  of  Ludovera  and  the  good 
nuns.  AA.SS.  Boll.,  Aug.  13.  St.  Rade 
gund  is  in  all  the  collections,  and  St. 
Agnes  is  always  mentioned  in  her  story. 
Nouvelle  Biographic  Univerxelle,  "  For- 
natus."  Diet,  of  Christian  B'KHJ.,  "  Rha- 
degundis  "  and  "  Fortunatus."  Thierry, 
Becits  Merovingiens. 

B.  Agnes  (7),  Dec.  23.  Called 
AGNES  AUGUSTA  and  AGNES  of  Aquitaiue 
or  of  Poitiers,  j-  1077.  O.S.B.  Daugh 
ter  of  William,  duke  of  Aquitaiue. 
Second  wife  of  Henry  III.  (the  Black), 
king  of  Germany,  Emperor.  Mother  of 
Henry  IV.  Grandmother  of  B.  AGNES, 
marchioness  of  Austria.  The  dukes  of 
Aquitaine  were  the  most  powerful  vas 
sals  of  the  crown  of  France,  and  very 
rich.  An  alliance  with  them  was  as 
advantageous  as  one  with  the  house  of 
Capet ;  and  there  was  more  refinement 
and  culture  at  their  court  than  at  that 
of  the  king.  Agnes's  father  was  dis 
tinguished  among  the  princes  of  his 
time,  no  less  by  his  virtues  and  intel 
lectual  tastes  and  accomplishments,  than 
for  his  territorial  wealth  and  other  ad 
vantages.  He  had  been  dead  some  years 
when,  in  1043,  Agues  married  Henry, 
king  of  Germany.  When  first  the  pro 
ject  of  Henry's  marriage  was  known  in 
Germany,  many  good  people  objected, 
fearing  that  a  queen  from  France,  and 
from  a  court  where  modern  fashions 
prevailed,  would  be  less  circumspect  and 
dignified  than  the  first  lady  in  Germany 
ought  to  be  ;  and  would  introduce  ex 
travagant  and  unseemly  customs  and 
modes  of  dress ;  but  this  fear  soon 
proved  groundless :  nothing  could  bo 
more  modest,  amiable,  sincerely  con 
scientious,  and  religious,  than  the  cha 
racter  and  behaviour  of  the  young  queen. 
She  was  crowned  at  Maintz,  and  her 
first  home  in  Germany  was  Ingelheim. 


B.   AGXES 


20 


On  Christmas  Day,  10-tn,  Henry  and 
Agnes  were  crowned  Emperor  and  Em 
press,  by  Clement  II.,  in  St.  Peter's 
Church  at  Home. 

Both  as  a  man  and  as  a  king  Henry 
III.  was  of  "  the  salt  of  the  earth."  Ho 
ruled  with  a  strong  hand,  and  under  his 
e way  the  empire  attained  its  highest 
greatness.  In  1048,  Leo  IX.  became 
Pope,  and  in  him  Henry  found  a  hearty 
fellow-worker  in  the  iield  of  reform. 
Had  Leo  and  Henry  lived  for  ever,  or 
had  they  even  reigned  .'><»  years,  what 
might  not  such  a  Pope  and  such  an  Em 
peror  have  effected !  They  did  accomplish 
and  reform  a  great  deal  in  the  nearly 
live  years  of  their  contemporary  reigns. 

One  of  the  dangers  to  the  peace  of 
Europe  was  the  power  of  the  Countess 
I'x  atrico  of  Tuscany,  whoso  second  hus 
band,  the  duke  of  Lorraine,  was  a  some 
what  troublesome  vassal  of  the  empire, 
was  partly  to  set  a  balance  to  tho 
»wcr  of  Beatrice,  that  Henry  sought  a 
;w  alliance  with  another  powerful 
)man,  B.  ADELAIDE  of  Susa.  She  was 
y  connected  with  the  imperial 
use  by  her  first  marriage,  and  in  1055 
enry  betrothed  his  son  Henry,  aged 
e,  to  Bertha,  her  daughter  by  her  third 
sband,  Odo,  margravo  of  Turin  and 
unt  of  Savoy.  The  next  year,  Victor 
..,  another  reforming  Pope,  came  to  pay 
a  visit  to  tho  Emperor  at  Goslar,  and 
went  with  him  to  Bodfeld,  his  hunting- 
castle  in  tho  Hartz.  There,  to  the  grief 
of  the  world,  Henry,  not  yet  in  his  4<»th 
year,  left  all  his  good  deeds  and  great 
projects  unfulfilled  and  unfinished :  he 
diid  Get.  .">,  ln;,t;,  and  was  buried  at 
Speier.  beside  his  father  and  mother. 
J'"pe  Victor  took  the  child  Henry  im 
mediately  to  Aachen  f  Aix-la-Chapelle), 
and  crowned  him.  Agnes  was  regent. 
Probably  no  woman  could  have  taken 
linn  hold  of  the  reins  laid  down  by 
II'  :iry  III.  The  widow<  d  empress  was 
quite  unlit  for  the  task;  she  had  neither 
the  energy  nor  the  ability  to  rule  a  great 
empire  consisting  of  separate  states  and 
powerful  vassals,  always  rivals  to  each 
other  and  sometimes  to  tho  supreme 
power.  She  had  not  the  discernment  to 
choose  her  friends  and  ministers  wisely; 
she  listened  now  to  one  adviser  and  now 


to  another.  She  had  no  ambition  for 
herself,  and  only  longed  to  escape  from 
the  cares  and  pomps  of  tho  world  and 
retire  to  a  monastery.  She  tried  to 
bring  up  her  son  properly,  but  it  was 
the  interest  of  some  unprincipled  per 
sons  to  deprave  his  tastes  and  frustrate 
her  good  intentions  towards  him,  as  well 
as  to  stultify  her  efforts  for  the  govern 
ment  of  the  country.  Anno,  archbishop 
of  Cologne,  was  one  of  the  most  power 
ful  and  unscrupulous  of  the  many 
troublesome  magnates  who  strove  for 
the  chief  power  in  the  empire  ;  he  deter 
mined  to  further  his  own  importance  and 
influence  by  obtaining  the  custody  of 
the  young  king.  He  went  to  pay  his 
respects  to  the  empress  and  her  son 
at  a  place  now  called  Kaiserswertli 
on  the  Pthiue,  where  they  were  staying 
with  a  small  retinue.  He  was  hospit 
ably  welcomed  and  entertained,  and 
spared  no  effort  to  make  himself  agree 
able  to  tho  young  king;  he  told  him 
ho  had  come  down  the  river  in  his  new 
barge,  which  was  beautifully  fitted  up 
for  a  pleasure  trip,  and  suggested  that 
Henry  should  come  and  see  it  where  it 
lay  below  the  palace.  The  boy  gladly 
went.  He  was  no  sooner  on  board  than 
the  rowers,  who  had  been  well  instructed 
in  the  plot,  struck  tho  water  with  their 
oars  and  pulled  with  all  their  strength 
and  speed  up  tho  stream.  Henry  was 
dismayed  and  angry.  He  threw  himself 
into  tho  river,  but  one  of  tho  bishop's 
men  jumped  into  the  water  and  rescued 
him  at  the  risk  of  his  own  life.  Tho 
people  on  shore  were  very  indignant 
at  Anno's  treachery.  Tho  empress 
wept  and  wrung  her  hands,  but  did  not 
know  what  to  do,  and  after  a  time  ac 
quiesced  in  tho  state  of  things.  Anno 
shamefully  neglected  the  education  of 
tho  boy,  furnished  him  with  frivolous 
and  debasing  amusements,  allowed  his 
abilities  to  run  to  waste,  and  suffered 
him  to  acquire  habits  of  self-indulgence,, 
and  to  give  way  to  bursts  of  fury.  In 
1065,  when  Henry  was  l.~>,  the  ceremony 
of  girding  him  with  a  sword  was  held 
at  Worms.  That  sword  he  would  have 
used  for  the  first  time  to  kill  his  detested 
guardian,  had  not  his  mother  restrained 
him.  Some  other  incidents  of  his  life 


30 


B.   AGNES 


are  told  in  the  account  of  his  mother-in- 
law,  B.  ADELAIDE  of  Susa. 

It  was  probably  between  the  years 
1065  and  106i>  that  Agnes  left  Germany, 
and  took  the  veil  without  vows  at  Fru- 
<lollc  or  Fructuaria,  a  Benedictine  mon 
astery  near  Turin.  From  there  she 
went  to  Rome,  and  lived  at  the  church 
of  ST.  PETKONILLA.  She  made  a  general 
confession  to  St.  Peter  Damiani,  and 
had  him  thenceforth  for  her  spiritual 
adviser.  She  had  n  great  regard  for 
Pope  Gregory  VII.,  an  esteem  which  he 
reciprocated,  but,  much  to  her  grief,  her 
son  was  constantly  in  opposition  to  him. 
In  1074  the  Pope  had  a  plan  to  go  in 
person  and  bring  the  Eastern  Church 
into  his  own  fold.  He  proposed  that 
the  Empress  Agnes  and  the  Countess 
Matilda  should  accompany  him,  as  pil 
grims,  on  this  pious  expedition,  saying 
he  would  gladly  lay  down  his  life  for 
Christ  with  these  holy  women  by  his 
side,  assured  of  meeting  them  again  in 
eternal  bliss.  Agnes  made  many  at 
tempts  to  effect  a  reconciliation  between 
her  son  and  the  Pope,  but  all  her  efforts 
were  futile,  and  she  was  present  at  a 
council  in  the  Lateran  at  Rome,  Feb. 
21,  1070,  in  which  Gregory  pronounced 
the  ban  of  the  Church  against  Henry, 
and  loosed  his  subjects  from  their  alle 
giance  to  him.  This  led  to  his  humili 
ating  expedition  to  Canossa  in  January, 
1077.  (See  ADELAIDE  of  Susa.)  Towards 
the  end  of  that  year  Agnes  died  at 
Rome.  An  old  Italian  sermon  says  that 
St.  Agnes  Augusta  never  visited  any 
church  except  in  a  dress  of  plain  linen 
and  common  serge.  Stephens,  Hilde- 
brand.  Giesebrecht,  Dcutscldunds  K«i- 
serzcii.  Wion,  Lignum  Vitce,  who  calls 
her  "  Saint."  Lechner,  M<irf.  <l<'*  Ben. 
Or  den*. 

B.  Agnes  (8),  Feb.  11»,  V.  t  nOO. 
Abbess  of  Bagnarea  (Balnei),  in  Italy. 
Of  the  order  of  Camaldoli,  a  native  of 
Sarsina,  "  the  dignity  of  whose  merits," 
Bucelinus  says,  "  is  shown  to  us  by  God 
unto  this  day,  for  on  her  festival  the 
waters  of  the  baths  emit  an  unusual 
light  and  increase  wonderfully  in  quan 
tity."  She  rests  in  the  church  at  Castri 
Pereti  Parva,  where  she  has  an  altar. 
Bucelinus.  Wion. 


B.  Agnes  (9),  Nov.  1  ,">,  Marchioness 
of  Austria.  Founder  of  Klosterneuburg. 
Daughter  of  Henry  IV.,  emperor  of  Ger 
many.  Granddaughter  of  B.  AGNES,  em 
press.  Sister  of  Henry  V.  Married,  first, 
Frederic,  duke  of  Swabia,  by  whom  she 
was  the  mother  of  Conrad,  emperor,  and 
of  Frederick,  father  of  Frederick  Barba- 
rossa;  secondly,  in  HOC,  she  married 
Leopold  III.,  sixth  marquis  of  Austria, 
saint  and  confessor,  surnamed  the  Pious, 
who  succeeded  his  father  in  1006.  Of 
this  marriage  there  were  IS  children, 
seven  of  whom  died  in  infancy,  and 
all  the  rest  were  distinguished  by  great 
deeds  and  virtuous  lives.  Leopold, 
the  second  son,  succeeded  his  father  as 
marquis  of  Austria,  and  was  duke  of 
Bavaria.  Otho,  the  fifth  son,  abbot  of 
Morimond  and  bishop  of  Frisingen, 
wrote  a  famous  chronicle  from  the  begin 
ning  of  the  world,  besides  other  books. 

Agnes  took  part  in  all  her  husband's 
good  works.  They  read  the  Holy  Scrip 
tures  together,  and  used  to  rise  at 
midnight  to  perform  the  devotions  pre 
scribed  by  the  Church.  They  desired 
to  watch  continually  at  the  foot  of  the 
altar,  but  being  obliged  by  their  station 
to  attend  to  other  duties,  they  determined 
to  build  a  church  and  monastery  at 
'  Klosterneuburg,  a  few  miles  from  Vienna, 
where  canons  should  attend  day  and 
night  to  this  duty  in  their'stead.  While 
they  were  in  doubt  where  to  build  the 
monastery,  they  were  riding  along  on  a 
perfectly  still  day,  when  a  sudden  gust 
of  wind  flew  away  with  a  little  flame- 
coloured  veil  that  Agnes  was  wearing ; 
nine  years  afterwards  Leopold  found  it 
in  perfect  preservation  on  an  elder  bush. 
They  took  this  as  an  indication  of  the 
spot  on  which  their  monastery  should 
be  built.  (Perz.,  1.  616.)  They  also 
founded  the  Cistercian  monastery  of  the 
Holy  Cross  near  Kalnpcrg,  where  they 
lived,  1 2  miles  from  Vienna. 

After  a  glorious  and  happy  reign  of 
4<>  years,  Leopold  died  Nov.  15,  1  !•'!<>, 
and  was  buried  in  his  monastery  of 
Klosterneuburg.  This  is  the  oldest 
and  richest  chapter  (Chorlierreustift)  in 
Austria ;  it  owns  a  great  part  of  the 
country  around  Vienna.  Gynecseum. 
Butler,  Life  of  St.  Leopold. 


ST.   AGNES 


i  1 


B.  Agnes  d"),  March  ::i,  of  Braiuc, 
•f  114:.  or  114!'.  Wife  of  Andrew, 
count  of  Baudemont,  lord  of  IJraine,  and 
seneschal  of  Champagne.  They  were  so 
pious  and  charitable  that  their  house 
was  like  a  hospice.  Agnes  employed 
her  servants  to  servo  the  poor,  and,  when 
they  required  rest,  performed  the  work 
herself.  With  the  consent  of  her  husband 
and  children,  she  gave  estates  and  rents 
to  certain  churches  and  monasteries  of 
the  Premonstratensiaus.  She  took  the 
veil  in  that  order  in  11,'W.  Count 
Andrew  became  a  monk  of  the  Order  of 
Clairvaux,  and  is  mentioned  in  a  letter 
of  St.  I'.rrnard  (No.  22(3)  to  King  Louis 
VII.  of  Franco. 

It  is  a  disputed  point  whether  the 
monastery  of  St.  Evodo  (Euodius),  at 
1 '.mine,  was  founded  by  B.  Agnes  or 
by  her  granddaughter  Agnes,  who  was 
married  to  Kobert,  count  of  Dreux, 
brother  of  Louis  VII.  Guy,  son  of  the 
elder  and  father  of  the  younger  Agnes, 
became  a  lay-brother  there,  and  is 
counted  among  the  Beati  of  the  Pre- 
monstratensian  Order.  Le  Paige,  Bill. 
Prsem.  Ord.,  lib.  i.  340,  and  lib.  ii.  480. 
Boll.,  A  A.  SS.  She  is  called  "  Saint  " 
by  some  writers,  "Blessed"  by  others; 
but  by  Saussaye,  Mart.  Gall.,  and 
Gelenius,  only  "Venerable"  and 
"Pious." 

B.  Agnes  (11),  March  28.  Middle  of 
12th  century.  Of  Chatillon.  Called  by 
Bucelinus  Agnes  dc  Satillon,  and  by 
Guerin  Agnes  du  Catillon.  Cistercian 
nun  at  Beau  Pn',  near  Tournay  in  Bel 
gium,  where  she  was  sub-prioress,  and 
afterwards  mistress  of  the  novices.  Boll., 
.Ll.-S'.S'.  l[«Mirii|ucz,  Lilia  Cistcrcii. 
Bncelinus,  Nv,i.  Jlen. 

St.  Agnes  i  12  i,  Sept.  1.  Middle  of 
12th  century.  Of  Venosa,  or  Vonusia. 
Abbess.  Penitent. 

St.  William  of  Monte  Vergino  was  a 
monk  of  the  Order  of  St.  Benedict,  and 
founder  of  the  Hermits  of  Monte  Y<  r- 
gin<;,  and  of  several  houses  of  that  order. 
When  liogor,  the  young  Norman  king 
of  Sicily,  came  into  Apulia,  which  was 
part  of  his  dominions,  William  preached 
before  him  and  his  courtiers;  the  king 
i«  (1  attentively,  but  entertained  some 
doubts  of  the  sincerity  of  the  man  who 


set  up  a  higher  standard  of  virtue  than 
others;  but  Count  George,  the  king's 
admiral,  was  enchanted  with  William, 
and  regarded  him  as  a  holy  prophet. 
When  the  preacher  had  taken  leave  of 
the  king  and  his  friends,  and  returned 
to  his  lodging,  a  wicked  woman  uaniol 
Agnes  came  to  them,  and  said  she  would 
show  them  what  a  hypocrite  William 
was.  George  was  vexed,  but  the  king 
laughed,  and  promised  her  an  immense 
reward  if  she  could  seduce  William. 
She  wont  to  the  inn  where  he  was  stay 
ing,  and  talked  to  him,  and  then  came 
and  told  the  king  she  had  not  had  any 
difficulty  in  persuading  him  to  make  an 
assignation  for  the  same  night,  and  that 
he  had  even  made  her  promise  to  sleep 
in  the  very  bed  that  he  would,  in  the 
mean  time,  prepare  for  himself.  George 
boldly  said  ho  believed  the  woman  was 
telling  a  lie.  She  laughed  and  said  he 
should  soon  see  that  it  was  true.  Wagers 
were  made  on  both  sides,  and  it  was 
arranged  that  some  of  the  courtiers 
should  be  concealed  in  the  room  and 
should  hear  all  that  happened.  William 
got  his  companions  to  collect  quantities 
of  wood  and  make  a  huge  fire.  At  the 
appointed  hour  Agnes  arrived,  beauti 
fully  dressed  and  perfumed  ;  he  met  her 
at  the  door,  and  she  said,  "  Where  is  yoiu- 
room,  that  I  may  be  alono  with  you  ?  " 
Ho  answered,  "In  the  name  of  God,. I 
will  show  you  my  room  and  my  bed." 
Soon  the  woman,  fearing  she  was  making 
no  impression  upon  him,  and  knowing 
that  her  reward  depended  on  her  com 
plete  success,  said,  "  I  think  you  forget 
what  I  have  come  here  for."  It  was  a 
cold  night,  and  there  was  a  large  fire 
on  the  hearth.  William  raked  all  the 
burning  wood  out  of  the  fire-place  into 
tbr  middle  of  the  floor,  and  carefully 
arranged  it  so  as  to  form  a  broad  layer 
of  tire.  On  this  he  lay  down,  and 
beckoning  to  his  temptress,  he  said, 
11  <  'ome,  here  is  your  place,  you  engaged 
to  lie  down  beside  mo;  there  is  room 
for  you  :  hero  is  your  place."  She  was 
frightened,  so  ho  wont  on  to  say,  "You 
cannot  bo  afraid  of  a  little  lire !  This 
lire  will  soon  be  burnt  out,  but  you  are 
going  straight  to  where  the  fire  is  never 
quenched.  Perhaps  you  want  to  know 


32 


B.   AGNES 


what  burning  feels  like  :  como  here  and 
try  a  little  of  it."  While  his  burning 
clothes  and  flesh  proved  his  sincerity, 
he  went  on  talking  so  earnestly  and  so 
persuasively,  that  Agnes  was  first  ter 
rified  at  the  judgments  in  store  for  her  ; 
then,  horrified  at  her  evil  life,  she 
resolved  to  forsake  it.  She  went  and 
told  the  king  what  had  happened,  and 
that  she  wished  now  to  be  converted. 
Next  morning  the  repentant  courtiers 
confessed  to  him  that  they  had  been 
jealous  of  William's  influence,  and  had 
set  this  snare  for  him.  Soon  afterwards, 
when  William  came  again  to  preach  to 
the  court,  Eoger  and  George  ran  to 
meet  him,  and  knelt  at  his  feet.  William 
taught  Agnes  to  pray  for  true  penitence, 
and  when,  some  years  later  (1128),  he 
founded  his  great  double  monastery  at 
Guleto  (afterwards  called  St.  William's), 
near  Nuscum,  in  Apulia,  she  became  a 
nun  in  it.  She  sold  all  that  she  had,  and 
with  the  proceeds  he  built  a  nunnery  at 
Venosa,  and  here  Agnes  seems  to  have 
eventually  become  abbess.  When  Wil 
liam  felt  the  approach  of  death  he  gave 
his  parting  advice  and  blessing  to  the 
monks  of  Monte  Ycrgine,  and  then  to 
the  nuns,  and  died  in  the  house  of  the 
latter,  in  1142.  St.  Agnes  erected  a 
marble  tomb  over  him  in  her  church. 
The  story  is  told  by  Pinius  the  Bollan- 
dist,  in  the  Life  of  St.  William,  pp.  113, 
128, 131,  June  25.  AA.SS.  She  is  not 
there  called  a  saint,  but  is  so  called  in 
the  Analc-cta  Juris  Pontificii,  vol.  iii. 
p.  ,523.  Her  name  is  also  in  Ferrarius' 
Calendar,  Sept.  1. 

It  has  been  conjectured  that  she  is 
the  same  as  the  Benedictine  abbess  who 
died  at  Rome,  but  the  date  of  the  latter 
is  considerably  Later. 

B.  Agnes  (l  3),  Feb.  2 1 ,  V.  t ]  1 80- 
Cistercian  nun  at  Nuitz  (Nonessium), 
in  Germany.  Her  soul  was  seen  by  her 
twin  sister,  ST.  HILDEGUND,  carried  to 
heo-ven  by  angels  with  celestial  music. 
Henriquez,  Lilia  Cist.  Monstier,  Gyne- 
cseum.  Boll.,  AA.SS.  says  she  is  not 
worshipped. 

B.Agnes  (14),  June  14  or  15,  Y. 
Early  in  J  .'5th  century.  Cistercian  nun  at 
Ramey,  in  Brabant.  B.  IDA  OF  NIVKI.LI: 
saw  a  place  prepared  in  heaven  for 


Agnes  long  before  her  death.  Buce- 
linus.  Henriquez.  Monstier. 

B.  Agnes  (15),  Jan.  21,  April  5. 
i: 5th  century.  Of  Liege.  O.S.B.  Nun 
of  the  Cistercian  convent  of  Mont  Cor- 
nillon,  near  Liege,  under  her  younger 
sister,  B.  JULIANA.  Boll.,  AA.SS.  Hen 
riquez.  Bucelinus. 

B.  Agnes  (10),  Sept.  1.  t  1241. 
O.S.B.  Abbess.  Illustrious  for  miracles. 
Died  at  Rome,  and  was  buried  in  the 
church  of  ST.  AGNES  (2)  there.  This 
is  perhaps  the  same  as  ST.  AGNES  (12), 
abbess  of  Venosa ;  if  so,  there  is  a  mis 
take  of  a  century  in  the  date.  Pinius, 
the  Bollandist,  thinks  they  are  not  the 
same,  but  throws  no  light  on  this  one. 
AA.SS.  Wion,  Lignum  Vitsc. 

St.  Agnes  (17)  of  Assisi,  Nov.  10. 
•f  1253.  When  her  sister,  ST.  CLARA,  had 
been  placed,  by  St.  Francis,  in  the  Bene 
dictine  convent  of  St.  Angelo  de  Panso, 
near  Assisi,  Agnes,  then  about  14,  who 
was  the  object  of  her  strongest  human 
affection,  and  whose  company  in  her 
retreat  she  asked  of  God,  went  to  her 
and  said  she  would  stay  with  her,  and 
follow  her  example  and  advice.  Their 
relatives  were  very  angry,  and  twelve  of 
them  came  to  take  Agnes  away  by  force. 
She  appealed  to  her  sister  not  to  allow 
her  to  be  carried  off.  Clara  prayed  that 
this  violence  might  be  prevented,  and 
when  they  had  gone  a  little  way  down  the 
hill  on  which  the  convent  stood,  the  little 
Agnes  became  so  heavy  that  the  twelve 
persons  who  were  conducting  her  were 
unable  to  lift  her  across  a  narrow  brook,, 
although  they  called  some  labourers  to 
their  assistance.  Her  uncle  Monaldi, 
who  was  of  the  party,  was  so  enraged 
that  ho  drew  his  sword,  and  would  have 
stabbed  her,  but  his  hand  became  power 
less,  and  he  could  neither  strike  with 
the  weapon  nor  put  it  back  into  the 
scabbard.  Clara  now  appeared  amongst 
them,  and  was  allowed  to  take  her  sister 
back  to  the  convent:  this  was  in  1212. 
Very  soon  afterwards  they  both  removed 
thence  to  the  church  of  St.  Damian,  the 
third  of  those  repaired  by  St.  Francis. 
It  became  the  first  great  convent  of 
Franciscan  or  Clarissan  nuns.  The  fol 
lowing  year  they  had  several  disciples, 
of  whom  the  first  were  BB.  PACIFIC  A, 


ST.    ACiXKS 


33 


AM  ATA,  niece  of  CLARA,  CHRISTINA  (10), 
FRANCES   (3  >,    BBNVKNI  PA,   and    A< 

r,i:i;\Ai;i>i.  In  1221  St.  Francis  appointed 
Agnes  superior  of  the  new  community 
oi  Bionticelli,  at  Florence.  She  returned 
to  Assisi,  was  present  at  the  death  of 
St.  Clara  in  1253,  and  died  the  same 
year  at  the  age  of  55.  Mrs.  Oliphant, 
Fntiirig  of  Assisi.  Helyot,  Ordrcs  Mon- 
astiques,  vii.  25.  Cron.  Serafica,  ii. 
A.R.M.  Mart.  Seraph.  Ord.  and  Ord. 
'ccinorum.  Her  life  will  bo  given 
by  the  Bollandists  when  their  calendar 
comes  down  to  Nov.  1(1. 

B.  Agnes  (is)  Peranda,  Sept.  17, 
Feb.  2S.  t  !-sl-  Abbess  of  Barco- 
loua.  O.S.F.  Niece  of  ST.  CLARA,  sent 
by  her  to  establish  a  Franciscan  convent 
at  Barcelona.  Agnes  was  accompanied 
by  her  niece,  B.  CLAHA,  who  is  com 
memorated  with  her.  The  convent  was 
first  inhabited  about  1233;  and  Agnes 
presided  over  it  for  4<S  years.  Clara  did 
not  long  survive  her,  and  their  bodies 
were  solemnly  translated  by  the  bishop 
and  six  Benedictine  abbots,  Feb.  28. 
Monstier,  Gynecsenin,  does  not  say  how 
long  after  their  deaths  this  ceremony 
took  place,  but  mentions  that  Alfonso 
Colona  was  the  name  of  the  bishop.  Her 
life  is  in  the  Cronica  Scrapliicd,  vol.  ii. 
Boll.,  AA.SS.  Prxter.,  Sept.  1 7,  Feb.  28. 

B.  Agnes  (n»)  Bernardi,  March  3. 
Daughter  of  Opportulus  Bernardi.  A 
nun  who  spent  her  life  in  tho  convent 
at  Assisi,  being  placed  there  in  her 
childhood,  under  ST.  CLAHA  (2).  Gync- 

Ci'  n  in. 

B.  Agnes  (2o)  of  Bohemia,  June  7. 
Aunt  of  the  more  famous  sainted  prin 
cess  of  tho  same  name.  Daughter  of  Wen- 
zel  or  WladislauK  II.,  duke  of  Bohemia. 
Sister  of  Premysl  Ottokar  I.,  first  king 
of  Bohemia  (  1  L98-1230).  Sister  of  ST. 
ANGELA.  Abbess  of  St.  George's  at 
Prague,  which  she  restored.  Procured 
from  the  king,  her  brother,  some  privi 
leges  for  her  monastery.  Buried  near 
B.  MLADA,  in  tlu;  ehapel  of  St.  Anna,  in 
tho  monastery  of  St.  George.  She  was 
a  professed  sister  of  tho  Prcmonstru- 
teusiau  Order,  and  is  worshipped  as  a 
saint  at  Prague,  but  not  throughout  the 
Church.  Bueelinus,  Epitome  rcnun  l>  - 
kemicarum.  Chaiiowski, 


,  GcscJt  id  it  nm  P><>lnnen.  AA.SS. 
I '.oil.  Prae/c/-.,  Juno  7.  Wadding,  in  Lis 
A  a  nidcs. 

There  seems  to  be  an  Agnes  in  every 
generation  of  tho  royal  and  ducal  house 
of  Bohemia.  Many  of  them  were  holy 
nuns,  and  some  aro  occasionally  con 
founded  with  the  two  above  named,  to 
the  multiplication  of  saints  and  of 
miracles. 

St.  Agnes  (21)  of  Bohemia,  March  (5. 
1205-1 2S2.  Patron  of  Bohemia.  Prin 
cess.  Franciscan  nun.  Sometimes  re 
presented  with  a  basket  of  bread  beside 
her ;  sometimes  with  the  Saviour  taking 
a  crown  from  her  head  and  replacing  it 
with  a  better  one.  Daughter  of  Premysl 
Ottokar  L,  first  king  of  Bohemia  (1198- 
123n)f  by  bis  second  wife  Constance, 
sister  of  King  Andrew  of  Hungary. 
Agnes  was  sister  of  B.  ANNA,  duchess  of 
Breslau  and  half-sister  of  ST.  ABDELA. 
First  cousin  of  ST.  ELIZABETH  OP  HUN- 
OAKY.  Niece  of  the  other  holy  Princess 
AGNES  OF  BOHEMIA.  She  was  born  Jan. 
20,  1205,  in  the  Bysehrad  or  Wishegrad, 
at  Prague.  Before  her  birth  her  mother 
saw  in  a  dream  a  coarse,  ragged,  grey 
gown  under  her  gold- embroidered  robes 
of  state,  and  thought  her  dream  meant 
that  her  child  should  one  day  wear  such 
a  garment.  At  three  years  old  Agnes 
was  betrothed  to  Henry  Boleslaus,  eldest 
son  of  the  Duke  of  Silesia  and  the  holy 
duchess  ST.  HEDWIG;  she  was  sent  to 
his  country  to  be  brought  up  in  its 
language  and  manners.  At  the  death 
of  "her  tfiftnc(j\  when  she  was  only  six,  she 
was  taken  back  to  her  parents,  who 
entrusted  her  education  to  tho  nuns  of 
the  Premonstratcnsian  cloister  of  Doxan. 
After  the  lapse  of  a  few  years  she  was 
betrothed  to  Henry,  son  of  tho  Emperor 
Frederick  II. ;  but,  by  some  strange 
fatality,  tho  name  of  the  bride  was 
omitted  from  the  contract  of  betrothal, 
which  seemed  to  some  persons  unlucky, 
to  others  a  sign  that  a  still  higher 
alliance  was  tho  destiny  of  tho  young 
princess.  She  was  now  sent  to  Vienna 
to  learn  German  and  finish  her  educa 
tion  tit  tho  court  of  her  future  husband. 
Here  she  spent  more  time  in  works  of 
pi«-ty  and  charity  than  in  the  pomps  and 
gaieties  of  the  court,  fasting  strictly  on 


ST.   AGXKS 


bread  and  wine  during  the  whole  of 
Advent,  though  her  companions  took 
eggs  and  milk,  which  were  allowed  by 
the  clergy.  She  visited  and  relieved 
the  poor,  but  escaped  all  praise  of  men 
by  keeping  these  charitable  expeditions 
secret,  except  from  her  governess  and  a 
few  confidential  friends  and  companions. 
Meantime  her  marriage  was  put  off  again 
and  again,  on  one  "ground  or  another,  and 
finally  broken  off  for  political  reasons, 
so  she  returned  to  Bohemia,  and  Henry 
married  the  Austrian  duchess  Margaret. 

After  this  Agnes  was  sought  in  mar 
riage  by  two  great  kings :  one  was 
Frederick  II.,  the  widowed  father  of  her 
former  fiance ;  the  other  was  Henry  III. 
of  England.  The  Emperor's  ambassador 
dreamt  that  he  saw  Agues  standing  on 
clouds ;  that  she  had  on  a  small,  dim 
crown ;  and  that  this  was  taken  from 
her  head,  and  replaced  by  a  larger  and 
more  brilliant  one.  This  he  interpreted 
to  his  own  advantage,  supposing  that  his 
sovereign  would  be  preferred  to  the  king 
of  England. 

Premysl  Ottokar  died  1230,  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  son,  Agnes's  brother, 
Wenzel  III.  From  this  time  Agnes 
made  it  her  custom  to  go  out  every 
morning  before  daybreak,  disguised,  and 
accompanied  by  a  few  of  her  most  in 
timate  companions,  to  visit  several 
churches  and  honour  holy  relics,  though 
her  feet  were  bleeding  from  the  excessive 
cold.  After  this  she  used  to  come  home 
and  warm  herself,  and  attend  Mass  in 
the  nearest  church  in  her  robes  of  state, 
and  accompanied  by  her  court  ladies. 
Her  bed  was  covered  with  splendid  quilts, 
and  furnished  with  soft  pillows ;  but  it 
was  all  for  show, — she  slept  on  a  hard 
little  pallet. 

King  Wenzel  favoured  the  suit  of  the 
Knipuror.  Agnes,  seeing  that  she  would 
have  to  be  his  wife  if  she  did  not  make 
an  effort  for  her  liberty,  addressed  her 
self  to  Pope  Gregory  IX.,  praying  him 
to  save  her  from  the  yoke  of  marriage, 
as  she  had  betrothed  herself  to  Christ 
the  Lord.  The  holy  Father  took  the 
pious  princess  under  his  protection,  and 
wroto  to  the  king  of  Bohemia  on  the 
subject.  Wenzel  loved  his  sister  Agnes 
better  than  any  other  person  or  thing 


on  earth,  and  admired  and  trusted  her 
absolutely.  When  he  received  the  Pope's 
letter  sanctioning  Agnes's  vocation,  he 
was  vexed  that  she  had  written  without 
consulting  him,  and  had  asked  for  pro 
tection  from  any  one  else.  The  Emperor 
was  angry  at  first;  afterwards  he  said 
that  if  he  had  seen  an  earthly  king 
preferred  before  him,  he  would  have 
taken  stern  vengeance ;  but  as  Agues 
had  chosen  the  Lord  Christ  instead  of 
him,  he  would  resign  his  claim. 

It  was  about  1233,  when  she  was 
2S,  that  all  projects  of  marriage  were 
finally  given  up,  and  she  saw  herself 
free  to  follow  her  vocation.  St.  Francis 
of  Assisi  had  been  dead  about  seven 
years,  and  some  members  of  the  order 
had  already  come  to  Prague.  ST.  CLAUA, 
the  first  and  greatest  of  Franciscan  nuns, 
the  personal  friend  of  St.  Francis,  was 
still  living,  and  was  not  many  years 
older  than  Agnes.  Agnes  took  Clara  for 
her  pattern.  The  two  saintly  ladies 
exchanged  several  letters,  some  of  which 
are  preserved ;  and  in  1 234,  with  the 
approval  of  the  Pope,  St.  Clara  sent  five 
nuns  of  her  order  from  Italy  to  Prague, 
and  Agnes  joined  that  order,  with  seven 
young  Bohemian  ladies  .of  the  highest 
nobility. 

In  presence  of  Wenzel  III.,  the  queen, 
seven  bishops,  and  an  immense  number 
of  persons  of  every  rank  and  station,  her 
hair  was  cut  off,  and  she  exchanged  her 
jewelled  robes  for  the  rough  grey  habit 
of  the  poor  Clares.  After  her  example, 
numbers  of  women  of  the  most  ancient 
and  honourable  families  in  Bohemia, 
Moravia,  and  Silesia  began  to  leave  the 
world  and  build  cloisters,  in  which  to 
serve  God  and  take  care  of  their  souls. 
Before  her  profession,  the  Pope's  legate 
advised  her  to  keep  some  part  of  her 
own  property  for  any  emergency  that 
might  arise ;  but  she  decided  to  give 
one-third  to  the  Church,  one-third  to 
the  nuns,  and  one-third  to  the  poor. 

The  Pope  commanded  that  Agnes 
should  be  abbess  of  her  new  convent; 
but  she  had  so  small  an  opinion  of  her 
self,  that  she  placed  every  nun  above 
her,  felt  herself  unworthy  to  rule,  and 
performed  the  most  menial  offices  of  the 
house.  When  she  worked  in  the  kitchen, 


ST.   AGM.s 


she  made  little  delicacies,  and  sent  them 
to  the  sick  in  other  convents  ;  she  cleaned 
and  mended  the  clothes  of  the  lepers. 
Having  no  endowment,  and  living  on 
alms,  the  community  once  ran  short  of 
food,  and  were  threatened  with  starva 
tion  ;  but  a  basket  of  bread  and  fish 
suddenly  appeared  by  Agnes's  side,  and 
was  supposed  to  have  been  brought  by 
angels. 

St.  Clara  heard  with  great  joy  of 
Agnes's  progress  in  holiness,  and  wrote 
to  encourage  her.  She  sent  her  the 
Franciscan  rule,  drawn  up  by  Innocent 
IV.  (1 24:5-1  L\vr>,  and  some  little  pre 
sents,  such  as  her  own  drinking-cup, 
plate,  veil,  and  girdle,  which,  with  some 
of  her  letters,  are  still  shown  in  the 
convent  of  St.  Damian  at  Prague. 

In  1235  Pope  Gregory  IX.,  writing 
to  Beatrice,  queen  of  Castile,  exhorts  her 
to  walk  in  the  footsteps  of  the  blessed 
ELIZABETH  of  Hungary,  and  holds  np  for 
her  admiration  Agnes,  sister  of  the  king 
of  Bohemia.  Two  years  afterwards 
Gregory  ordered  that,  on  account  of  the 
rigorous  climate  of  Bohemia,  the  nnns 
should  not  be  subjected  to  the  extreme 
privations  practised  by  their  sisters  in 
Italy.  For  instance,  on  Sundays  and 
Thursdays  they  were  to  have  two  abun 
dant  meals,  of  which  eggs  and  milk  were 
to  form  part;  on  the  great  festivals,  i.e. 
Christmas.  Easter,  the  feasts  of  the 
BLESSED  VIIUJIN  MAIIY  and  the  Apostles, 
they  were  not  to  fast  at  all.  They  were 
to  wear  two  garments  and  to  use  fur 
mantles,  to  wear  shoes,  and  to  fill  their 
pillows  and  bed-sacks  with  hay  and 
..  In  11'}:;  Allies  procured  further 
mitigations  of  the  asceticism  of  the  rule, 
on  account  of  its  uusuitability  to  the 
re  climate  of  her  country.  She  did 
not  spare  herself,  but  she  saw  that  it 
was  impossible  the  rule  should  continue 
to  exist  in  Bolicuii  i  without  some  modi 
fication. 

Won/el  wrote  and  thanked  the  1'ope 
for  his  kindness  to  his  sister.  This 
letter  was  read  at  uoral  Council 

of  Lyons,  ll_M:>,  :ind  is  to  be  se<  u  in  the 
Hcgcsttt  ll«hi  ni',-i  >f  .!/<-/•, ',-,',•',  ].;Lrs  i.  Op. 
Carol  Erbcn.,  1865.  \\Yn/.-l  had  tin- 
test  veneration  for  his  sister,  and  ho 
and  all  Bohemia  thanked  her  when  she 


effected  a  reconciliation  between  him 
and  his  son,  Premysl  Ottokar  II.,  who 
had  rebelled  against  him.  \Ven/el  died 
in  1253,'and  was  buried  in  the  church  of 
his  sister's  convent.  Agnes  lived  nearly 
thirty  years  longer:  she  died  in  Il's2, 
having  been  a  nun  for  forty-seven  years. 
Just  before  her  death,  when  she  had 
received  the  last  sacraments,  Katherine, 
one  of  her  nuns,  who  had  a  weakness 
in  her  feet,  and  had  not  been  able  to 
stand  for  ten  years,  entreated  her  com 
panions  to  bring  her  into  the  presence 
of  the  dying  abbess,  which  they  did, 
although  Katherino  was  suffering  great 
pain.  She  then  besought  Agues  to  cure 
her  infirmity.  Agnes,  in  her  humility, 
did  not  believe  that  she  had  the  grace  of 
miracles ;  but  Katherino  took  her  hand, 
and  with  it  made  the  sign  of  the  cross 
over  her  feet,  and  therewith  was  sud 
denly  healed.  Her  body  retained  the 
flexibility,  and  her  face  the  colour,  of 
life  ;  and  many  miracles  were  wrought, 
one  in  favour  of  her  sister-in-law,  Queen 
Judith,  so  that  many  sick  persons  com 
mended  themselves  to  the  prayers  of  the 
departed  saint,  and  wore  her  relics. 
Though  never  canonized,  she  has  always 
been  regarded  in  her  own  country  as  a 
saint,  and  as  one  of  the  patrons  of 
Bohemia.  She  is  considered  the  founder 
of  the  Franciscans  in  Bohemia,  as  well 
as  of  the  Clarissans.  She  founded, 
with  her  brother  the  king,  the  monastery 
and  hospital  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  near  the 
bridge  at  Prague,  and  gave  it  to  the 
Crucifers  of  the  Ked  Star,  to  be  the 
residence  of  the  master  of  the  order  in 
that  province.  She  also  built  the  con 
vents  of  Tissnowa  and  Woslowana,  in 
.Moravia,  and  that  of  St.  Francis  at 
Prague.  She  saw  people's  thoughts,  and 
knew  events  which  were  happening  at 
:i  distance.  When  her  nephew,  Premysl 
Ottokar  II.,  was  killed  in  the  battle  of 
Laa,  Aug.  :_'»',,  127S,  at  the  moment  when 
he  fell  dead,  she  had  ;i  mental  picture  of 
the  occurrence,  and  besought  her  sister 
nuns  to  pray  with  her  for  his  soul. 
J.l.XS.  Boll.,  March  G.  Chauowski, 
J»"li,  „•!<!  /</'".  Wadding.  I'alacky.  <>  - 

tchichi  i'"it  Bohmen.  Johftno  Nep. 
Jeutsch,  I>n:  St'li'j'-  A'jii'*  ton  Jasmin. 
Minuus,  DC  Helms  Ijoliairicis.  Cahier. 


B.   AGXES 


Jentsch  gives  a  German  translation  of 
four  letters  from  St.  Clara  to  Agnes  of 
Bohemia.  The  first  runs  thus — 

"  Clara,  the  unworthy  servant  of  Jesus 
Christ,  and  the  sisters  of  the  convent  of 
St.  Damian,  send  their  holy  greeting  to 
the  high-horn  and  honoured  Agnes, 
daughter  of  the  mighty  and  invincible 
king  of  Bohemia,  and  wish  her,  with 
all  respect  and  ardour,  the  glory  of 
eternal  blessedness. 

"The  knowledge  of  your  virtues 
which  has  spread  over  most  of  the  earth 
has  come  also  to  our  ears  in  Italy,  0 
noble  princess,  and  we  rejoice  over  it 
much  in  the  Lord,  I  and  all  those  who 
do  the  will  of  God  and  try  to  serve  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ  faithfully.  It  is, 
then,  true  that  you  have  trodden  under 
foot  the  most  envied  magnificence  of  the 
world,  the  greatest  honours,  and  the 
throne  of  the  most  noble  Emperor  whom 
you  might  have  married  as  befitted  your 
royal  station  and  his ;  that  you  have 
embraced  holy  poverty  with  your  whole 
soul,  and  desire  the  mortification  of  the 
flesh,  and  the  humble  position  of  our 
Saviour,  whom  you  have  chosen  for  ever 
for  your  inheritance.  Trust !  He  with 
His  grace  will  always  preserve  the  costly 
treasure  of  your  purity.  His  power  ex 
ceeds  all  other  power.  He  is  more  lov 
able  than  aught  else.  His  beauty  puts 
all  else  that  is  beautiful  in  the  shade. 
His  love  satisfies  all  desires  and  counter 
balances  all  burdens."  And  so  on. 

Saint  Clara,  in  a  second  letter  to  Agnes, 
says  among  other  things — 

"  Thanks,  thanks  eternally  to  the 
Author  of  all  good,  the  Spring  of  all 
perfection  and  of  all  heavenly  gifts,  for 
the  many  virtues  with  which  He  has 
adorned  your  soul.  It  is  He  who 
sanctifies  you,  and  who  has  raised  you 
to  that  state  of  perfection  that  His  eyes 
can  see  in  you  nothing  that  can  give 
Him  pain.  Happy  are  you,  for  this 
holiness  will  cause  Him  to  bid  you  share 
with  Him  the  eternal  joy  in  Paradise 
where  lie  sits  upon  His  star-built  throne. 
What  you  now  have,  keep  ;  what  you  do, 
continue  doing  ;  and  never  rest  in  the 
spiritual  race  which  you  have  under 
taken.  Try  without  ceasing  to  attain 
that  perfectness  to  which  the  Spirit  of 


God  has  called  you,  so  that  you  may 
always  fulfil  your  vows  to  the  Almighty, 
and  that  you  may  obey  more  faithfully 
the  commands  of  the  Lord." 

St.  Agnes  (22)  Blanbakin  or 
Blannbekin.  "fUJlo.  A  Beguine  in 
Austria,  who  had  extraordinary  revela 
tions  or  delusions,  net  fit  for  publication. 
Potthast  says  her  Life,  is  a  very  rare  book, 
because  her  visions  were  not  considered 
edifying,  and  it  was  forbidden  to  be  read 
or  sold.  Mas  Latrie,  Trcsor. 

St.  Agnes  (23)  of  Montepulciano, 
April  28,  Y.  Abbess.  O.S.F.,  O.S.A., 
O.S.D.  1208-1317.  Represented  (1) 
holding  the  Infant  Christ  in  her  arms,  in 
remembrance  of  a  legend  that  He  gave- 
her  a  little  cross  from  His  neck  ;  (2) 
lifting  up  her  foot  after  death  for  ST. 
CATHEKINE  OF  SIEXA  to  kiss  ;  (3)  in  an 
open  tomb,  with  sick  persons  praying 
around.  Daughter  of  Lorenzo  de  Segni. 
Born  at  the  village  of  Graciano  Vecchio, 
near  the  town  of  Montepulciauo,  in 
Tuscany.  Lorenzo  and  his  wife  would 
have  preferred  to  remain  in  their  village, 
had  it  not  been  for  Agncs's  great  wish  to- 
join  a  society  of  religious  women,  and 
attend  the  services  of  the  Church.  At 
the  age  of  nine  it  seemed  to  her  a  siu 
to  put  off  following  her  vocation,  as  she 
believed  God  had  decreed  that  as  th0 
one  path  by  which  she  might  be  saved. 
Her  parents  were  willing  to  let  her 
become  a  nun,  but  wished  to  defer  her 
separation  from  them.  They  were,  how 
ever  much  impressed  by  an  accident 
which  befell  her,  and  yielded  to  her  wish 
to  retire  at  once  from  the  world.  The 
first  nuns  she  joined  followed  the  rule 
of  St.  Francis,  and  were  called  "  Sisters 
of  the  Sack,"  in  derisive  allusion  to  thei? 
coarse  clothing.  In  this  nunnery  Agnes 
had  raptures  and  ecstasies  in  which 
Christ,  the  Virgin  Mary,  and  angels, 
appeared  to  her.  It  was  even  said  that, 
to  satisfy  her  longing  to  visit  the  Holy 
Laud,  an  angel  brought  her  a  clod  of 
earth  from  the  foot  of  the  cross  of  Christ,, 
marked  with  drops  of  blood  ;  and  that 
showers  of  manna  fell  upon  her  whilo 
she  prayed. 

The  inhabitants  of  Proceno,  near 
Orvieto,  hearing  of  the  sanctity  of  the 
sisters  of  Montepulciano,  begged  that 


U.   AGNES 


37 


some  of  them  might  bo  sent  to  dwell  in 
their  midst.  Agnes  was  one  of  tlio 
number,  and  was  soon  made  superior  of 
a  new  monastery  of  the  Order  of  St. 
Augustine,  which  the  Proceueso  built 
when  the  number  of  their  nuns  had  con 
siderably  increased.  After  some  years 
she  returned  to  Montepulciano,  and  built 
a  new  church  and  monastery,  in  which  she 
established  the  rule  of  St.  Dominic.  Sho 
made  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome,  where 
she  obtained  relics  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul. 
She  died  at  Montepulciano,  in  her 
41'th  year.  The  family  to  which  she 
belonged  afterwards  became  one  of  the 
most  considerable  in  Moutepulciano,  but 
is  now  extinct.  From  the  day  of  her 
death,  in  11317,  the  people  styled  her 
M  S;dnt."  Her  worship  was  encouraged 
by  several  Popes,  and  her  name  inserted 
in  the  Ronmu  Marlyrology  with  the  title 
of  "Saint,"  but  she  was  not  formally 
canonized  until  the  time  of  Benedict 
XIII.,  172»i.  Thuribius,  archbishop  of 
Siona,  and  Jamus  de  la  Marchu  were 
canonized  at  the  same  time,  and  are 
sometimes  represented  with  her  on  that 
account.  It  is  said  that  her  body  was 
embalmed  by  supernatural  means,  imme 
diately  after  her  death,  and  that  when  she 
Lad  been  dead  fifty  years,  she  opened 
her  eyes  and  smiled  on  the  Emperor 
Charles  IV.,  who  ever  afterwards  had  a 
special  devotion  to  this  saint. 

Of  all  the  Saints  Agnes,  here  or  else 
where  enumerated,  this  and  the  great 
ST.  AGNKS  (2)  are  the  only  two  in  the 
liommt  Martyroloijy,  besides  ST.  AGNES 
OF  ASSISI,  who  is  mentioned  in  the 
Franciscan  part  of  the  Appendix  to  the 
-R.JJT.  Modern  Saints,  sanctioned  by  the 
Fathers  of  the  Oratory,  from  an  Italian 
Bio(jr<i±>luj,  published  at  Siena,  177'.'. 
Cahier.  Butler.  Baillct. 

B.  Agnes  ('24)  of  Uavaria,  Nov.  11. 
"f  1  -\'i'2.  Daughter  of  Louis,  duke  of 
Bavaria,  after  wards  emperor  of  Germany. 
Agnes  was  brought  up  in  a  Clarissan 
monastery  at  Munich.  \Vhen  her  parents 
thought  her  old  enough  to  appear  at 
<jourt,  they  sent  for  her  ;  but  so  great 
was  her  fear  of  the  BIKUVS  of  the  world 
that  she  threw  herself  d-.jwn  before  the 
tabernacle,  and  iirmly  embraced  the 
pedestal  of  it,  crying  out,  "  Divine  Jesus, 


let  me  never  be  separated  from  Thee." 
Her  prayer  was  heard  ;  she  suddenly 
fell  ill  and  died.  Commemorated  by  the 
Franciscan  nuns  of  Munich.  Guerin. 


B.  Agnes  (25)  of  Siena,  V.  O.S.D. 
Supposed  to  have  died  about  1390.  Nun 
in  the  convent  of  Montcregio  at  Siena. 
Miracles  are  attributed  to  her.  Pio, 
Uomini  c  donnc. 

B.  Agnes  (2»>)  Benincasa,  3rd 
O.S.D.  14th  century.  Sister  of  James 
Benincasa,  who  was  father  of  ST. 
CATHERINE  (3)  of  Siena.  Agnes  married 
Chole  di  Dnccio.  After  his  death 
she  joined  the  Sisters  of  Penance, 
then  called  Mantellate.  Her  portrait  is 
painted  in  the  dormitory  of  the  convent 
of  St.  Dominic  at  Siena,  inscribed  with 
the  words,  "  Beata  Agneso  Benincasa." 
Mrs.  Draue,  Life  of  St.  Catherine  of 
Siena,  1880. 

St.  Agnes  (27)  of  Mon^ada,  Jan.  21, 
V.  1  4th  century.  Inspired  with  a  love 
of  celibacy  and  seclusion  by  the  preach 
ing  of  St.  Vincent  Ferrer,  at  Valencia. 
Her  parents  insisted  on  her  marrying  ; 
so,  disguised  as  a  man,  she  fled  and 
concealed  herself,  for  twenty  years,  in  a 
cave  near  the  Carthusian  convent  called 
Porta-ccoli,  the  place  of  her  retreat  being 
known  only  to  the  dwellers  in  heaven. 
After  her  death  her  sanctity  was  attested 
by  miracles.  Bollaudus  did  not  know 
of  any  authority  for  her  worship.  Jan. 
2  1  was  assigned  to  her  as  the  day  of  her 
great  patroness,  ST.  AGNES  (2).  St. 
Vincent  Ferrer  died  in  1419  ;  he  was  a 
Dominican  monk  at  Valencia  ;  a  preacher 
famous  all  over  Europe  ;  and  was  sent 
for  to  England  by  Henry  IV. 

B.  Agnes  (28)  of  Ferro  or  Terro, 
June  13  or  15.  15th  century.  Widow. 
Third  O.S.F.  Belonged  both  by  birth 
and  marriage  to  very  illustrious  families 
of  Aragon.  She  was  an  attendant  on  the 
queen  of  Aragon,  mother  of  Ferdinand 
the  Catholic.  Weary  of  court  life,  sho 
retired  from  the  world,  gave  her  money 
to  the  poor,  took  the  name  of  MAIIY  OP 
JESUS,  and  became  a  nun  of  the  Third 
Order  of  St.  Francis,  at  Ulmet,  in  the 
diocese  of  Avila.  She  is  mentioned  in 
the  Ordemlmlendt'.i',  in  Burns'  (_'///»•//»/</>• 
<>f  the  Frtim-isnni  Onlo;  and  in  MonHtier's 


38 


B.   AGXES 


Gynecseum ;  but  there  is  no  office  in 
her  honour,  nor  does  her  name  appear 
in  the  martyrologies  of  the  great 
authorities. 

B.  Agnes  (29)  or  INEZ  DE  SKNNA, 
Nov.  S.  7*1498.  O.S.D.  Nun.  A  pattern 
of  goodness,  and  graced  with  miraculous 
powers.  Manoel  do  Lima,  Agiologio 
Dominico,  iv.  339,  on  the  authority  of 
Bzovius. 

B.  Agnes  (30)  of  the  Pescara,  Nov. 
12.  •)"  1588.  One  of  the  Margaritole,  i.e. 
nuns  of  the  convent  of  ST.  AGNES,  at 
Foligno,  popularly  called  the  Margari- 
tura,  from  its  superior,  B.  MARGAHET  OP 
FOLIGNO.  La  Pescara  was  a  villa  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Foligno.  Agnes  was 
an  example  of  every  virtue.  The  nuns 
and  other  persons  who  were  present  at 
her  burial  saw  a  great  company  of  pil 
grims  come  to  venerate  her,  singing  with 
angelic  voices.  The  service  ended,  they 
disappeared.  The  Bollandists  promise 
her  story  on  her  day.  Jacobilli,  Santi 
da  Folifjno. 

B.  Agnes  (31)  of  Japan,  Sept.  10. 
•J-1622.  Wife  of  B.  Cosmo  Taquea, 
or  Takeya;  he  was  a  Corean,  brought, 
at  the  age  of  11,  prisoner  to  Japan, 
where  he  served  a  great  man  for  a  long 
time,  and  had  a  house  and  a  piece  of 
ground  given  him.  He  used  all  his 
property  to  help  the  missionaries,  es 
pecially  the  Fathers  Angelo  Orsucci  and 
John  of  St.  Dominic,  whom  ho  enter 
tained  on  their  arrival  from  Manilla, 
and  to  whom  he  taught  the  language 
and  letters  of  the  Japanese.  Pie  was 
burnt  for  the  faith,  Nov.  18,  1619,  at 
Nagasaki.  Agnes  survived  him  three 
years,  and  was  martyred  at  the  age  of 
42,  on  the  same  day  as  LUCY  FREITAS 
(q-v.).  Cosmo  and  Agnes  are  among  the 
2<>">  martyrs  beatified  with  Lucy.  Their 
son,  Francis,  aged  1 2,  was  put  to  death 
the  next  day. 

St.  or  Ven.  Agnes  (32)  of  Langeac, 
Oct.  19.  Called  AGNES  OF  JESUS.  1602- 
1634.  O.S.D.  Twice  superior  of  her 
convent  at  Langeac,  in  France.  Among 
other  miraculous  events  recorded,  it  is 
said  that  she  died  and  came  to  life  again 
several  times.  The  process  of  her 
canonization  was  begun  in  1098,  and 
Louis  XIV.  himself  wrote  to  Clement 


XL  on  the  subject.  The  process  was 
frequently  interrupted  and  resumed, 
until  1808,  when  Pius  VII.  declared  her 
heroic  virtue  proven.  AA.SS.  Boll. 
Prseter.  Les  Mystiques.  She  is  called 
in  Guerin's  Catalogue,  Saint  Agnes  of 
Jesus.  Her  Life  was  written  by  Do 
Lantages,  who  tells  that  she  consecrated 
herself  as  a  servant  to  the  BLESSED  VIR 
GIN  MARY,  and  wore  an  iron  chain  in 
token  of  servitude. 

Ven.  Agnes  (33),  Tsau  Kong,  Feb. 
2S,  <•.  i860.  First  woman  M.  in  China. 

St.  Agrata,  or  GRATA.  One  of  the 
martyrs  of  Lyons,  beheaded,  being  a 
Roman  citizen,  instead  of  being  killed 
by  the  beasts  of  the  amphitheatre.  Tille- 
mont.  See  BLANDIXA. 

St.  Agrifa,  or  AGRIPPA,  May  13,  M. 
at  Alexandria.  Boll.,  AA.SS. 

St.  Agrippina  (1),  June  23,  V.  M.  at 
Rome,  under  Valerian  (253-260).  Called 
AGUAPHENA  in  the  Russian  calendar. 
Represented  bound  to  the  equuleus  and 
scourged.  Immediately  after  her  martyr 
dom  her  body  was  taken  secretly  by  SS. 
BASSA,  PAULA  (3),  and  AGATHONICA,  who 
went  carefully  from  place  to  place  until 
at  last  they  got  to  Sicily,  and  there  they 
buried  her.  Every  one  who  treated  her 
church  or  relics  with  disrespect  was 
struck  with  disease  or  death,  and  every 
one  who  applies  to  her  to  be  cleansed  of 
leprosy  obtains  his  prayer  to  this  day. 
JUI.  Boll.,  AA.SS.,  from  a  Greek 
Menea. 

St.  Agrippina  (2),  M.  with  LAURI- 

ANA. 

Ahemeri.  The  Ahcmcri  are  those 
saints  that  havo  no  particular  day  :  such 
are  CRESCENTIA,  FABIOLA,  RADIANA. 
Bullet. 

St.  Aiala,  May  8  (SCIALA,  STIALA). 
303.  One  of  many  martyrs  com 
memorated  with,  and  supposed  to  have 
been  converted  by  the  example  and 
teaching  of,  St.  Acacius  or  Agathius. 
See  AGATHA  (2). 

St.  Ailbert,  Aug.  10,  11,  12  f  AGIL- 
BERTA,  AGUILIJERT).  c.  680.  Of  the 
royal  blood  of  France.  Daughter  of 
Abobinus  and  Pientia,  and  sister  of  St. 
Ebresilius,  or  Ebregesilus,  bishop  of 
Meaux.  Succeeded  her  cousin  TIIEODE- 
CHILD  as  second  abbess  of  Jouarre,  in 


ST.  ALDKc.rxnis 


41 


blind,  ami  Kit  alone  in  darkness  all  clay." 
The  shepherd  was  so  sorry  for  her,  that, 
notwithstanding  his  fciir  of  the  horse,  he 
went  and  called  it,  and  it  came  as  meekly 
as  the  best-trained  and  gentlest  horse 
that  ever  lived;  it  allowed  the  blind 
girl  to  mount,  and  she  followed  her 
father  to  the  church  of  St.  John.  On 
reaching  the  gate,  while  praying,  with 
her  hands  and  face  raised  to  heaven,  oil 
dropped  from  on  high  into  her  eyes,  and 
she  was  cured  of  her  blindness.  When 
Basin  came  and  found  that  his  daughter 
could  see,  he  took  her  to  the  gate  of  the 
church  of  St.  Peter.  There  she  again 
became  blind  ;  but  her  father  led  her 
into  the  church,  prayed  for  her,  and 
vowed  to  St.  Peter  all  his  worldly  posses 
sions.  Her  sight  was  immediately  re 
stored.  Then  all  the  people  shouted 
and  praised  God  for  this  miracle,  and 
Aldeguudis  offered  herself  at  the  altar. 
The  church  that  Basin  built  was  at 
Dronghen,  on  the  Lisa,  a  mile  from 
Ghent ;  he  and  his  daughter  Aldeguudis 
are  buried  there.  Henschenius,  in 
AA.SS. ;  Cuper,  in  the  same  collection, 
July  14.  \Vion,  Lignum  Vitse.  Baillet, 
Fiet, 

St.  Aldegundis  (2),  Jan.  3<>,  May  11, 
Oct.  is,  Nov.  i:i,  June  6,  May  2(1  (ALDE- 
CONDE,  OHGONM:  .  c.  »;.'JO-680.  Born  at 
Courtsore,  Coursolre,  or  Consobre. 
Patron  of  Maubeuge  and  Emmerich  ;  and 
against  cancer  and  pains  in  the  chest,  or 
breast.  Founder  and  abbess  of  Mau- 
bcnge.  Represented  (1)  walking  on 
water,  led  by  an  angel ;  (2)  crossing  the 
river  Sambre  dry-shod  ;  ( :> )  with  St.  Hum 
bert  of  Maroilles  bringing  a  fountain  of 
water  out  of  the  earth  for  her,  and  a 
dove  holding  a  veil  over  her  ;  in  Callot's 
ImtitjM,  she  appears  flying  from  her 
father's  house.  According  to  Guette, 
there  is  an  ancient  picture  of  her,  wear 
ing  the  veil  of  a  virgin,  a  violet  cloak 
embroidered  with  flowers,  and  a  red 
gown  with  a  white  tunic.  This  is  the 
dress,  not  of  a  nun,  but  of  a  canoness ; 
she  was  not,  however,  a  cauoness, 
although  her  monastery  was,  in  later 
times,  made  over  to  canonesses,  and  the 
picture  was  probably  painted  aft«  r  that. 

Daughter  of  SS.  Walbcrtand  BKUI  n.i  \. 
Younger  sister  of  ST.  WAI.TKUM:.  Her 


father  was  a  near  relation  of  King  Clo- 
tlmirc  II.  While  very  young,  Alde 
gundis  resolved  on  a  religious  life,  and 
when  her  parents  talked  to  her  of 
marriage,  she  said,  "  Find  me  a  husband 
whose  estates  are  heaven  and  earth  and 
the  sea ;  whose  riches  are  for  ever  in 
creasing,  never  diminishing ;  only  such 
a  one  will  I  marry."  Soon  after  this 
she  went  to  Haumout,  and  there  received 
the  religious  veil  from  St.  Amandus, 
bishop  of  Maestricht,  and  St.  Aubert, 
bishop  of  Cambrai.  She  walked  dry- 
shod  over  the  Sambre,  and  built  on  its 
banks  a  small  nunnery,  at  a  desert  place 
called  Malbode.  The  town  of  Mauberge 
grew  up  round  her  nunnery,  which,  in 
course  of  time,  developed  into  the  great 
and  famous  Benedictine  monastery  of 
Maubeuge ;  centuries  afterwards  it  be 
came  a  house  of  regular  canonesses. 
Aldegundis  presided  there,  with  great 
wisdom  and  sanctity,  for  many  years ; 
and  eventually  she  died  of  cancer  in  the 
breast,  about  <>80,  and  was  succeeded  by 
her  niece,  ST.  ADELTHUDE  (1).  Alde 
gundis  is  commemorated  with  a  double 
office.  The  following  story  is  told  of 
her  in  the  Golden  Legend : — 

Before  she  had  taken  the  veil,  while 
on  a  visit  to  her  elder  sister,  ST.  WAL- 
TRUDE,  abbess  of  Mons,  ST.  BERTILIA 
came  to  see  her  daughters,  and  brought 
Aldegundis  a  piece  of  linen,  which  she 
told  her  to  make  into  shirts,  sheets,  and 
kerchiefs  for  her  future  husband.  Alde 
guudis,  thinking  that  would  be  Christ, 
made  the  linen  into  chrisms,  which  were 
caps  of  a  particular  sort,  worn  by  chil 
dren  when  they  were  christened.  She 
used  her  utmost  skill  in  adorning  them 
with  the  finest  needlework,  and  brought 
them  to  her  mother,  who,  seeing  her 
linen  put  to  a  use  which  she  never  in 
tended,  was  very  angry,  and  took  a  stick 
to  beat  her  daughter.  Aldoguudis  fled, 
and  hid  herself  in  the  forest  of  Mau 
beuge.  The  nobleman  to  whom  her 
parents  intended  to  marry  her  sought 
her  diligently  in  the  forest,  but  could  not 
find  her.  She  remained  there  until  after 
the  death  of  her  mother,  when  she  took 
the  veil,  and  built  the  convent  of  Mau 
beuge.  Sr\vral  miracles  are  recorded 
of  her :  one  was  that  while  she  and  her 


42 


•     ST.  ALEXA 


sister  were  talking  about  their  Divine 
Master,  the  candle  went  out.  Alcle- 
gundis  picked  it  up,  and  it  lighted  itself 
again  as  she  took  it  in  her  hand. 

Her  festival,  Jan.  ,'ju,  is  very  ancient, 
being  mentioned  in  calendars  of  the 
time  of  Louis  le  Debonnaire.  The  other 
days  on  which  her  name  occurs  in 
calendars  are  probably  the  days  of  trans 
lations  of  her  relics,  or  of  the  dedications 
of  churches  or  chapels  in  her  name. 

Her  Life  was  written  by  a  contempo 
rary,  but  the  original  is  lost.  The 
oldest  extant  is  preserved  in  the  AA.SS., 
written  by  monks,  who  founded  their 
stories  on  the  original  Life,  and  added  to 
it  from  local  traditions,  etc.  Baillet,  Vie*. 
Butler,  Lives.  Nouvelle  Biog.  generale, 
edited  by  Hoefer.  Paris,  1855.  Cahier. 
Husenbeth,  Emblems.  Die  Attnbufc. 
Golden  Legend.  Guette,  Hist,  de  VEylixe 
de  France. 

St.  Alena,  or  HALENA,  June  17,  V. 
M.  c.  G-iO.  Patron  of  Foret,  or  Vorst, 
near  Brussels;  and  against  diseases  of 
the  eye.  Eeprescuted  with  only  one 
arm,  and  with  a  crown  on  her  head,  or 
beside  her.  Daughter  of  a  heathen 
prince,  or  king,  whose  name  was  Levold. 
Her  mother's  name  was  Hildegard.  Le 
vold  persecuted  the  Christians;  but 
they  were  secured  from  his  attacks  by 
dense  forests  and  by  inundations.  One 
day  the  king,  while  hunting  in  the  forest, 
met  a  Christian.  Surprised  to  find  him 
in  that  lonely  place,  he  asked  whether 
he  were  one  of  his  subjects,  or  who  was 
his  master.  The  man  answered,  "  I  am 
one  of  the  servants  of  Christ.  If  you 
wish  to  learn  our  laws  and  customs,  and 
to  know  who  our  Master  is,  stay  with 
mo  this  night.  To-morrow  you  shall 
see  us  offer  our  sacrifice  to  God  our 
Father,  and  then  you  will  know  the 
difference  between  truth  and  falsehood." 
The  king  consented.  The  Christian 
received  him  very  hospitably,  and  treated 
him  with  all  the  honour  duo  to  his  rank. 
Next  morning  he  was  present  at  the 
celebration  of  Mass ;  but  his  hard  heart 
preferred  his  own  foolish  heathen  re 
ligion.  When  he  returned  home,  he 
told  his  wife  and  daughter  what  he  had 
heard,  at  the  same  time  blaspheming 
and  ridiculing  the  Christian  religion. 


Alena,  however,  was  inspired  by  God 
with  so  great  a  wish  to  see  the  Christian 
service,  that,  notwithstanding  her  natural 
timidity,  braving  the  wild  beasts  and 
other  dangers  of  the  forest,  she  went  by 
night  to  their  place  of  meeting.  One 
night,  on  her  way  to  the  chapel,  she  was 
taken  by  a  watchman,  but  begged  and 
bribed  him  to  let  her  pass  and  to  keep 
her  secret.  He  acceded  to  her  wish  for 
the  time ;  but,  seeing  that  she  went  out 
every  night,  he  at  last  told  her  father. 
The  king  told  him  to  follow  her  closely, 
and  see  where  she  went.  The  watch 
man  reported  that  he  had  followed  her 
to  the  river ;  but  as  she  crossed  over 
miraculously,  without  bridge  or  boat,  he 
could  follow  no  further.  The  king  said 
it  must  be  by  means  of  the  magic  arts  of 
the  Christians,  and  he  stationed  some 
soldiers  on  the  bank  of  the  river  to  bring 
her  to  him  alive,  that  he  might  take 
vengeance  on  her  for  going  over  to  the 
new  superstition.  The  soldiers  arrested 
her,  and  as  she  resisted,  they  pulled  her 
violently  by  the  arm,  and  dragged  it  off. 
She  then  fell  down  dead.  The  angel 
of  God  took  her  arm,  and  put  it  on  the 
altar  of  the  chapel  where  she  used  to- 
pray  so  devoutly.  The  priest,  finding  a 
bleeding  arm  there,  said,  "Perhaps  this 
is  the  arm  of  the  virgin  Alena,  who  has 
been  devoured  by  some  evil  beast."  He 
then  went  to  seek  her,  found  her  body, 
and  buried  it  in  the  chapel,  which  was 
afterwards  enlarged,  and  called  by  her 
name.  It  soon  began  to  be  reported 
that  miraculous  cures  were  performed 
at  her  tomb.  Omund,  a  prince  of  the 
neighbourhood,  who  was  blind,  came  to 
Levold,  and  said,  "  I  hear  all  kinds  of 
infirmities  are  cured  at  your  daughter's 
grave  ;  therefore  take  me  to  it,  that  I  may 
recover  my  sight."  Levold,  who  had 
until  then  considered  the  miracles  of 
his  daughter  a  mere  idle  report,  accom 
panied  him  to  Alena's  tomb,  where  his 
sight  was  restored.  Both  were  con 
verted,  as  also  was  Queen  Hildegard. 
Levold  publicly  confessed  that  he  was 
the  murderer,  did  penance  at  the  grave, 
and  was  baptized  by  the  name  of  Harold. 
He  and  his  queen,  after  many  good 
works,  died  piously,  and  were  buried  iu 
the  church  they  had  built  in  honour  of 


B.  ALEXAXDRINA  DI   LETTO 


43 


St.  Ambrose.  Several  miracles  are  re 
corded  of  St.  Alona  during  her  lifetime. 
Once,  when  she  went  as  usual  to  the 
forest  chapel  by  night,  she  found  the 
door  shut,  and  sat  down  on  the  ground. 
The  priest's  servant  happened  to  como 
past,  and  thought  her  a  ghost,  not  sup 
posing  any  woman  could  bo  there  at 
that  time  of  night.  She  told  him  not  to 
be  afraid,  as  she  was  only  waiting  for 
the  morning  prayers.  {i  You  need  not 
wait,"  said  he,  "for  the  priest  is  very 
ill,  and  cannot  come  into  the  chapel." 
"  Go,"  said  the  holy  maiden,  "  tell  your 
master  to  arise  and  go  into  the  chapel 
and  say  the  office ;  for  God,  who  has  led 
me  hither,  is  able  to  cure  him."  The 
servant  returned  to  his  master  and  gave 
Aleua's  message,  and  the  priest  rose  up, 
restored  to  health,  and  chanted  Matins 
as  usual.  Alena  planted  her  staff  in  the 
ground  and  left  it  there  while  she  went 
to  prayers.  \Vhen  she  came  out  of 
church,  she  found  that  it  was  growing, 
and  had  brought  forth  leaves.  It  grew 
tin  TO  for  many  years,  and  the  nuts  it 
bore  used  to  be  made  into  rosaries  in 
the  1  7th  century  ;  which  proves  the  truth 
of  tlio  whole-  story.  I  toll.,  AA.SS. 

St.  Alexandra  (l),  April  21,  M. 
•'ii>_>.  Empress.  Wife  of  Diocletian. 
Converted  by  seeing  the  tortures  and 
bravery  and  the  miracles  of  St.  George. 
Condemned  to  bo  beheaded  with  him  ; 
but  died  in  prison  on  hearing  her  sen- 
It  'lice.  M.  iiufiHfii  of  Btixil,  April  21. 
1-11.,  AA.SS.,  April  2".  This  story  is 
not  confirmed  by  secular  history.  This 
is  the  same  saint  who  is  called  in  Roman 
tradition  SI:UI:.\A. 

St.   Alexandra   (2),   M.  with  ST. 

TH  :.  rs\. 

St.  Alexandra  (:;;,  March  20,  M. 
Early  in  Hh  century.  When  the  Chris 
tians  were  persecuted  at  Amisus,  in 
Paphlagonia,  in  the  reign  of  Maximian, 
Alexandra  and  six  other  holy  women 
CLAUDIA,  EUPHRASIA,  JULIANA,  MATUONA 
or  PATUONA,  EUPIIEMIA,  and  THKODOBIA 
(7) — boldly  declared  their  allegiance  to 
the  proscribed  religion,  and  reproached 
the  governor  as  cruel,  unjust,  and  tlio 
enemy  of  the  Truth.  They  were  stripped, 
ln::itcu  with  iron  rods,  their  br<  I 
cut  oil',  and  they  were  then  hung  up  l>y 


the  feet  over  a  slow  fire  until  they  died. 
Their  martyrdom  was  followed  by  that 
of  DEIIPHUTA  and  her  sister.  Several  of 
the  names  of  these  seven  women  are  tho 
same  as  those  of  seven  women  martyred 
at  Ancyra.  See  Tuners  A.  It.M.  Boll., 
AA.SS.  Jii'uf.  Il-cl'xiiisti'fii. 
Jst.  Alexandra  <  l  >,  V.  4th  century. 
A  young  woman  of  great  beauty,  who 
determined  to  lead  a  celibate  ascetic  life. 
Finding  that  she  was  much  loved  by  a 
young  man,  she  was  afraid  she  was 
causing  him  to  sin,  so  she  shut  herself 
up  in  a  tomb,  and  there  she  spent  all 
her  time  in  prayer  and  meditation,  ex 
cepting  only  one  hour  a  day,  which  R!IO 
devoted  to  spinning.  ST.  MELANIA  i  1 
visited  Alexandra,  but  could  not  see  her 
face ;  she  stood  near  the  orifice  that 
served  as  a  window  to  her  cell,  and 
had  an  edifying  conversation  with  her. 
After  twelve  years'  residence  in  this 
living  grave,  Alexandra  was  one  morning 
found  dead  by  the  woman  who  used  to 
bring  her  the  necessaries  of  life.  Si/h-" 
anaclioretlca  ex  Palladia  Lmtsiaca. 

St.  Alexandria,  or  ALEXANDER,  Feb. 
28,  M.  Mentioned  in  a  long  list  of 
martyrs  who  suffered  for  the  Christian 
faith  at  Alexandria,  and  who  are  com 
memorated  in  the  old  martyrologies. 
Hcnschenius,  in  A  A.  SH. 

B.  Alexandrina  di  Letto,  April 
.'J  (ALESSANDKA,  ALESSANDRINA).  i:is.~i— 
t458.  O.S.F.  One  of  a  family  of  saints. 
Daughter  of  Nicola  Raynaldo  di  Letto, 
a  nobleman  of  Sulniona ;  ho  was  royal 
vicar  in  Rome  in  1:517,  for  Ilobert,  king 
of  Naples,  and  lord  of  the  towns  of 
Letto  and  Torre,  in  the  Abruzzi.  So 
says  Jacobilli,  but  a  comparison  of  his 
dates  makes  it  seem  more  likely  that 
this  Nicola  was  her  grandfather.  Alex 
andrina  was  born  at  Sulmona.  At  the 
ago  of  i:>  she  took  the  veil  there,  in 
the  Franciscan  monastery  of  ST.  CLARA, 
whore  she  lived  twenty-throe  years.  Her 
cousin,  B.  MARGARET,  who  attained  to- 
great  sanctity,  followed  her  example. 
and  became  a  nun  in  the  same  house. 
They  had  two  other  cousins,  Clara  and 
Lisa,  and  an  aunt  ({EMMA,  who  was  tho 
mother  of  Clara.  These  three  wero 
nuns  in  another  monastery  of  tho  Ord«-r 
of  St.  Augustine,  in  Sulmoua.  Discords 


ALGASACH 


arose  in  Sulmona,  which  led  to  the  ban 
ishment  of  these  five  nuns  and  of  the 
brother  of  one  of  them.  They  fled  to 
Aquila,  and  remained  there  two  years, 
praying  assiduously  to  be  guided  where 
they  should  serve  God.  At  last  an 
angel  revealed  to  Alexandriua  that  they 
were  to  go  to  Foligno,  and  there  build 
a  monastery  which  should  be  a  temple 
of  God  until  the  end  of  the  world. 
They  obeyed  the  angel,  and,  arriving  at 
Foligno  on  July  U>,  142.5,  presented 
themselves  to  Monsignor  Giacomo  Elmi, 
the  bishop,  and  to  Corrado  Trinci,  lord 
of  Foligno,  and  declared  their  intention. 
In  three  days  these  potentates  gave  them 
a  site,  and  there  they  built  a  church  and 
convent,  which  they  dedicated  to  God 
in  the  name  of  ST.  LUCY,  V.  M.  The 
five  nuns  made  public  profession  of  the 
Order  of  St.  Clara,  and,  like  the  fathers 
of  the  desert,  lived  devoutly  without  any 
ruler  but  the  bishop.  In  1439  Pope 
Martin  V.  placed  them  under  the  care 
of  the  fathers  of  the  convent  of  St.  Bar 
tholomew  of  Foligno,  of  that  branch  of 
the  Franciscans  surnamed  the  Zocco- 
lanti.  The  nuns  soon  became  so  re 
nowned  for  holiness  that  many  virgins 
of  noble  families  came  to  join  them, 
from  all  the  towns  and  places  round, 
and  many  miracles  were  wrought  through 
their  prayers.  This  was  the  first  mon 
astery  to  adopt  the  reform  of  the  Order 
of  St.  Clara,  and  all  the  others  through 
out  Italy  imitated  it.  Alexaudrina  was 
unanimously  elected  first  abbess,  and  on 
two  subsequent  occasions  was  re-elected. 
Her  confessor  ordered  her  to  write  a 
book  describing  the  foundation  of  the 
monastery,  and  the  lives  of  many  perfect 
nuns  who  flourished  there  in  her  time. 
For  the  sake  of  obedience  she  acceded 
to  his  wish,  although  at  the  time  laden 
with  years  and  broken  down  by  penances 
and  fatigues.  She  died  April  .'»,  145S, 
at  the  ago  of  73.  The  most  notable 
miracle  recorded  in  her  life  is  that  the 
sisters  having  dug  a  well,  were  much 
distressed  to  see  no  sign  of  water. 
Alexandrina  prayed  with  tears  and  faith, 
and  lo,  the  well  was  suddenly  full  of 
water  to  the  very  brim.  They  touched 
the  water  with  their  hands,  and  gave 
thanks.  But  it  was  not  customary  to 


have  the  water  of  a  well  quite  on  a  level 
with  the  ground,  so  Alexandrina  blessed 
the  water,  and  commanded  it  to  sink  to 
a  convenient  level.  This  it  instantly 
did,  and  ever  after  supplied  the  com 
munity  with  abundance  of  good  water. 
Jacobilli,  Saints  of  tlte  Family  of  Lctto ; 
Saints  of  Unibria ;  Saints  of  Foligno  ; 
and  BibUoiheca  Umbrise. 

Algasach  means  DESIDEROSA,  and 
was  a  surname  of  one  of  the  SS.LASsAi: A, 
March  21*.  Oth  century. 

St.  Alfreda,  Aug.  2  (ALFRIDA,  ETHEL- 
DRITHA).  834.  Daughter  of  Offa,  king 
of  the  Mercians,  one  of  the  most  powerful 
of  the  Saxon  kings,  and  conqueror  of 
several  of  his  contemporaries  ;  he  held 
his  court  at  Suttou  Wall-is,  in  Hereford 
shire.  His  wife  was  Quendreda.  In 
7!»3  Alfreda  was  betrothed  to  Ethelbert, 
or  F.gclbrit,  king  of  the  East  Angles. 
Quendreda  had  him  murdered  in  the 
interest  of  her  brother  Egfrid,  who  was 
innocent  of  any  participation  in  the 
crime.  The  murdered  Ethelbert  was 
buried  secretly  at  Marden.  A  pillar  of 
light  appeared  at  night  over  the  spot, 
and  revealed  the  grave.  His  body  was 
translated  into  the  church  at  Hereford. 
Tortured  by  remorso,  the  queen  had  fits 
of  fury  and  terror.  She  died  miserably 
three  months  after  her  crime.  Alfreda 
fled  to  the  monastery  of  St.  Guthlac,  at 
Croyland,  and  became  a  recluse  there, 
being  built  up  in  a  cell  in  the  south  part 
of  the  church  opposite  the  high  altar  ; 
she  lived  there  for  forty  years,  and  died 
about  834.  Britannia  Sancta,  from  Cap- 
grave  and  Harpsfeld.  Butler,  L/ms-. 
Bosch,  in  AA.SS.  Boll.  Mabillou, 
AA.SS.,  O.S.B.  Srec.  iv.  i.  565.  New 
man,  Calendar  «f  Enyltxh  Saint*,  in 
Apologia.  William  of  Malmesbury,  ll<'- 
t/iiiii  AiKjl.  i.  4.  Wioii,  Li'juuiit  1 '//;*•, 
p.  52:;.  ' 

Ven.  Alfrida,  Doc.  8  and  first  Sunday 
in  July.  M.  c.  81i>.  The  servants  of 
God,  Alfrida,  SABI.VA,  and  EDITH,  VV. 
MM.,  daughters  of  Kenulf,  king  of 
Mercia,  like  many  English  ladies  of 
their  time,  set  oft'  to  make  the  pilgrimage 
to  Rome.  Crossing  the  sea,  they  landed 
at  Mardick  ;  thence  they  went  to  Cassel, 
M'here  they  were  entertained  for  some 
%lays  in  a  monastery.  Scarcely  had  they 


VEX.   OR  B.  ALIX  LE   CLERC 


started  to  pursue  their  journey,  than 
they  were  killed  in  a  forest  by  assassins, 
sent  after  them  by  the  great  lords  in 
England,  to  whom  they  had  been  pro 
mised,  and  whom  they  had  thrown  over. 
When  the  bodies  were  found,  an  old 
blind  gentleman  put  his  hand  into  the 
blood  of  these  martyrs,  and,  next  time 
In-  happened  to  rub  his  eyes  with  it,  ho 
immediately  recovered  his  sight.'  As  a 
thank-ottering  to  God,  he  had  them 
honourably  buried,  and  built  a  chapel 
them,  widely  celebrated  to  this  day 
for  the  cures  and  other  answers  to 
prayer  obtained  through  the  intercession 
nf  the  three  virgins.  Pilgrims  flocked 
thither  from  all  parts  of  Flanders,  and 
in  time  the  village  of  Caestre  grew  up 
annuid  the  famous  Chapcllc  dcs  Trot* 
r,V, •;/'*.  P.B.,  quoting  the  Abbe  Des- 
tonibes,  Saiiik'8  des  dioceses  de  Cambrai 
,t  tTArrtu. 

St.  Algiva,  June  :J<)  (^LGISA, 
ELGIN).  Probably  the  same  as  ELGIVA, 
Oct.  It). 

St.  Alice  Rich,  Aug.  24.  c.  127<>. 
Prioress  of  Catesby.  Sister  of  St.  Ed- 
muiul,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  of 
B.  MAUGAUET  RICH.  They  were  the 
children  of  Reynold  and  Matilda  or 
Mabel  Rich,  tradespeople  at  Abingdon, 
in  Berkshire,  where  the  locality  of  their 
abode  is  still  called  St.  Edmund's  Lane. 
Mabilia  practised  the  austerities  of  a 
nun,  while  living  in  the  world  and 
educating  her  children  piously.  When 
Reynold,  having  settled  his  attaint,  com 
mitted  his  children  to  the  care  of  Mabilia 
and  l>ccame  a  monk  at  Evesham  or 
Knshuiii,  he  found  the  life  of  the  cloister 
easy  compared  with  that  of  his  home. 
Mabilia,  who  always  wore  a  hair  shirt, 
and  always  grudged  food  or  comfort  to 
her<rlf  or  any  one  else,  was  glad  when 
her  husband's  departure  left  her  free  to 
increase  her  own  and  her  children's 
austerities.  After  Edmund  had  been  at 
nt  Oxford  for  some  time,  during 
ii  lie  married  himself  to  tho  Virgin 
v,  she  sent  him  and  his  brother  to 
1'aii-  to  finish  their  education.  To 
:i  them  humility,  she  made  them 
In-g  their  way  thither  like  the  poorest 
:its,  although  she  ronld  have  j.ai  I 
expends.  She  gave  them  a  hair 


shirt  at  parting,  and  whenever  she  sent 
them  clothes  or  other  necessaries,  she 
always  accompanied  the  gift  with  that 
of  some  new  instrument  of  penance. 
Falling  ill  and  not  expecting  to  recover, 
she  sent  for  St.  Edmund,  and  commended 
his  brother  and  sisters  to  his  care.  Both 
of  the  latter  wished  to  become  nuns,  so 
Mabilia  left  money  sufficient  to  purchase 
entrance  into  a  respectable,  if  not  aris 
tocratic,  monastery.  Many  parents  at 
that  time  paid  large  sums  to  secure  to 
their  daughters  a  place  amongst  asso 
ciates  of  their  own  class,  and  a  certain 
degree  of  comfort.  Edmund,  however, 
regarded  this  purchase  system  as  siino- 
niacal,  and  looked  about  for.a  nunnery 
where  holiness  was  carried  to  the  greatest 
attainable  perfection,  and  where  the 
piety  of  the  young  women  would  be  of 
more  account  than  their  small  dowry. 
After  long  search  and  waiting,  ho  placed 
his  sisters  in  the  poor  Benedictine  house 
of  Catesby,  between  Banbury  and  Daven- 
try,  and  not  far  from  Eydon,  in  North 
amptonshire.  The  prioress  had  heard 
of  tho  sanctity  of  Mabilia  and  the 
scruples  of  Edmund,  and  gladly  wel 
comed  Alice  and  Margaret  as  daughters 
of  her  house.  Hero  they  both  attained 
a  great  degree  of  holiness,  and  were 
successively  prioresses. 

St.  Edmund  was  appointed  45th  arch 
bishop  of  Canterbury  by  Gregory  IX. 
He  afterwards  became  a  Cistercian  monk 
at  Pontigny,  in  Champagne.  lie  died 
at  Soissy,  1242,  and  was  canonized  by 
Innocent  IV.  four  years  later.  Alice 
died  about  1270,  and  miracles  were 
wrought  at  her  tomb. 

Matt.  Paris,  Hist.  Major,  ad  Ann.  1257.' 
Ferrarius,  Novo  Cat.  Hook,  ArchbisJn'/,^ 
of  Canterbury.  The  Bollandists,  AA.^  v 
Aug.  24,  place  her  name  among  the 
Praetermissi,  saying  that  her  worship  is 
not  generally  authorized,  although 
Wilson  calls  her  "Saint"  in  both  his- 
cditions  of  tho  English  Martyroloyy. 

St.  Alikia.  APPHIA,  wife  of  Phile 
mon,  is  so  called  in  tho  Coptic  calendar. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Alimena,  Aug.  22,  V.     Gucrin. 

Yen.  or  B.  Alix  le  Clerc,  Jan.  9. 
First  regular  canoness  of  tho  Congrega 
tion  of  our  Lady,  or  Ladies  of  tho 


40 


B.   £LIZ   LA   BOURGOTTE 


Congregation  of  Mary.  Commonly  called 
founder  of  that  order,  although  it  was 
actually  instituted  by  Fourier,  a  Jesuit 
father.  P>orn  of  a  noble  family  at 
Hemiremont,  in  Lorraine,  in  l.">76;  died 
Jan.  9,  1622.  In  her  youth  she  was 
fond  of  dancing  and  of  worldly  amuse 
ments.  Being  at  a  country  place  called 
Hymont,  near  Mataincourt,  on  three 
successive  Sundays,  while  she  was 
attending  Mass,  her  thoughts  were  dis 
tracted  by  the  sound  of  a  drum.  The 
third  time,  giving  her  whole  attention 
to  the  sound,  she  was  absorbed  in  a  vision, 
and  saw  the  devil  beating  the  drum,  and 
followed  by  a  number  of  gay  young 
people.  She  forthwith  resolved  not  to 
be  one  of  them,  adopted  the  white  veil 
of  the  peasant  girls  of  the  place,  and 
took  a  vow  of  celibacy,  which  greatly 
alarmed  her  parents,  and  scandalized 
the  inhabitants  of  Mataincourt,  where 
piety  was  not  in  fashion.  She  placed 
herself  under  the  direction  of  Father 
Fourier,  curate  of  Mataincourt,  and 
afterwards  became  superior  of  a  house 
of  canonesses  under  his  direction. 
While  building  the  first  monastery  at 
Xancy,  in  161."),  Alix  wont  to  Paris,  to  the 
Ursulines  of  the  Faubourg  S.  Jacques, 
to  learn  their  method  of  combining  their 
cloturc  with  the  instruction  of  little  day 
scholars.  She  worked  as  a  novice  there 
for  two  months.  The  regulations  of  the 
new  order  were  finished  some  years 
later.  Meantime  the  nuns  had  several 
houses  before  they  obtained  permission 
to  make  them  into  monasteries.  At 
length,  all  difficulties  being  overcome, 
and  their  novitiate  finished,  Alix  and 
her  companions  took  the  solemn  monastic 
vows  in  1618  ;  after  which  she  redoubled 
her  austerities,  and  thereby  shortened 
her  life.  She  was  honoured  as  a  saint 
immediately  after  her  death,  and  many 
persons  invoked  her  intercession  with 
success.  Helyot,  ///*/.  dcs  Ordrcs  Mo- 
nastiqucs,  ii.  chap.  64. 

B.  Aliz  la  Bourgotte,  June  2<» 
(ALKTIFA.  AI.KXIA,  ALKZA,  ALIX,  ALOYSI  \). 
I-l».)G.  U.S.A.  In  the  hospital  of  St. 
Catherine  at  Paris,  in  1328,  there  were 
brothers  and  sisters  hospitallers  who 
served  the  poor ;  their  duties  were  to 
receive  for  three  days  any  poor  women 


or  girls  who  came  to  Paris,  and  to  bury 
prisoners,  who  died  in  the  Chastelet  or 
Fort  PKvosque,  and  persons  found 
assassinated  in  the  streets  or  drowned 
in  the  river.  They  had  the  right  to 
bury,  in  the  cemetery  of  the  Holy 
Innocents,  the  poor  who  died  in  their 
house.  In  course  of  time,  only  sisters 
remained  in  the  hospital,  and  in  1">.">8, 
as  there  were  no  brothers,  a  secular 
priest,  appointed  by  the  archbishop  of 
Paris,  was  the  superior  of  the  sisters. 
In  this  hospital,  early  in  the  15th 
century,  a  holy  maid,  Sister  Alix,  or 
Aliz  la  liourgotte,  lived  for  some  years 
in  the  service  of  the  poor.  P>y-and-by, 
desiring  to  lead  a  more  retired  life  and 
have  no  intercourse  with  her  fellow- 
creatures,  she  was  shut  up  in  a  room 
at  the  top  of  the  house  to  try  isolation 
for  a  year ;  after  which  she  went  to  the 
cemetery  of  the  Holy  Innocents,  and  was 
walled  up  in  a  cell  adjoining  the  church  ; 
she  had  a  window,  through  which  she 
could  hear  Mass  and  services.  Here  she 
lived  for  forty-six  years,  with  so  much 
holiness  that  at  her  death,  in  1466,  Louis 
XI.  raised  a  bronze  tomb  to  her  memory, 
with  a  rhymed  epitaph,  in  which  she 
was  called  "Sceur  Aliz  la  P>ourgotte." 
Helyot,  Ordrcs  Monattiqttes,  ii.  2!»4,  says 
she  was  of  the  Order  of  St.  Augustine. 
The  Ordcnslccdendar  of  the  Franciscans 
claims  her  as  a  member  of  their  third 
order,  and  calls  her  Aloysia  Pmrgotta. 
She  is  called,  in  the  appendix  to  Saussaye, 
Mart.  Gallicanum,  P>.  Aletha,  recluse  at 
Paris.  The  1  Jollandists  say  that  although 
she  is  claimed  by  both  these  orders,  she 
has  no  worship  and  no  proper  day. 

St.  Alkalda,  March  2S,  Oct.  27 
(  ALKELD,  ALKILDA),  a  Saxon  virgin,  mar 
tyred  by  Danes.  Eepresentcd  in  a 
window  of  the  old  church  of  Middleharn, 
in  Yorkshire,  being  strangled  by  two 
women.  So  little  is  known  of  her,  that 
some  archaeologists  suppose  there  was  no 
saint  of  this  name,  which  means  a  foun 
tain.  St.  Alkeld's  Well  is  still  believed 
to  have  healing  virtues.  Her  church,  at 
Giggles  wick,  in  Yorkshire,  was  founded 
in  the  1 2th  century.  Parker,  Calendar. 
Arnold  Forster,  Dcd'tcnt'tun*. 

St.  Alia,  or  ABBA,  May  7,  M.  in 
Africa.  AA.SS. 


B.  ALPAlS 


17 


St.  Alias,  or  II.M.AS.  See  ANNA  (7) 
the  (loth. 

St.  Alma,  probably  the  II.  V.  MAUY, 
Alma  Muter. 

St.  Almerida,  May  2.:,  M.  in  Africa. 
AAJ38. 

St.  Almheda,  Aug.  1  (AI.MKI-UA, 
AI.MKDIS,  ALED,  ELINED,  possibly  KI.I:- 
VI:TT\,  KI.I.VN,  Enw.\,  ELLYW).  Second 
half  of  tliu  "»th  century.  Aunt  or  sister 
of  St.  Kryiir.  Daughter  of  Bragan  or 
I'.ryehan.  who  is  also  called  Fugatius, 
and  in  llrittany  Fagan  and  Frachan,  a 
T.ritisli  prince  who  gave  his  name  to  the 
province  of  Brecknock;  a  holy  man,  happy 
in  a  numerous  pious  family.  Tradition 
says  ho  had  three  wives,  twenty-four  sons, 
and  twenty-five  or  twenty- six  daughters. 
He  brought  them  all  up  with  a  view  to 
their  spreading  the  Christian  religion 
among  the  Cymri.  Some  of  them  were 
saints,  and  churches  have  been  dedicated 
in  their  names.  Many  of  these  so-called 
•eons  and  daughters  were,  in  all  pro 
bability,  grandchildren.  Kice  Kees  gives 
a  complete  list  of  them.  All  appear  to 
be  reputed  saints  ;  but  with  some  this 

not  certain.     Of  the  daughters — 

Mi:<  HELL,  the  eldest,  married  Gyyr. 
wi;<;o\,  married  Cadrod  Calchfynydd, 

Ki.i:i:r,  married  Ceretlig  ab  Cunedda, 
and  was  paternal  grandmother  of  St. 
David. 

\i:i  VDD,  wife  of  St.  Tudwal  Befr. 
She  founded  Llannifydd,  in  Denbigh 
shire,  and  had  two  sons,  SS.  Cynin  and 
Ifor.  She  is  sometimes  confounded  with 
her  nephew  of  the  same  name,  and  is 
perhaps  the  'same  as  GOLENDDYDD,  who 
was  a  saint,  and  is  enumerated  as  another 

ST.  IiMii:\(;.\i;.  or  <V\<;Ak,  of  Llech-in- 
Maelicnydd,  in  Radnorshire,  mother  of 
Synidr.  ' 

ST.  <;«)|.F.M.I.YI>K  a  saint,  perhaps  tin- 
as  \\:\-\  i»ii. 

Si.   (i\vrNiu»M»i-.   or   (I\v\wi;imvini,   a 
saint    at    Tywyn,    in    Merionethshire, 
mother  of  Cyn^<.-n,  who  married  on. 
randdaughters  of  Urychan. 

saint. 

Br,  ELINED,  the  AI.MI-.DIIA  of  (liraldus 
Carnbrensis. 

ClDn>RY<  ii-  or  (';  i  perhaps  the 


same  as  KKKDKCH  of  Llandegwyn,  in 
Merionethshire. 

ST.  CI:M:I)|.ON.  a  saint  on  the  mountain 
of  Cymorth,  probably  near  Newcastle,  in 
Emlyn. 

ST.  CYMOHTH,  a  saint  at  Emlyu,  a  dis 
trict  on  the  confines  of  Caermartheu  and 
Pembroke.  Cyniorth,  or  Corth,  was  the 
wife  of  Brynach  Wyddel,  an  Irishman, 
and  had  a  son,  Gerwyu,  and  three 
daughters,  Mwynen,  Gwennau,  and 
Gwenlliw. 

ST.  CLYDAI,  sister  of  Cymorth  and 
Ccnedlon,  a  saint. 

ST.  TYDFUL  (sometimes  confounded 
with  TANGLWST),  martyred  by  a  party 
of  Saxons  and  Picts  at  a  place  called 
Mcrthyr  Tydfyl,  with  her  father,  Bry- 
chan,  and  one  of  her  brothers.  The  son 
of  that  brother  raised  the  people,  and 
put  the  enemy  to  flight.  Her  day  is 
Aug.  21. 

ST.  EXFAIL,  perhaps  lived  at  Merthyr, 
near  Carmarthen. 

HAWYSTL,  lived  at  Cacr  Hawystl,  which 
is  supposed  to  be  Awst,  in  Gloucester 
shire. 

ST.  TYIJIK,  murdered  by  pagans,  at 
Llandybie,  in  Carmarthenshire,  Jan.  90. 

KKXKYTHO.V  and  KKURBREIT  are  added 
by  another  authority. 

A  church  on  the  top  of  a  hill,  near 
the  castle  of  Aberhodui,  is  called  after 
M.  Almheda,  who,  rejecting  the  alliance 
of  an  earthly  prince,  espoused  herself  to 
the  Eternal  King,  and  finished  her  course 
by  a  triumphant  martyrdom.  Ivico  llees 
says  her  name  is  Elined,  and  that 
(iiraldus  says  she  was  martyred  on  a 
hill  called  Pengiuger,  near  Brecknock. 
11,-Hniiiiiii  S'uictu,  from  Giraldus  Cam- 
brcnsis.  Stanton,  En.  Mart. 

St.  Alodia,  M.  with  NUMLO  (q.r.). 

Aloysia  (1),  LOUISA. 

B.  Aloysia  (2),  ALIZ  LA  BOURGOTTK. 

St.  Aloysia  (:;),  Sept.  11',  one  of 
2H.*,  ^\IM.  in  Japan.  17th  century. 
li'niKnin  Strwpkio  Mart.  J.//.3/.  Per 
haps  same  as  L<M  i-,\  (4). 

B.  Alpais  ( 1 ),  JSc-j).  1  7.  Sth  century. 
Penitent.  Built  a  monastery  at  Or]). 
Commemorated  by  Jhiyssium,  in  his 
.I'i'litiinis  to  the  Sniiittt  <>f  Jifl«fium.  She 
is  probably  the  mistress  of  1'epin,  mayor 
of  the  palace,  under  Theodoric.  Pepiu 


48 


ST.   AM  A 


put  away  bis  wife,  ST.  PLECTRUDE,  mother 
of  his  sons  Grimoald  and  Drogo,  and 
took,  in  her  stead,  Alpais,  a  beautiful 
girl,  sister  of  a  Frankish  nobleman 
named  Dodo.  St.  Lambert  remonstrated. 
At  first  Pepin  bore  it  meekly,  and  in 
tended  to  recall  his  wife,  but  at  the 
sight  of  Alpais  he  fell  again.  Then 
Lambert  advised  him  to  undertake  a 
pilgrimage  to  Rome.  Alpais  complained 
to  her  brother  that  Lambert  dared  to 
call  her  bad  names,  and  to  say  that  her 
marriage  was  null.  He  knew  the  people 
would  revolt  if  Lambert  suffered  any 
violence,  so  he  tried  to  persuade  him  to 
approve  the  marriage.  Lambert  refused 
to  give  Alpais  the  sacrament.  She 
stirred  up  her  brother  and  several  friends. 
They  attacked  him  in  the  night  and 
murdered  him,  with  his  two  nephews 
and  some  attendants,  in  the  church  of 
SS.  Cosmo  and  Damian,  near  Liege,  in 
the  reign  of  Childebert,  son  of  Theo- 
doric,  about  7<>5.  Boll.,  AA.SS.  Prseter., 
quoting  Rayssium's  Additamenta.  Biog. 
Lifyeoise. 

St.  Alpais  (2),  Nov.  3  (ALPAYDE, 
ELPIDE,  AUPAIES,  AUPAISE,  AUPASIE),  V., 
living  in  1180.  The  Marty  rology  of 
Salisbury,  Nov.  3,  says,  "The  feest  of 
saynt  Alpayde,  a  virgyn  of  poore  byrth, 
and  a  keper  of  beestes  in  ye  felde,  yet 
obtayned  she  of  our  lorde  ye  clere 
understandynge  of  holy  scripture  and 
the  spirite  of  couseyle,  wt  meruaylous 
prudence  ;  yet  was  she  euer  seke  in  body 
and  neuer  hole,  and  lyuecl  many  yeres 
wtout  ony  fode  but  onely  the  sacrament 
of  Chrystes  body,  and  many  tymes  was 
she  rapte  in  to  heuen,  hell,  and  purgatory 
as  by  syght  in  her  soule  and  under 
standynge  of  the  joye  and  payne  ;  she 
had  also  yc  spiryte  of  prophecy,  and  was 
of  many  miracles." 

Mezeray  tells  the  same  story  in  his 
Jlixtory  of  France,  in  describing  the  reign 
of  Philip  Augustus.  He  also  says  she 
lived  at  Cudot,  in  the  diocese  of  Sens, 
and  that,  in  his  time,  her  tomb  was  still 
to  be  seen  in  the  parish  church,  sur 
mounted  by  her  effigy  in  stone,  crowned 
with  flowers,  and  the  people  of  the 
country  affirmed  that  God  sanctioned, 
by  numerous  miracles,  the  devotion  paid 
to  this  saint. 


Ferrarius  says  that  she  died  at  Ton- 
nere,  Nov.  2.  C.V.H.  in  Boll.,  AA.SS.., 
Nov.  3.  Mas  Latrie,  Trt'tsor,  says  she 
died  1211,  and  that  a  contemporary  MS. 
Life  of  her  exists  at  Paris,  in  tho 
Bibliotheque  de  1'Ecole  des  Chartres. 

1881.    2;>3. 

St.  Alpina,  June  22,  3VI.  Mart,  of 
Rdchenau.  AA.SS.,  PrefcUtones,  in. 

St.  Alruna,  June  1(.».  Middle  or 
end  of  llth  century.  Widow  and  nun, 
O.S.B.  Born  Countess  Chambeusiu  n. 
Married  Macelinus.  She  was  a  mother 
and  protectress  of  the  poor,  and  of  con 
vents,  and  was  assisted  in  her  good 
works  by  her  servants  William  and 
Matilda.  She  hung  her  clothes  on  a 
sunbeam.  She  multiplied  the  bread  for 
her  poor  guests.  After  she  had  had 
children  enough,  Macelinus  set  her  free 
to  devote  herself  to  religion.  Bucelinus, 
Men.  Ben. 

St.  Alumna,  or  DOMXA,  one  of  the 
martyrs  of  Lyons,  who  died  in  prison. 
See  BLANDINA. 

St.  Alvenera,  Aug.  2,~>  (ALVERA, 
ALVERENA  ;  perhaps  AMVERTA  and  ALVIRA 
are  the  same).  Supposed  to  have  been 
a  virgin  martyr  late  in  the  3rd  century. 
Her  skull  is  preserved  at  Limeil,  a  little 
town  situated  where  the  Vezere  runs 
into  the  Dordogne,  in  the  diocese  of 
Tarbes,  She  is  mentioned  in  an  ancient 
martyrology,  in  an  old  Benedictine 
monastery  at  Tarbes,  in  the  Pyrenees. 
AA.SS.  Boll.  Appendix. 

St.  Alverta,  V.  at  Agen.  Sister  of 
ST.  FAITH.  Perhaps  same  as  ALVEXERA,. 
whose  skull  is  preserved,  with  great 
veneration,  at  Limeil. 

St.  Alvira,  March  0,  V.  Probably 
the  same  as  ELVIRA,  or  as  ALVENERA. 

Alwerda,   May  22,   V.    f  1(>17>  at 
Magdeburg.      Lived   in   great   sanctity  \ 
and  had  celestial  visions  at  the  time  of 
her  death.     Ditmar,   Chronicle,  book   7. 
AA.SS.  Prseter.,  May  22,  Feb.  7. 

Alwreda,  May  23.  Sister  of  IUM- 
GARD.  Led  a  holy  life  at  Magdeburg. 
Praised  by  Dithmar  and  Laherius.  Pro 
bably  same  as  ALWERDA  ;  both  mentioned 
among  the  Prsetcrnissi,  in  AA.SS.,  Feb. 
7,  May  22  and  2:5. 

St.  Ama  (1),  March  28  (Ax< -A.  ANTA, 
AXIAS),  M.  at  Rome.  AA.SS. 


B.   AMATA 


49 


St.  Ama  (2),  June  <J,  V.  M.  in  Persia. 

St.  Ama  (:J),  TALIDA. 

St.  Ama  (4),  Sept.  24  (AMATA,  AMK, 
AM  UK.  EMM  v,  hi  MA,  YMMA).  b'th  century. 
Honoured  at  Joinville.  Eldest  of  seven 
sisters.  (See  HOYLDA.)  The  name  Imma, 
or  Ame,  is  common  in  Champagne,  and 
St.  Ama  is  the  patron  of  those  so  named. 
Baillet,  Vi<-*.  Perier.  AA.SS. 

St.  Amabilia  (1),  July  1 1,  V.  Her 
bones  and  picture  were  preserved  in 
the  convent  of  St.  Amand,  at  Rouen. 
Supposed  to  bo  daughter  of  a  king  of 
England.  AA.SS.  Appendix. 

B.  Amabilia  (2),  abbess.  12th 
century.  One  of  the  native  patron 
saints  of  Bohemia,  and  patron  especially 
of  the  family  of  Swihowski  or  Schu 
rhowski.  Daughter  of  Wladislaus  I., 
duke  of  Bohemia.  Sister  of  Wladislaus 
II.,  a  religious  man  and  happy  in 
having  pious  children  ;  he  built  the 
noble  monastery  of  Srapow  on  Mount 
Zion.  He  went  to  Jerusalem  in  the 
crusade  with  the  Emperor  Conrad  III., 
in  1 147.  Later,  when  he  had  done  good 
service  to  the  Emperor  in  his  wars 
against  the  Milanese,  in  Italy,  Conrad 
gave  him,  fur  his  ensign,  a  white  lion 
with  two  tails.  Amabilia  had  another 
brother,  Theobald,  and  a  sister,  B. 
ELIZAHKTU,  prioress  of  Duxovia.  Ama- 
bilia  stayed  with  Theobald  and  lived  on 
his  estate.  At  Clatow,  which  seems  to 
have  been  his  property,  she  built  a 
monastery,  dedicated  in  the  name  of  St. 
Lawrence,  for  Benedictine  nuns,  and  was 
their  first  abbess.  She  wrought  miracles 
during  her  life,  and  is  buried  in  her  own 
monastery,  which,  however,  was  after 
wards  given  to  Dominican  monks.  The 
family  of  Swihowski,  or  Schurhowski, 
their  descent  to  Theobald,  and 
worship  Amabilia  with  particular  tle- 
•i  a-  tln-ir  patron  saint.  Chanowski, 
lia  Bohemite  7V;r.  Palacky,  Ge- 
tckichtc  von  ll«li,,n  //. 

St.  Amabilis,  July  2<»,  M.  in  Africa. 
AA.S  ^. 

B.  Amadea,  M-m-h  <'>,  Oct.  2*  (AMA- 
i'K'  M,  AMKDKA  i.     O.S.I  I.     12th  century. 
Called  thr  -  i;i,-s>rd  Nun  of  Savoy."    At 
the  time  that  St.  Amadous  was  bishop  of 
mnc,  his  sister  was  a  Benedictine 


nun  in  Savoy.     He  wrote  eight  homilies 
for  her,  which,  according  to  Burgoner, 
were    so   highly   esteemed   as    to    rank 
among  the  writings  of  the  Fathers  of  the 
Church.     Amadous    and   Amadea    were 
the  children  of  Amadous,  count  of  Haute- 
rive,  and  Petrouilla  his  wife,  daughter 
of  Guido  VII.,   do   Chuignos,  duke  of 
Yienue,   in    Dauphiny.      Amadea    was 
already  a  nun  when  her  mother  died  in 
111'.*.     Her  father  and  a  little  brother 
went  into  the  Cistercian    monastery  of 
Bonneveaux.     Instigated  by  the  Virgin 
Mary,  Amadea  begged  her  brother,  the 
bishop,  to  give  her  the  homilies  he  had 
written.    He  agreed,  on  condition  that  she 
should  give  him  something.     According 
to  Buceliuus,  the  B.  V.  MARY  provided 
her   with   a   woollen   cliyrotheca,  or,  as 
Burgener  relates,  a  linen  cover.     It   is 
impossible  for  us  to  ascertain  of  what 
material    this    article    was    made;    for, 
although    it    was    preserved    for    four 
centuries  in  the  treasury  of  the  cathedral 
of  Savoy,  it  was  lost  or  destroyed  when 
that    church    was    plundered   in    153(3. 
Burgener,    Helvetia  Sancta.     Bucelinus, 
Men.    Ben.,  who   quotes   a    Life   of  St. 
Amadeus  by  Kichard  Gibbon. 

St.  Amalberga  (1  ),  AMELBERGA. 
St.  Amalberga  ( 2),  widow.  Abbess 
of  the  convent  of  Lobbe,  in  1408.  In  a 
collection  of  Images  des  saints,  repre 
sented  holding  her  pastoral  staff  and  a 
knife.  Erroneously  confounded  with 
the  ST.  AMKLBKUOA  who  lived  in  the  8th 
century.  Guenebault,  Diet.  Icon. 

St.  Amaranta,  or  AMARANTUS,  Oct. 
2*,  M.  at  Carthage.  Early  in  the  4th 
century.  AA.SS. 

St.  Amarma,  July  s,  wife  of  a  king 
of  the  Goths.  M.  with  St.  Celian  the 
Scot,  and  his  brothers,  SS.  Aedh  and 
Tadg.  They  were  killed  by  the  governor 
of  the  royal  house,  in  the  hippodrome  of 
the  king's  palace.  This  was  not  later 
than  the  end  of  the  Mh  century,  the 
latest  entry  in  the  Martyrology  »f  Tullagh 
being,  according  to  Oolgan,  899,  Kelly, 

M>rl  Of  T«Ua,jlt. 

St.  Amata  (1),  TALIDA. 

B.  Amata  (2),  or  AIM  HE,  June  10. 
12.;*;.  O.S.I).  In  1217,  when  St.  Dominic 
was  preaching  to  the  nuns  of  San  Sisto, 
at  Komc,  the  first  convent  of  his  order, 


50 


H,  AM  ATA   MARTINI 


some  secular  women  were  present,  and 
among  them,  one  possessed  by  devils. 
The  devil  within  her  cried  out  during  the 
sermon  and  reviled  St.  Dominic  for  taking 
away  his  prey,  saying,  "  These  nuns  were 
mine,  and  you  have  taken  them  away 
from  mo  ;  you  have  cast  me  out  of  four 
persons,  but  out  of  this  one  I  will  not 
go."  The  audience,  scandalized,  desired 
the  young  woman  to  be  silent,  but  in 
vain.  St.  Dominic  twice  forbade  the 
devil  to  speak.  1  >ut  he  answered,  "  There 
are  seven  of  us,  and  we  will  not  be 
quiet."  They  described  the  way  in 
which  each  of  them  had  entered  into 
their  victim,  and  talked  confusedly,  like 
seven  persons  speaking  at  once.  Then 
the  saintly  preacher  raised  his  hand, 
made  the  sign  of  the  cross,  and  com 
manded  the  devils  to  depart  out  of  the 
unhappy  woman,  and  torment  her  no 
longer.  They  obeyed.  She  cast  coals 
and  blood  from  her  mouth,  and  was 
vexed  no  more.  Very  soon  after  this 
she  became  a  Dominican  nun  at  San 
Sisto,  taking  the  veil  from  the  hands  of 
the  preacher  who  had  saved  her.  He 
gave  her  the  name  of  Amata,  and  had  a 
special  affection  for  her  as  long  as  he 
lived.  She  accompanied  B.  CECILIA  (11) 
to  the  new  convent  of  St.  Agnes,  at 
Bologna,  and  led  a  very  holy  life.  She 
was  buried  there  with  BB.  CECILIA  and 
DIANA.  Pio,  Uomini  c  donnc  Illustri  per 
Santita. 

B.  Amata  (.T)  Martini,  Feb.  20. 
13th  century.  Niece  of  ST.  CLARA  of 
Assisi.  Daughter  of  Don  Martini  de 
Corano.  Her  parents  intended  her  to 
be  married.  She  was  pleased  with  dress 
and  worldly  vanity.  St.  Clara  grieved 
for  the  peril  in  which  she  saw  her,  and 
prayed  that  she  might  strive  to  please 
God  rather  than  men.  Her  prayer  was 
heard  ;  Amata  was  soon  inspired  with  a 
disgust  for  the  world  and  desire  for  a 
religious  life.  She  was  afflicted  with 
dropsy  and  a  very  bad  cough  for  a  year. 
St.  Clara  cured  her  by  laying  hands  on 
her  and  making  the  sign  of  the  cross. 
Amata  attended  her  aunt  during  her 
dying  illness,  and  at  the  last  saw  Christ 
standing  beside  her  patient.  Amata 
was  remarkable  for  her  virtue  and 
sanctity  after  the  death  of  Clara.  Buried 


with  her  sister  ST.  BALIJIXA.  AA.SS.  in 
Bcnt'dicta,  March  lit,  quoting  Wadding. 

B.  Ambrosia,  one  of  the  nine  sisters 
of  ST.  RAIXFUEDE. 

St.  Amelberga  ( 1 ),  June  1  <  >,  July  i  <  > 
(AMALBERGA,  AMKI.IA  >.  7th,  sth,  or  (.'th 
century.  Patron  of  women  called  Amale, 
Amalia,  or  Amcl ;  also  of  Maubeuge  and 
Binche.  There  is  great  obscurity  con 
cerning  her  day,  date,  and  history.  She 
is  worshipped  on  the  same  day  as  another 
saint  of  the  name  ;  both  contemporaries 
of  one  or  other  of  the  Pepins,  mayors  of 
the  palace.  She  is  said  to  have  been  a, 
niece  of  Pepin  and  wife  of  Witger,  count 
of  Lorraine,  who  was  perhaps  her  second 
husband.  Her  daughters  were  ST.  Iii:v- 
NELD,  ST.  EHMELIXD,  and  AMELBUKGA, 
who  died  young,  and  perhaps  SS. 
PHARAILD  and  GUDULA.  Amelberga  is 
said,  but  not  without  contradiction,  to 
have  been  the  mother  of  St.  Gengulf  or 
Jingo,  M.,  and  St.  Emibert,  bishop  of 
Cambrai  or  Arras.  She  became  a  nun, 
and  Witger  a  monk.  Her  body  was 
translated  from  Binche,  in  Hainault,  to- 
Lobbes,  where  she  is  worshipped.  Bal- 
deric,  Okrofiique  d' Arras  ct  <!>'  Caml>r«t. 
Le  Glay,  chap.  xvi.  p.  5(i.  Surius. 
Martin.  Boll.,  AA.SS. 

St.  Amelberga  ( '2 ),  or  Amelia,  July 
10,  Dec.  12,  V.  c.  772.  Patron  of  Ghent. 
A  little  print  of  her,  given  by  Piuius  in 
his  Commentary  on  her  history  in  tho 
AA.SS.,  represents  her  standing  on  the 
shoulders  of  a  king,  who  lies  flat  on 
the  ground,  wearing  his  crown  and  hold 
ing  his  sceptre.  At  each  side  of  her 
lies  a  huge  fish;  in  the  background, 
at  one  side,  is  a  draw-well,  at  the 
other,  a  flock  of  geese.  She  wears  a, 
nun's  dress,  holds  a  palm  and  an  open 
book,  and  has  a  glory  round  her  head. 
She  is  sometimes  represented  standing 
on  a  large  fish,  holding  an  abbess's 
pastoral  staff  and  a  book  ;  sometimes  sho 
holds  a  sieve.  She  is  invoked  in  cases 
of  fever,  bruises,  pains  in  the  arms  and 
shoulders,  and  a  disease  of  the  intestines 
called  in  Flanders,  "  dcr  /<n/<i<  //  <7/r/." 
Tho  estate  of  Temsche  on  the  Escaut 
belonged  to  her.  Charles  Mattel  wanted 
to  marry  her,  or,  according  to  another 
account,  it  was  his  son  Pepiu  who  wanted 
to  make  her  his  daughter-in-law  by 


ST,    AMELTRUDE 


51 


marrying  her  to  Charlemagne.  At  first 
Charles  carried  on  the  negotiation  by 
messengers,  but,  as  she  always  refused, 
lie  went  to  her  house  to  try  to  persuade 
her.  She  fled  from  him  and  took  refuge 
in  a  chapel ;  the  king,  or  rather  mayor 
of  the  palace,  got  angry,  tried  to  drag  her 
away  by  the  hand,  and  unintentionally 
hn  >ke  her  arm.  After  this,  by  the  advice 
of  St.  Willibrord,  she  went  to  Bilsen,  or 
Belise,  and  took  up  her  abode  with 
ST.  L A  M»I! ADA,  who  was  abbess  tin  re. 
While  her  marriage  was  still  under  dis 
cussion,  Charlemagne  paid  his  court  to 
the  Abbess  Landrada  for  her  sake,  by  pre 
senting  her  with  a  bear  which  he  killed 
in  the  forest  while  hunting  near  the 
convent.  Amelberga  became  a  nun  under 
Landrada,  and  seems  to  have  succeeded 
her  as  abbess,  or  else  to  have  governed 
a  community  of  nuns  on  her  own  lands, 
as  she  is  represented  with  a  pastoral 
staff.  One  day  she  wanted  to  cross  the 
Escaut,  but  found  no  boat.  An  immense 
sturgeon  offered  to  take  her  across  on 
his  back,  and  landed  her  safely  on  the 
other  side,  in  memory  of  which  the 
fishermen  of  the  place  yearly  offer  a 
sturgeon  at  the  chapel  of  St.  Amelberga 
on  her  day,  July  in.  It  is  even  said 
that  no  sturgeon  is  ever  seen  in  those 
waters  except  on  that  day,  when  one 
always  presents  itself.  She  died  in  a 
good  old  age  at  Bilsen,  and  was  taken  to 
Temsche  to  be  buried.  A  number  of 
sturgeons  escorted  the  boat  up  the  river. 
Twice  in  her  life  she  fed  the  people 
during  famine  on  the  flesh  of  largo  fish 
whieh  appeared  opportunely  in  the  river. 
The  sieve  that  she  holds  in  her  hand 
s  perhaps  a  pun  on  the  name  of  her 
te,  and  denotes  that  she  was  the  pos 
sessor  of  the  lands  of  Terasche,  in  French 
tise  (/"Wx,  a  sieve).  But  a  legend  has 

found  to  account  for  it  otherwise. 

The  people  of  Temsche  complaint-  1  to 

her  that  they  had  only  one  well,  and  that 

was  in  a  field,  the  owner  of  which  gaVo 

them  a  «:reat  deal  of  trouble.     She  went 

11  with  a  sieve,  which  she  filled 

water  and  carried  to  another  field, 
where  .^ho  set  it  down.  Thenceforth 
there  was  an  abundant  supply  of  water 
m  that  place,  but  the  old  well  dried  up. 
A  little  cha|*l  stands  near  her  well,  and 


pilgrims  resort  to  both  for  miraculous 
cures.  Long  after  her  death,  a  woman 
of  wicked  life  prayed  for  conversion  at  tho 
sacred, well.  She  became  unable  to  leave 
the  spot,  retaining  all  her  faculties  while 
she  kept  within  a  certain  short  distance 
of  St.  Amelbcrga's  Well,  but  becoming 
paralyzed  directly  she  attempted  to  pass 
that  boundary.  As  to  tho  geese  in  tho 
pictures,  the  same  story  is  told  of  her  as 
of  ST.  WEREBURG.  All  the  saints  re 
presented  with  geese  have  their  feasts  in 
winter.  A  goose  is  the  Scandinavian 
sign  for  snow.  The  reason  geese  are 
given  to  St.  Amelberga  is  that  she  is 
confounded  with  another  saint  of  tho 
same  name,  whose  ft'tc  is  Dec.  1 2.  Amel 
berga  (2)  was  translated  to  St.  Peter's, 
in  Mont  Blandin,  near  Ghent,  in  870,  in 
tho  reign  of  Baldwin  of  the  Iron  Arm, 
first  count  of  Flanders.  Jft.Jf.  Pinius, 
in  Boll.,  AA.SS.  Peter  Natalis.  Cahicr. 
Bald  win  of  Ninove  tells  of  Charlemagne's 
love  for  her,  and  places  her  death  in 
71.'.*)  ;  bufccalls  her  niece  of  SS.  GERTRI  LI: 
and  BEGGA,  who  lived  a  century  earlier. 

/~*i  T-k     i  •  •  * 


St.  Amelberga  (:J),  Dec.  12,  is  per 
haps  the  daughter  of  AMELBERGA  (1 ),  and 
perhaps  also  the  lady  who  ought  to 
carry  the  goose.  Sec  AlOBLBEBQA  (2). 

St.  Amelia  (1),  May  :;i,  M.  at 
Geruuda,  now  Gerona,  in  Spain. 

St.  Amelia  (2),  June  2,  M.  at 
Lyons,  not  with  BLANPINA.  AA.SS. 

B.  Ameltrude  (1),  or  AMALTRI-I.I:, 
Nov.  1:5,  is.  Mentioned  in  the  history 
of  S.  MAXKI.LKNDA,  a  martyr  of  chastity. 
When  Maxellenda  was  murdered,  her 
parents,  with  great  lamentation  and 
much  ceremony,  proceeded  to  bury  her 
in  tho  church  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  at 
Pomeriolas,  near  Cambrai.  After  three 
years,  a  religious  widow,  named  Aniel- 
trude,  who  had  built  that  church  and 
spent  her  time  in  prayer  there,  heard  a 
voice  in  the  night,  commanding  her  to 
go  to  Vindician,  bishop  of  Cambrai,  and 
urge  him  to  take  up  the  body  of  Maxcl- 
leuda  and  translate  it  to  tho  scene  of  her 
martyrdom,  which  was  done.  Surius. 
(II/HI  •  ••' 

St.  Ameltrude  (2),  Aug.  :;n  (  A.MAL- 

Tiiri.i:,     KMI:M)!:KMI.I.\,     (.  ,   V. 

7th  or  Sth  century.    The  Normans,  under 


52 


B.   AMICIA 


Rollo,  c.  87i5,  took  her  body  from  Eng 
land  to  Jumieges,  in  Normandy,  and 
placed  it  on  the  altar  of  the  monastery 
of  St.  Peter  there.  It  is  supposed  that, 
finding  the  body  of  the  saint  splendidly 
dressed  and  adorned  with  gold  and  silver 
ornaments,  they  carried  it  off,  in  hope  of 
receiving  a  large  sum  as  ransom  ;  but, 
disappointed  in  this  expectation,  they 
left  it  at  Jumieges,  where  it  was  reve 
rently  preserved  by  the  monks.  A 
chapel  was  called  by  her  name,  and  a 
village  near  long  afterwards  bore  the 
name  of  S.  Emendrenille.  Morosini, 
Eceles.  Diet.  AA.SS. 

B.  Amicia,  Feb.  23  (AMIGA,  AMICITIA, 
and  perhaps  ANNA).  O.S.D.  13th  cen 
tury.  Founder  of  Montargis.  Daughter 
of  Simon  IV.  de  Montfort,  earl  of  Leices 
ter  ("J"  1218) ;  her  mother  was  Alice  de 
Montmorenci.  Amicia  was  sister  of  the 
great  Earl  Simon,  called  the  father  of 
the  English  Parliament.  She  married 
Gaucher  de  Joygni,  seigneur  of  Chateau- 
Renard.  This  heroic  matron,  says  Ma- 
noel  de  Lima,  used  all  her  influence  to 
make  her  only  son  take  the  habit  of  St. 
Dominic ;  asking  this  of  God  with  great 
fervour,  she  obtained  it  in  the  hour  of 
that  son's  death.  Being  rid  of  her  hus 
band  and  children,  she  built  a  Dominican 
monastery  at  Montargis,  and  there  took 
the  veil,  and  led  such  a  life  as  to  be 
called  by  all  writers,  "  Blessed."  Lima 
calls  her  Anna,  and  places  her  death  in 
1220  ;  Guenebault,  Diet.  Icon.,  says 
12:;n  ;  and  Pio  says  about  1235,  which 
seems  more  likely.  Lima,  Agiologio 
Doinenico.  Pio,  Donne  Hlmtre  per  Santita. 
Prothero,  Life  of  Simon  de  Montfort. 
L'Art  d>'  verifier  /r.s  Date*,  ii.  482. 

St.  Amida,  or  AXIMIDA,  July  2,  M. 
at  Rome  or  in  Mesopotamia.  Seller,  in 
AAJ98. 

St.  Amie,  Aug.  !»,  M.  in  the  East. 
Guerin. 

St.  Amigradina,  July  2,  M.  at 
Rome  or  in  Mesopotamia.  Soller,  in 
AA.SS. 

St.  Amma,  (1)  ISIPOUA,  (2)  PIAMUN, 
(3)  TAUDA. 

St.  Ammia  (1)  (A.MNKA,  ELI>E,  HEL- 
ris),  one  of  those  among  the  martyrs  of 
Lyons  who,  being  Roman  citizens,  were 
beheaded  instead  of  being  killed,  like 


their  companions,  by  the  beasts  of  tho 
circus.     S-'e  BLANDINA.     AA.SS. 

St.  Ammia  (2),  Aug.  31.  3rd  cen 
tury.  Foster-rnottier  of  St.  Mamas  the 
martyr,  who  was  born  in  prison.  His 
parents,  SS.  Theodotus  and  RUFIXA,  died 
there  for  the  cause  of  Christ,  and  he  was 
taken  by  a  certain  Christian  woman  of 
senatorial  rank,  and  brought  up  kindly. 
KM.  Men.  of  Basil,  in  Ughelli,  It«U<i 
Sacra,  x. 

SS.  Ammonaria  (1  and  2),  Dec.  1 2, 
MM.  2r>(>.  AMMONARIA  (1),  V.,  was 
beheaded  at  Alexandria,  in  the  reign  of 
Decius.  At  the  beginning  of  the  trial, 
she  declared  she  would  not  utter  a  word, 
and  kept  her  resolution,  in  spite  of  long 
and  terrible  tortures.  Her  judge,  not 
liking  to  be  outdone  in  determination  by 
women,  had  her  companions  beheaded 
without  torture  ;  they  were  SS.  MERCUHIA, 
DIONYSIA,  and  AMMONARIA  (2).  JR.M. 
J.  M.  Neale,  Holy  Eastern  Church.  But 
ler,  from  Eusebius. 

St.  Ammonatha,  Dec.  12.  Baring 
Gould  says  she  is  mentioned  in  some 
Greek  calendars,  with  ST.  ANTHA,  on 
this  day.  Perhaps  the  same  as  AMMO 
NARIA. 

St.  Ammonia,  Feb.  10.  M.with  ST 
COINTA  and  1  ( >  others,  at  Apollonia,  i 
Macedonia,  under  the  Emperor  Decius 
Ferrarius,  Topography. 

St.  Ampull,  or  AMPOULE,  is  sometime 
spoken  of  as  if  it  were  the  name  of 
woman,  but  this  is  not  the  case.  It  wa 
the  sacred  phial  used  for  the  anointin 
of  Clovis,  at  his  baptism,  at  Rheims,  i 
41*6.  The  legend  is  that  the  crowd  i 
the  church  was  so  great  that  the  cler 
could  not  get  through  it  to  bring  th 
chrism  (anointing  oil)  to  St.  Rein 
(Remigius)  the  bishop,  as  ho  stood 
the  font  with  his  converts.  The  bishop 
prayed  that  tho  holy  ceremony  migh 
not  be  delayed,  and  lo !  a  white  dov 
appeared,  bringing  a  small  phial  of  oil 
with  which  the  king  was  anointec 
The  same  phial  has  been  used  at  th 
coronation  of  every  king  of  France  dowi 
to  that  of  Charles  X.  in  1825.  It  i 
about  the  size  of  a  walnut ;  it  has  neve 
been  replenished,  yet  it  never  suffer 
any  diminution  of  oil.  Colliii  de  Phmcy 
L'-<j'  ii'lr*  <!"  rilisfoire  de  France. 


ST.   AXASTASIA 


St.  Ana,  V.  Honoured  in  Ireland, 
Jan.  18,  with  ST.  Si  ..in  (2). 

St.  Anarguris,  July  1.  Patron,  in 
some  parts  of  ( » recce,  of  flocks  and  herds. 
In  the  isle  of  Scio,  the  peasants  take 
a  sick  ox  to  the  church  of  St.  Anarguris, 
and  pray  for  its  recovery,  vowing  that,  if 
it  is  cured,  they  will  present  it  to  the 
saint  when  superannuated.  On  July  1 
numbers  of  old  oxen  are  brought  there 
and  killed  on  the  threshold,  and  the 
flesh  is  given  to  the  poor.  MacmiUan's 
MfKjaziiH',  March,  188.%  "Old  Mythology 
iii  Xew  Apparel,"  by  J.  Theodore  Bent. 

SS.  Anastasia  (1)  and  Basilissa, 
April  1  .">.  (HI.  Roman  matrons  of  high 
rank  and  great  wealth.  Disciples  of  the 
Apostles.  They  were  detected  collecting 
and  burying  the  relics  of  the  Christians, 
and  beheaded,  after  having  their  feet  cut 
oil',  and  tongues  torn  out.  R.M.  AA.SS. 

St.  Anastasia  (2),  Dec.  25,  Oct.  20 
and  28,  V.  M.  at  Rome,  in  the  time  of 
Valerian  (2:>:>-200).  Called  "the  Elder," 
because  she  lived  a  generation  earlier 
than  the  great  martyr  Anastasia.  She 
is  honoured  on  the  same  day  as  ANA- 
STASIA  ( .-) ),  and  also  on  Oct.  20  and  28. 
She  is  in  the  R.M.  Oct.  28.  In  the 
Menoloyy  of  Ba#ilt  Oct.  12,  she  was  a 
nun  under  ST.  SOPHIA,  from  the  age 
of  2o.  She  was  accused  to  Probus,  an 
officer  under  Diocletian,  of  worshipping 
neither  the  gods  nor  the  Emperor.  He 
sent  soldiers,  who  broke  into  St.  Sophia's 
house  i  called  inonasferium,  but  there 
were,  at  that  •time,  no  monasteries  in  the 
modern  sense  of  the  word),  and  took 
Anastasia  to  their  master.  Sophia  ex 
horted  her  to  endure  all  things  bravely 
for  the  love  of  Christ.  Probus  advised 
her  to  renounce  her  religion.  She  had 
her  breasts  cut  oil',  her  tongue  cut  out, 
her  teeth  drawn,  and  her  nails  torn  off. 
She  asked  for  water,  and  one  Cyrillus, 
who  was  standing  by,  gave  it  her,  and 
obtained  as  his  reward  the  martyr's 
crown.  Anastasia  was  beheaded,  and 
left  on  the  ground  to  bo  eaten  by  beasts 
and  birds  of  prey.  Sophia,  who  had 
pray«:il  earnestly  that  her  young  discij>l< 
icit  not  yield  to  the  assaults  of  the 
enemy,  came  to  take  her  body,  arid  give 
thanks  that  sin-  was  now  safe  with  Christ. 
J3eing  a  feeble  old  woman  unable  to  walk 


without  a  stick,  much  less  carry  the 
mutilated  body  of  Auastasia,  she  was 
assisted  by  two  angels.  JR.3f. 

St.   Anastasia   (•'$),   Jan.  5,  M.  in 
Africa.     AA.SS. 

St.    Anastasia    (4),    July   29,   M. 
AAJS8. 

St.  Anastasia  (">),  Dec.  25,  V.  M. 
304.    Patron  of  Zara  ;  of  Santa  Severina, 
in  Calabria ;  and  of  weavers.     Called  in 
the  Greek  Church,  "  The  great  martyr 
Anastasia,    the   dissolver   of   charms ; " 
called  in  the    Grseco-Slftv.   JforfyttJlomf, 
given  in  the  AA.SS.,  vol.  3,  '*  Dissolver 
of  chains  and  parmacolytria."     One  of 
the  great  patrons  of  the  Western  Church. 
Her  name  is  in  the  canon  of  the  Mass. 
It  is  also  in   the   Sacramentary   of  St. 
Gregory,  and  other  ancient  catalogues  of 
martyrs.     A  very  old  church  in  Rome  is 
dedicated  in  her  name.     In  the  Acts  of 
St.  Chrysogomis.  which,  however,  are  not 
of  undisputed   authenticity,  it   is   said 
that  he  was  her  spiritual  director ;  that 
she  visited  him  in  prison ;  and  that  she 
was  tortured  and  burned  alive,  by  order 
of  the  prefect  of  Illyricum,  in  304.     Her 
body  was  removed  to  Rome,  and  buried 
in  the  church   which   bears  her  name ; 
but  afterwards  translated  to  Constanti 
nople.     The  Popes  anciently  said  their 
second  Mass  on  Christmas  night  in  the 
church  of  St.  Anastasia,  whence  a  com 
memoration  is  made  of  her  in  the  second 
Mass.     The  story  of  her  persecution  and 
martyrdom  is  given,  with  variations,  by 
Vega    and    Villegas,   quoting    Ado    of 
Troves,  Bede,  and  other  ancient  hagio- 
graphers.     According  to  these  legends, 
she  was  the  daughter  of  Protasius,  or 
Pretaxato,  a  heathen  Roman  nobleman, 
and  PAUSTA,  or  Flavia,  who  was  secretly 
a  Christian.     Anastasia  was  brought  np 
in   the    faith  of  her  mother,    with   the 
assistance  of  St.  Chrysogonus,  a  venerable 
priest    of    the    Christians,    whom   both 
mother  and  daughter  visited  and  assisted 
when  he  was  obliged  to  conceal  himself 
from   the  persecutions  of  the  heathen. 
Fuiista  Ittiiig  dead,  and  Chrysogonns  in 
prison,  Protasius  married  St.  Anastasia, 
against  her  will,  to  Publius,  a  heathen. 
II'-  was  so  angry  at  her  unconcealed  dis 
like  to  the  marriage,  and  at  the  report 
that  she   belonged   to  the  despised  and 


ST.  ANASTASIA 


suspected  sect  of  Christians,  and  used  to 
go  secretly,  with  her  maid,  disguised  in 
men's  clothes,  to  visit  the  prisoners  of 
her  religion,  that  he  at  once  imprisoned 
her,  intending  to  starve  her  to  death,  and 
take  possession  of  her  property.    During 
her  imprisonment,  she  was  comforted  by 
letters  from  St.   Chrysogonus,  who  en 
couraged  her  to  suffer  all  things  rather 
than   renounce   her   religion.      At    her 
husband's  death  she  was  brought  out  of 
prison  with  her  three  maids,  who  had 
shared    her    captivity,   and    who    were 
immediately  put  to  death.     The  judge 
who  condemned  them  was  found  dead  in 
his  bed  next  morning.     His   successor, 
trying  to  persuade  Anastasia  to  abjure 
her  religion,  was  struck  blind,  and,  calling 
on  his  gods  for  help,  was  answered  by  the 
devil,  "  Because   you  have  insulted  the 
spouse  of  Christ,  you  shall  be  tormented 
by  us  in  hell."     He  died  the  same  day. 
Another  judge,  knowing  that  she  had 
great   possessions,   said,   "  Give   me   all 
your  riches,  then   you  will   be   a   true 
Christian ;  I  will  let  you  go  and  worship 
whom  you  please,  and  your  poverty  will 
please   your  God."      Anastasia  replied, 
k*  My  Master  would  have  me  sell  what  I 
have,  and  give  to  the  poor ;  but  you  are 
not  poor,  and  would  spend  all  in  sinful 
luxury."     He  condemned  her  to  die  of 
hunger.     She  was  fed  by  angels,  or  by 
the  spirit  of  her  friend  ST.  THEODOKA,  or 
THEODOTE,  who  had  formerly  helped  her, 
but  who  had  before  this  time  suffered 
martyrdom.     Auastasia  was  next  put  in 
a  boat,  with  a  number  of  other  Christians, 
and  set  adrift  on  the  sea;  they  were  safely 
cast  ashore  on  the  island  of  Palm  aria, 
where   other   Christians    already   lived. 
The  whole  community  were  edified  by 
the  conversation  of  St.  Anastasia,  who 
was   soon  remarked  by  the  authorities 
as  an  irrepressible  Christian,  and  con 
demned  to  bo  roasted  alive.     She  said 
she  did  not  fear  pain,  because  she  had 
Christ  in  her  heart;    so   the   governor 
ordered  her  heart  to  be  brought  to  him 
after  her  death ;  and  he  found  the  name 
of  Jesus  written  on  it.     27<>  companions 
of    her    martyrdom    in    Palm  aria    are 
honoured    with    her.      Other    accounts 
place  the  scene  of  her   martyrdom   in 
Home,  and  say  she  was  buried  by  her 


friend  APOLLONIA  in  her  garden  under 
the  Palatine  hill.  Others  say  Apollouia 
buried  her  in  Dalmatia,  whence  she  was 
translated  to  different  places.  A  laugh 
able  story  is  told  of  her  three  maids, 
AGAPE,  CHIONIA,  and  IKENE.  EM. 
Goldt'ii  L''ij<'ii<l.  Villegas.  Vega.  Butler. 
Baillet.  Greek  and  Russian  calendars, 
Dec.  22.  Mrs.  Jameson. 

St.  Anastasia  (<>)  of  Olivet,  June  2, 
5th  or  early  lith  century.  Called  " Saint " 
by  Philip  of  the  Visitation,  in  his  Hixtory 
of  tlie  Cfti'iiti'litf*.  She  is  mentioned  as 
leading  a  holy,  ascetic  life  on  the  Mount 
of  Olives  in  the  time  of  the  famous  abbot, 
St.  Sabas,  who  died  at  a  great  age  in  5-' 52. 
AA.SS.  Prsetrr. 

St.  Anastasia  (7)  Patricia,  March 
10.  r>»)7.  A  beautiful  patrician  matron 
of  Constantinople,  named  Auastasia,  in 
voluntarily  became  the  object  of  the 
admiration  of  the  Emperor  Justinian, 
and  the  jealousy  of  his  wife  Theodora. 
Anastasia  fled  to  Alexandria,  and  built  a 
convent  five  miles  off,  in  a  little  town 
called  Quinto.  This  convent  stood  for 
many  years  after  her  death,  and  was 
called  from  her  the  convent  of  Patricia. 
A  few  years  after  her  flight,  Theodora 
died ;  and  Auastasia,  hearing  that  Jus 
tinian  was  searching  for  her,  left  her 
retreat  by  night,  and  went  for  protection 
to  the  abbot  Daniel,  who  presided  over 
a  laura  in  the  desert  of  Sceta.  She  told 
him  her  story.  He  put  her  in  a  cave 
some  distance  from  his  dwelling,  for 
bidding  her  ever  to  leave  it,  or  any  one 
else  to  enter  the  place  of  her  retreat,  and 
called  her  Anastasius  the  eunuch.  He 
showed  the  place  to  one  of  his  monks; 
told  him  to  take  a  vessel  of  water  there 
once  every  seven  days,  and  put  it  down 
in  front  of  the  cell ;  then,  having  listened 
to  one  prayer  of  the  recluse,  he  was  to 
come  away.  In  this  manner  Anastasia 
lived  for  20  years,  without  departing 
from  the  rule  given  her  by  Daniel. 
Feeling  herself  near  death,  she  wrote  on 
a  shell  a  request  to  the  abbot  to  come 
and  bury  her.  She  then  hung  the  shell 
outside  her  cell.  Daniel,  warned  in  a 
dream,  told  the  monk  to  go  to  the  cell 
of  the  eunuch  Anastasius,  where  he 
would  find  a  shell,  with  writing  on  it, 
hanging  outside  the  door.  He  did  so, 


ST.  ANEGLIA 


and  brought  it  with  all  speed.  They 
went  to  her,  and  found  her  in  a  fever. 
The  abbot  kneeled  dmvn  beside  her. 
She  sat  up  in  her  lair,  kissed  the  old 
man's  head,  and  entivate.l  him  to  bury 
her  in  the  clothes  she  wore,  and  not  to 
reveal  her  story  or  her  sex  to  any  one ; 
then  she  begged  his  prayers  and  blessing, 
and  gave  him  hers.  When  he  had  signed 
IUT  with  the  cross,  her  face  beamed  with 
celestial  light,  and  illumined  the  cavern 
as  if  many  lamps  had  been  there.  Then 
she  died,  and  the  two  monks  buried  her. 
As  they  were  returning  home,  the  younger 
monk  said,  "  Father,  do  you  know  that 
that  man  was  a  woman?"  The  abbot 
said,  "  I  know  it,  my  sou."  Then  ho 
told  him  her  story,  and  the  reason  of  her 
concealment.  AA.SS.,  from  the  great 
<  of  the  Greek  Church. 

St.  Anastasia  (8),  Sept.  9,  Dec.  s, 
Dec.  !»,  V.  8th  century.  Third  or  fifth 
abbess  of  Horres,  near  Treves.  Buce- 
liuus,  Mrn.  J><  n.  FerrariuSj  Martyrdogy* 
Usuard  and  Molauus,  in  their  Calendars* 

B.  Anastasia  (1J)>  Dec.  24,  V. 
Cistercian  nun  at  Ramey,  in  Brabant, 
appeared,  after  her  death,  to  her  friend 
B.  IDA  of  Xivelle,  dressed  in  splendid 
purple  robes,  adorned  with  jewels,  sur 
rounded  with  a  great  and  glorious  light, 
and  attended  by  a  multitude  of  holy 
virgins.  Ida  asked  her  how  she  had 
earned  this  promotion,  and  she  said, 
"  Inasmuch  as  for  a  long  time  I  patiently 
endured  grievous  bodily  sufferings,  a 
scourge  with  which  my  Father  was 
pleased  to  *  afflict  me,  therefore  I  am 
numbered  among  the  martyrs.  By  the 
four  splendid  stones  that  you  see  in  my 
crown,  are  meant  the  four  principal 
virtues :  Wisdom,  Temperance,  Forti 
tude,  and  Justice."  Having  said  this, 
she  departed.  Bucelinus,  Men.  11*  //. 
Henriquez,  Lil'm. 

B.  Anastasia  (i<>),  Dec.  8.  1240, 
Duchess  of  Pomerania.  Daughter  of 
Mieczhlaws,  duke  of  Poland.  Married, 
in  1177,  as  his  second  wife,  Bogislaw 
I.,  duke  of  Pommrrn  Stettin,  who  died 
March  is,  lls7.  Anastasia  then  built 
the  lied  Monastery,  in  the  dioceso  of 
'  ito,  in  Sclavonia.  She  brought 
thither,  In  nuns  of  the  Priemoustra- 
teusiau  Order,  from  the  Bethlehemito 


monastery,  in  Frisia.  Having  divided 
her  lands  and  goods  between  her  two 
sons,  she  betook  herself  to  her  new 
monastery,  and  lived  there,  in  great 
strictness  and  humility,  as  a  lay-sister. 
Mirocus,  Oi'tliii-x  Prsemonstnitensis  Chr<>ni- 
eoft,  p.  17'.».  Biilow,  Staimnt'if'  In  det 
Piniiii'iTxi-li  7if/x/N<7/t'»  Fiirxtenhausffi,  p.  1. 
Le  Paige,  2}il>L  Or<l.  Prsemonst.  Holyot, 
G/V//VX  JfojuiftftgiMf,  ii.  20. 

St.  Anastaso,  or  ANASTASONE,  July 
18.  Matron  in  Epirus.  Guerin. 

St.  Anatolia  (1),  PHOTIXA  (1). 

St.  Anatolia  (•->),  J"1?  J)»  v-  M-  3rd 
century.  Sister  of  ST.  VICTORIA.  Repre 
sented  (1)  with  torches  and  serpents; 
(U)  delivering  a  man  from  a  dragon  ; 
(3)  breathing  in  the  face  of  a  possessed 
Anatolia  and  Victoria  were 


man. 


banished  from  Rome,  in  the  persecution 
under  Decius,  because  they  had  made  a 
vow  of  virginity.  Anatolia,  after  show 
ing  her  sanctity  by  casting  out  devils, 
was  shut  up  with  a  serpent.  It  did  her 
no  harm,  but  bit  Audax,  her  guard.  She 
took  the  serpent  in  her  hand,  spoke  to 
it,  and  sent  it  away.  She  cured  Audax 
and  converted  him.  They  were  both 
tortured  and  put  to  death.  She  was 
buried  at  Terano,  in  the  Sabino  hills. 
She  is  honoured  with  Audax,  July  '->  ; 
and  with  her  sister  Victoria,  Dec.  ^18  ; 
and  Victoria  has  a  separate  festival, 
Dec.  2:J.  EM.  Boll.,  AA.SS.  Hare, 
Citli'x  of  Italy.  Husenbeth. 

SS/  Anatolia  00  and  Faustina,  or 
F  ELICIT  AS,  July  !>,  MM.  with  seven 
Christian  priests.  Boll.,  AA.SS. 

St.   Ancilla,  April   ,">,  V.  M.    343. 
Maidservant,  either  to  ST.  PIIEUHUTIIA  or 
her  widowed  sister,  and  martyred  with 
them  under  Sapor,  king  of  Persia.     s 
TABBULA* 

SS.  Androna  and  Theodpta,  Nov. 
1,  :;,  MM.,  with  Severus  and  Theodotus. 
Mentioned  in  a  metrical  Greek  Mar- 
tyrology.  G.  V.  II.,  m  ^2l.£S.,  Nov.  3. 

St.  Andropelagia,  Sept.  r..  c.  250. 
V.  M.  with  her  sister  THKCLAOI-  THKOCLA, 
and  CALODOTA,  at  Alexandria,  in  Egypt, 
with  a  priest,  a  deacon,  a  reader,  a  soldier, 
a  sailor,  and  four  other  men.  AA.SS. 

St.  Anea,  May  2s  (AsiA,  ANIAS),  M. 
at  Rome.  AA.SS. 

St.    Aneglia,     ()<:MK,    OGNIES,     or 


56 


ST.   AXGADRESIMA 


ONEGLIA.  8th  century.  Friend  of  St. 
Silvinus,  a  legionary  bishop,  whose  office 
was  to  preach  to  the  heathen  ;  he  died 
at  Auchy,  in  Artois,  718,  and  she  took 
care  of  his  body  and  buried  it.  She  is 
mentioned  by  Henschenius,  in  the  Life 
of  St.  Sih'inun,  Feb.  17,  and  is  there  said 
to  be  the  wife  of  Asquarius  and  mother 
of  Siccidis,  who  is  probably  ST.  SICILDIS. 
Mas  Latrie,  Trt'sor,  says  Aneglia  was 
wife  of  Adalsque,  and  is  honoured  at  the 
Fountain  of  Besse. 

St.  Angadresima  (1),  March  17, 
Oct.  14,  June  27  (ANDRAGASIMA,  ANDRA- 
GASYNA  ;  in  French,  ANGADKEME,  ANGA- 
REME,  or  GADRON  ;  in  the  Martyrology  of 
Salisbury,  GAWDRYSYVE),  V.  "f  c.  695. 
Abbess  of  Oroer,  near  Beauvais.  Patron 
of  Beauvais.  Represented  marked  with 
small-pox,  carrying  coals  in  her  apron. 
Daughter  of  Robert,  keeper  of  the  seals 
under  Clothaire  III.,  and  his  mother  ST. 
BATHILDE.  Robert  betrothed  Angadre- 
sima  to  Ansbert  or  Austrebert,  son  of 
Swivin,  lord  of  Vexin.  As  both  Ausbert 
and  Angadresima  wished  to  remain  un 
married  from  religious  motives,  they 
agreed  that,  if  compelled  by  their  parents 
to  marry,  they  would  pray  to  be  pre 
served  from  any  love  for  or  human 
interest  in  each  other  ;  Angadresima  also 
prayed  that  she  might  lose  whatever  was 
attractive  in  her.  She  was  soon  after 
wards  dreadfully  disfigured  by  small 
pox  or  leprosy,  which  she  regarded  as  a 
good  excuse  for  breaking  off  her  engage 
ment  without  disobeying  her  father. 
Robert  now  took  her  to  Rouen  to  receive 
the  religious  veil  from  St.  Onen,  the 
bishop.  Not  long  after  her  profession 
she  was  ordered  to  bring  some  live  coals 
to  light  the  candles.  She  brought  them 
in  her  aprou,  which  was  not  burnt ;  this 
miracle  is  represented  in  her  pictures. 
She  soon  became  the  spiritual  mother 
of  many  nuns,  whom  she  edified  and 
governed  for  .'Jo  years,  in  an  abbey  which 
her  father  built  for  her  at  Oroer,  near 
Beauvais.  Her  life  is  gathered  from 
that  of  St.  Ansbert,  \\ho  was  to  have 
been  her  husband.  AA.SS.  Baillet. 
Bucelinus.  Cahier.  In  1473,  in  the 
reign  of  Louis  XI.,  the  city  of  Beau\»is 
was  miraculously  defended  against  the 
Burgundian  army  by  this  saint ;  and 


ever  after,  on  her  festival,  women  and 
girls  took  precedence  of  men  in  the 
procession.  Monstier,  Gynecseum,  March 
27. 

St.  Angadresima  (2),  AXDIJAGA- 
SIMA,  AN<;.\I;I:MK,  ANCJARISMA,  etc.  7th 
century.  Abbess  of  Arluc,  near  Antibes. 
Migne. 

St.  Angela  (1)  of  Bohemia,  July  (>. 
]  2th  century.  Carmelite  nun.  Daughter 
of  Wladislaus  II.,  duke  of  Bohemia. 
Sister  of  Ottocar,  first  king  of  Bohemia, 
and  B.  AGNES  of  Bohemia.  Angela 
had  divine  revelations,  and  wrote  several 
books,  one  on  the  Venerable  Sacrament ; 
hence,  in  her  picture  in  the  church  of 
the  Carmelite  fathers  at  Prague,  she  is 
represented  holding  a  book.  (Chanowski, 
Vcstiyia  Bohcmise  Pise.)  A  legend,  from 
the  Speculum  Carmclitanum  in  the  AA.SS. 
is  as  follows  : — 

ST.  ANGELA  OF  BOHEMIA,  V.,  daughter 
of  a  king  of  Bohemia  in  the  12th  cen 
tury,  supposed  to  be  Ladislaus  II.,  was 
born  at  Prague  and  brought  up  in  a 
convent,  from  which  she  escaped  in 
men's  clothes,  to  avoid  being  given  in 
marriage  to  the  son  of  the  king  of 
Hungary,  leaving  a  letter  to  tell  her 
father  that  she  would  belong  only  ta 
Christ.  Her  first  resting-place  was  the 
house  of  some  infidels,  whom  she  con 
verted  and  taught  to  read.  In  the  depths 
of  a  dreary  forest  she  was  hospitably 
received  by  some  barbarians,  who  engaged 
her  for  a  time  as  their  secretary.  Pro 
ceeding  on  her  travels,  she  met  a  company 
of  people  in  a  wood,  one  of  whom,  a 
soldier,  was  going  to  Jerusalem  by  way 
of  Constantinople,  and  gave  her  his 
protection  as  far  as  the  latter  city.  In 
the  church  of  St.  Sophia  there,  Christ 
appeared  to  her  and  gave  her  a  Latin 
book  of  prayers,  which  were  those  of  the 
order  of  the  ]  brothers  of  our  Lady. 
She  next  went  with  the  soldier  to 
Jerusalem,  where  a  woman  gave  her 
clothes,  and  took  her  to  the  prioress  of 
the  Sisters  of  our  Lady,  who  had  seen 
her  in  a  dream,  and  having  looked  at 
her  book  and  found  her  to  be  the  same 
as  the  woman  of  her  vision,  received  her 
into  the  sisterhood.  Here,  before  long, 
she  became  prioress,  and  so  continued 
for  35  years.  During  that  time,  by 


II.    AXCJKLA 


57 


IUT  prayers,  she  rescued  her  monastery 
from  the  Mamelukes,  Ethiopians,  and 
Saracens,  and  obtained  rain  by  her  inter 
cessions.  Afterwards,  being  warned  that 
great  troubles  were  coming  on  her 
own  country,  and  that  it  stood  in  need 
of  IHT  prayers,  she  returned  to  Prague, 
where  she  is  said  to  have  died  towards 
the  end  of  the  12th  century. 

The  first  invasion  of  the  Mamelukes 
was  in  1'J .">'•,  and  it  was  repeated  from 
time  to  time  till  1516,  so  that  if  it  is 
true  that  she  rescued  her  convent  from 
these  infidels,  she  must  have  lived  at 
least  (in  years  later  than  she  is  said  to 
have  done.  Pinius,  however,  the  editor 
of  this  volume  of  the  AA.SS.,  does  not 
appear  to  consider  any  part  of  the  legend 
reliable.  Probably  it  is  a  romance 
added  to  the  life  of  the  sainted  Princess 

A.NGKI.A   OF  liOHEMIA. 

B.  Angela  (2)  of  Foligno,  Jan.  4, 
March  :}(>.  1249-1300.  Patron  of  Foligno. 
:'.i.l  O.S.F.  Represented  (1)  with  a 
crown  of  thorns  in  her  hands  ;  (2)  with 
all  the  instruments  of  the  Passion  in 
her  arms,  a  crown  of  thorns  on  the 
ground  at  one  side  of  her,  and  a  crown 
of  roses  and  thorns  at  the  other.  Of  a 
distinguished  family  of  Umbria,  born  at 
Foligno,  a  few  miles  from  Assisi.  Her 
mother,  a  good  woman,  gave  her  some 
religious  instruction  ;  but,  according*  to 
tin-  custom  of  the  time,  so  much  deplored 
by  ST.  ANGELA  DE  MERICI,  her  education 
a  good  deal  neglected.  Angela 
married  young,  and  had  several  children. 
Sin:  was  not  a  good  wife  or  mother. 
Sin;  was  self-indulgent  and  fond  of 
pleasure,  and  had  plenty  of  money,  both 
fr.,m  her  own  family  and  from  her 
husband,  to  procure  everything  she 
wanted.  She  had  occasional  serious 
thoughts,  and  fears  about  her  salvation. 
.vus  kind  and  generous,  and  retained 
in. in  lit  r  motht -r's  early  teaching  a  great 
v«  ncration  for  St.  Francis.  While  break 
ing  tin:  commandments  she  sometimes 
said  to  herself  that  if  death  overtook  her 
so  far  from  her  duty  to  her  husband, 
her  children,  and  to  (Jod,  she  would 
!•••  lost;  but  sh<;  shrank  from  changing 
all  her  habit--,  not  liking  to  excite 
observation,  and  not  having  courage  to 
break  \vith  her  life  of  ease  and  pleasure. 


At  last  it  happened  that  her  mother, 
her  husband,  and  all  her  children  di«-d 
in  a  very  short  time.  Her  grief  for  their 
loss,  and  her  startling  conviction  of  the 
suddenness  with  which  souls  may  bo 
called  away  from  this  life  to  the  o"th«-r, 
led  her  to  withdraw  at  once  from  her 
former  pursuits  and  companions,  and 
give  herself  up  entirely  to  devotion. 

She  joined  the  Third  Order  of  St. 
Francis,  and  tried  to  repent  and  amend ; 
but  at  first  did  not  confess  fully  and 
honestly,  because  the  confessors  were  so 
strict,  and  she  was  so  ashamed  of  the 
sins  into  which  she  had  fallen.  She  re 
ceived  the  Holy  Sacrament  without 
having  made  a  full  confession. 

The  devil  kept  tempting  her  at  times 
to  return  to  her  old  vices  and  pleasures, 
sometimes  to  commit  sins  even  greater 
than  any  she  had  been  guilty  of,  and 
sometimes  to  despair  of  forgiveness  and 
oven  of  repentance.  This  struggle 
lasted  about  two  years.  She  declared 
she  would  rather  bo  subject  to  all  the 
diseases  in  the  world,  and  all  the 
tortures  and  wounds  of  the  martyrs,  than 
again  undergo  such  temptations.  Then 
came  peace,  for  she  began  to  love  God, 
and  to  see  that  Ho  was  the  proper  object 
of  her  thoughts  and  aspirations.  She 
cared  no  longer  for  any  thing  or  person 
on  earth,  not  even  for  the  saints  and 
angels,  but  for  God  alone.  After  this 
the  devil  again  tempted  her  to  sin,  to 
despair,  and  to  kill  herself,  but  she  came 
to  trust  in  the  love  of  God.  She  had  a 
friend,  a  devout  woman  named  Pasqua- 
lina,  who  assisted  her  in  her  charitable 
works,  and  went  with  her  to  visit  the 
poor.  After  they  had  given  all  their 
property  away,  Angela  said  to  Pasqua- 
liiia,  "Let  us  go  and  visit  our  Lord 
Christ  in  the  hospital  of  San  Feliciano." 
They  wanted  to  give  the  patients  some 
thing.  All  they  could  muster  was  a 
handkerchief  and  a  cloth  of  little  value. 
These  they  got  the  servant  of  the 
hospital  to  go  and  sell  for  them.  In 
spite  of  her  reluctance,  she  consented, 
and  brought  them  back  twice  as  much 
money  as  they  expected.  With  this 
they  sent  her  to  buy  comforts  for  some 
of  the  most  sulfering  patients.  Mean 
time  the  two  friends  washed  the  lepers 


58 


.  VEX.  ANGELA 


and  thoso  who  Lad  dreadful  sores  ;  they 
made  the  beds,  and  said  words  of  con 
solation  and  kindness  to  the  poor  sick 
people. 

When  Angela  was  dying,  1300,  she 
said,  "  Now  my  soul  is  washed  and 
cleansed  in  the  blood  of  Christ.  He  will 
not  send  saints  or  angels  for  me,  He 
will  come  Himself."  She  was  buried  in 
a  chapel  of  the  church  of  St.  Francis 
in  Foligno.  She  was  beatified  by 
Innocent  XII.  in  1603.  Jacobilli,  Santi 
dell'  Uinbria,  gives  other  incidents  of  her 
life  besides  these. 

There  exists  a  very  curious  little  book 
of  Visions  and  Instructions,  dictated  by 
her  to  Arnold,  a  Franciscan  monk  and 
her  confessor,  and  revised  by  her  after 
lie  had  written  it.  He  adds  some  little 
explanations  and  an  account  of  her  death. 
A  copy  in  the  British  Museum  is  sup 
posed  to  have  been  printed  at  Venice  in 
1500.  It  is  reprinted  as  Part  V.  of  the 
JKblioiheca  Mystica  et  Ascetica,  1840. 
There  is  an  English  translation  by  a 
secular  priest.  In  this  book  Angela  tells 
that,  while  she  was  trying  to  repent 
and  was  being  converted,  she  went 
through  18  steps  before  she  arrived  at 
knowing  the  imperfections  of  her  life. 
Collin  de  Plancy  gives  a  short  sketch  of 
her  in  his  Saintes  ct  Bienlieurcuses. 
Bussy,  in  his  Courtisannes  de  venues 
Saintes,  mistakenly  gives  the  date  of 
her  death  as  1588.  Boll.,  AA.SS., 
Jan.  4.  A.R.M.,  Mart.  Seraphici  Ordinis, 
March  30. 

Ven.  Angela  (3)  Chigi.  14th 
century.  3rd  O.S.A.  Of  the  powerful 
family  of  the  Chigi,  lords  of  Macerato. 
Niece  of  B.  John  Chigi  of  Siena,  for 
some  time  a  monk  in  the  old  convent  of 
Val  d'Aspra.  She  gave  all  her  goods  to 
the  convent  of  Saut  Antonio  at  Val 
•dAspra,  and  took  the  veil  there  in  13»'»<i. 
Representations  of  her  as  a  saint,  and 
bearing  the  title  of  "  Blessed,"  were 
common  in  Italy.  A  short  history  of 
her  life  was  appended  to  that  of  her  holy 
uncle,  published  in  Kome  by  Father 
Capizucchi,  master  of  the  sacred  apostolic 
palace.  Torelli,  Secoli  A<joxt'nil«ni,  VI. 

B.  Angela  (4).  A  'Eomau  of  the 
Order  of  Hospitallers  of  the  Holy  Ghost. 
"f  c.  1450.  In  Van  Lachom's  Collection  <>f 


Foundresses  of  Orders,  published  1030, 
she  is  represented  with  a  cross  crosslet 
on  her  cloak.  Guenebault,  Diet.  Icono- 
grctphigue. 

B.  Angela  (5)  of  San  Severino,  in 
the  march  of  Ancona.  O.S.D.  Perhaps 
14th  century.  Pio. 

B.  Angela  (O)  Serafina,  March 
24,  Feb.  4  (ANGELICA  SERAPHINA,  CORRE- 
GIARA,  CORTREGIARA).  "J'1512.  Dominican 
nun,  under  B.  ANTONIA  OF  BRESCIA,  in 
the  convent  of  ST.  CATHERINE  THE 
MARTYU,  at  Ferrara.  She  was  never 
guilty  of  mortal  sin,  and  died  in  the 
odour  of  sanctity.  Henschenins,  in  the 
AA.SS.,  mentions  Angela  as  a  disciple 
of  Antonia,  but  places  her  among  the 
Prsetermissi,  March  24.  Serafino  Hazzi, 
Predicatori.  Pio,  Uomini  Illustri  per 
Santita,  Feb.  4. 

St.  Angela  (7)  de  Merici,  May  31, 
Jan.  27,  Feb.  21,  June  2.  Called  also 
St.  Angela  of  Brescia.  1470  or  1474- 
1540.  Founder  of  the  Order  of  Ursu- 
lines.  Represented  with  a  ladder  beside 
her.  Born  at  Desenzano,  a  little  town 
on  the  western  shore  of  the  lake  of 
Garda,  six  or  seven  leagues  from  Brescia. 
Her  father  was  Giovanni  Merici;  her 
mother,  of  the  family  of  Biancosi,  of 
Salo.  They  were  in  a  comfortable  and 
respectable  position,  and  were  exemplary 
and  religious.  They  had  several  chil 
dren,  of  whom  Angela  was  the  youngest. 
Every  evening  they  gathered  their  little 
flock  together  for  religious  reading, 
sometimes  from  the  Bible,  sometimes 
from  accounts  of  the  hermits  and  fathers 
of  the  desert.  Angela  and  her  sister, 
like  most  children  of  any  imagination, 
dramatized  these  stories,  and  played  at 
hermit  life  in  their  own  room.  They 
were  still  very  young  when  both  their 
parents  died,  and  the  two  sisters  went 
to  live  with  their  mother's  brother,  at 
Salo.  Soon  after  they  had  taken  up 
their  abode  in  their  uncle's  house,  both 
girls  excited  great  consternation  by 
their  disappearance.  After  an  anxious 
search,  Biaucosi  found  the  children  in  a 
cave,  where  they  had  withdrawn  from 
the  world,  with  the  intention  of  living 
like  hermits.  Ho  brought  them  home, 
but  encouraged  their  taste  for  religious 
seclusion.  It  was,  perhaps,  at  this  time 


ST.  ANGELA 


59 


tluit  Angela,  to  avoid  admiration  and 
vanity,  washed  her  spleudid  golden  hair 
\vith  sooty  water  to  dim  its  lustre. 
A,Vhcn  the  girls  were  nearly  grown  up, 
the  elder  one  died  suddenly  without  thu 
sacraments.  Angela  feared  she  might 
liavc  departed  with  some  uuforgiven  sin 
on  her  soul,  and  might  bo  eternally  lost. 
She  prayed  and  longed  intensely  to  bo 
red  of  her  sister's  salvation.  She 
grieved  and  fretted  so  distressingly  that 
her  uncle  tried  to  divert  her  thoughts 
from  the  subject.  One  day  ho  sent  her 
to  his  farm  to  look  after  the  haymakers. 
On  the  way  thither  her  agonized  prayers 
\\vre  answered  :  she  saw  a  luminous 
cloud  before  her,  and  as  she  drew  nearer 
and  gazed  intently,  she  discerned  in  it 
a  countless  multitude  of  angels  and 
saints,  in  the  midst  of  whom  was  her 
lost  sister.  Angela  had  not  yet  received 
her  first  communion,  though  she  had 
long  passed  the  age  at  which  it  has  gene 
rally  been  customary  among  Catholics 
to  observe  that  sacred  rite.  She  now 
begged  to  be  allowed  to  perform  this 
duty,  and  from  that  time  she  became 
more  devout  and  ascetic  than  ever.  She 
enrolled  herself  in  the  Third  or  secular 
Order  of  St.  Francis,  fasted  to  excess, 
would  have  nothing  of  her  own,  and,  in 
spite  of  her  uncle's  objections,  turned  all 
the  furniture  out  of  her  room,  ami  slept 
on  a  mat  with  a  stone  for  a  pillow. 

After  the^death  of  Biancosi,  she  re 
turned  to  Deseuzano,  with  some  like- 
minded  eompanions ;  sho  thought  they 
should  try  to  be  of  use  to  their  fellow- 
iiiivs.  Sho  said  that  the  scandals 
and  abuses  in  society  arose  from  the 
want  of  order  in  families  ;  the  faults  of 
1'ainilirs  were  generally  traceable  to  the 
hers,  and  the  reason  there  were  so 
really  Christian  mothers  was  that 
girls  wen:  HO  ba-lly  brought  up.  This 
subject  being  much  in  her  thoughts,  one 
day,  as  sho  was  in  the  fields  with  her 
.<ls,  sin-  stayed  ti  little  apart  from 
tln-m  to  pray,  and,  looking  up,  sa\v  in 
tin-  vault  of  heaven  a  brilliant  ladder, 
on  which  an  in  Unite  number  of  girls 
Were  usri-nding  two  and  t\vo,  wearing 
beautiful  crowns,  and  led  by  an 
"While  sho  watched  and  wondered,  sho 
h«ard  a  voice  say,  "Courage,  Angela! 


before  you  die  you  shall  establish  in 
Brescia  a  company  of  virgins  like  those 
you  have  seen  here."  The  very  next 
day  she  and  her  companions  began  to 
collect  little  girls  and  teach  them  ;  at 
the  same  time,  they  visited  and  ministered 
to  the  sick,  and  sought  out  sinners.  The 
devil,  in  the  form  of  an  angel,  tempted 
her  to  vain-glory,  but  sho  came  safely 
through  this  trial. 

Sho  joined  a  band  of  pilgrims  going 
to  the  Holy  Land.  In  the  island  of 
Candia,  one  of  their  resting-places,  An 
gela  became  blind.  Nevertheless,  sho 
continued  her  journey,  desiring  to  tread 
the  ground  her  Lord  had  trod,  and  to 
visit  the  scenes  of  His  life  and  death, 
although  it  pleased  God  to  deny  her  the 
happiness  of  seeing  them.  Not  until 
sho  arrived  again  at  Candia,  on  her 
return  journey,  did  she  recover  her  sight. 
Passing  through  Venice,  she  was  invited 
by  the  Senate  to  take  the  direction  of 
all  the  hospitals  there,  but  she  departed 
quietly,  and  returned  to  Brescia.  Next 
year  she  went  to  Rome  for  the  jubilee 
of  1. ">-!.'>,  and  was  presented  to  the  Pope, 
Clement  VII.,  by  his  chamberlain,  Paul 
do  la  Pouille  (di  Apuglia ),  who  had 
made  the  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem  iu 
her  company.  The  Pope,  having  heard 
much  of  her  sanctity  and  miracles,  re 
ceived  her  very  graciously,  and  proposed 
to  place  her  at  the  head  of  a  house  of 
hospital  sisters,  or  that  sho  should  remain 
in  Rome  and  take  charge  of  various 
houses  devoted  to  works  of  mercy.  Re 
membering  her  vision,  she  felt  bound  to 
decline  the  flattering  offer,  and  explained 
to  his  Holiness  the  reason  she  must 
return  to  Brescia.  She  did  so,  but  about 
1 1  >  years  more  elapsed  before  she  founded 
her  celebrated  order.  Meantime  her 
fame  was  growing.  In  152l>  tho  Duke 
of  Milan,  of  tho  house  of  Sforza,  came 
to  Brescia,  to  beg  her  to  adopt  him  as 
her  spiritual  son,  and  to  take  his  do 
minions  under  her  protection.  Tho  King 
of  France,  the  Pope,  and  tho  Kmperor, 
were  fighting  for  his  as  well  as  other 
possessions,  and  the  duke  probably 
thought  nothing  but  the  intervention  of 
a  saint  could  restore  his  fortunes.  The 
people  iled  from  I5n->ei;i,  and  Angela 
sought  an  asylum  iu  Cremona.  While 


GO 


VEX.   ANGELA 


there,  to  mollify  Heaven  in  favour  of  her 
afflicted  country,  she  macerated  her 
innocent  body  until  her  fastings  and 
austerities  brought  her  so  near  the  gates 
of  death  that  her  recovery  was  deemed 
miraculous. 

In  this  same  year,  152i>,  the  Emperor, 
the  King  of  France,  and  the  Pope  came 
to  terms,  and  peace  was  restored.  Angela 
then  returned  to  Brescia,  and  while  at 
tending  Mass,  she  fell  into  an  ecstasy, 
during  which  she  was  seen  by  several 
persons  to  be  raised  from  the  ground 
and  to  float  in  the  air  for  a  considerable 
time.  Many  revelations  were  made  to 
her,  and  she  told  things  she  could  not 
possibly  have  known  by  means  less  than 
supernatural.  Notwithstanding  all  these 
favours  of  God,  and  her  great  progress 
in  spiritual  life,  she  still  delayed  to 
found  the  order. 

One  night,  in  a  vision,  Christ  up 
braided  her  with  neglect  of  her  voca 
tion.  After  this  she  felt  she  could  no 
longer  defer  the  execution  of  her 
plan.  She  stirred  up  her  companions, 
and  on  Nov.  15,  1535,  they  went  to 
the  prisons,  the  hospitals,  and  the  poorest 
and  lowest  places,  and  each  collected 
into  her  own  house  all  the  young  girls 
she  could  find,  and  began  to  instruct 
them.  At  first  it  was  merely  an  asso 
ciation  ;  the  associates  did  their  work 
each  under  her  parents'  roof.  They 
could  thus  go,  in  their  ordinary  clothes, 
into  houses  that  would  have  been  closed 
against  them  had  they  worn  the  dis 
tinctive  dress  of  a  religious  order,  because 
at  this  time  the  doctrines  of  Luther  were 
beginning  to  leaven  society.  Angela 
would  not  be  called  founder,  nor  allow 
the  new  order  to  be  named  after  her; 
but  as  St.  Ursula  is  the  patron  of  all 
who  devote  themselves  to  the  care  and 
education  of  young  women,  she  called 
her  companions  Ursuliues.  She  gave 
them  a  rule,  but  did  not  compel  them 
to  live  together  or  to  bring  any  dowry 
to  the  association.  They  only  took 
simple  vows.  With  the  approbation  of 
the  bishop  of  Brescia,  she  was  superior 
of  her  own  community  for  about  five 
years,  but  did  not  live  to  see  the  triumph 
of  her  order.  She  died  on  Jan.  27, 
154o,  and  was  buried  in  the  church  of 


St.  Afra,  over  which  a  miraculous  light 
was  seen  by  all  the  city  for  several 
nights.  She  was  venerated  as  a  saint 
by  the  inhabitants  of  Brescia  long  before 
her  death,  and  multitudes  resorted  to  her 
tomb  to  obtain  favours  of  God  through 
her  intercession. 

Pope  Paul  III.,  soon  after  her  death, 
gave  the  new  order  his  sanction,  and  St. 
Charles  Borromeo,  the  young  archbishop 
of  Milan,  seeing  its  immense  usefulness 
in  Brescia,  established  a  branch  in  Milan. 
In  1572  Gregory  XIII.  ra'ised  it  to  the 
rank  of  a  religious  order,  under  the  rule 
of  St.  Augustine,  and  bound  its  members 
to  the  cloister. 

The  Institute  of  the  Ursuliues  consists 
of  several  congregations,  differing  in 
minor  matters,  but  all  having  for  their 
object  the  education  of  girls.  There 
were  more  than  300  houses  of  this  order 
in  France  before  the  Revolution,  one  of 
the  most  famous  being  that  in  the  Rue 
St.  Jacques,  Paris,  where  Madame  de 
Maintenon  was  a  boarder. 

St.  Charles  Borromeo  busied  himself 
about  her  canonization,  but  it  was  not 
accomplished  in  his  lifetime.  She  was 
inscribed  among  the  saints  by  Clement 
XIII.  in  1768;  beatified  by  Pius  VL, 
and  solemnly  canonized,  in  1807,  by 
Pius  VII.  She  is  claimed  as  a  member 
both  by  the  Augustinian  Order  and  the 
Third  Order  of  St.  Francis.  Her  narn® 
is  in  the  R.M.,  Jan.  27,  the  day  of  her 
death,  and  also  May  31.  The  Bene 
dictines  transfer  her  festival  to  June  2, 
and  the  Romano-Seraphic  Order  to  Feb. 
21.  (Appendix  EM.)  Her  Life,  pub 
lished  by  Duffy,  in  the  Young  Christian's 
Lilti'ftry.  Gueriu,  Lcs  Pctits  Bollan* 
(Hub-*,  xii. 

Ven.  Angela  (8)  Mary  Astorch, 
Sept.  2t>.  10l»2-17»>5.  Born  at  Barce 
lona.  Of  a  rich  family,  who  opposed  her 
vocation.  She  became  a  Capuchin  nun 
in  Barcelona,  was  appointed  mistress  of 
the  novices  in  a  new  convent  of  her  j 
order  at  Saragossa,  and  afterwards  supe 
rior  of  another  which  she  built  at 
Murcia.  She  resigned  that  office,  and 
devoted  herself  to  her  own  salvation. 
Pius  IX.,  in  1851,  published  a  decree, 
pronouncing  her  possessed  of  heroic 
virtue.  Leon,  Aur«>l<'. 


B.  ANGELINA  COKUAUA 


01 


Yen.  Angelina  (1),  Oct.  <».  -fv  n  7". 
Nun  at  Fontevruult,  in  Anjou.  She  was 
of  ono  of  the  noblo  families  of  Anjou, 
and  was  consecrated  to  God,  in  the  con 
vent  of  Fontevrault,  by  her  parents,  in 
her  childhood.  She  had  the  most  beau 
tiful  voice  that  ever  was  heard  in  the 
choir  there.  A  time  came  when  sho  had 
to  choose  whether  sho  would  take  the 
veil  or  leave  the  convent  and  live  in 
the  world.  A  dream  decided  her  voca 
tion,  and  sho  became  a  nun.  Sho  had 
paroxysms  of  love  to  God.  She  died 
young,  about  1 1 7<  >.  Her  biographer  ex 
horts  his  readers  to  ask  her  intercession, 
but  it  does  not  appear  that  she  has  ever 
been  honoured  with  public  worship. 
Chambard,  S<i!nt$  Pcrsonnat/es  (FAlUO*, 

St.  Angelina  (2).  Hth  century. 
Wife  of  St.  Lazarus.  The  elder  of  two 
SS.  Angelina,  queens  of  Servia,  Helen 
Angelina  Militza,  afterwards  in  re 
ligion  Eri-HKMiA,  or  EUGENIA,  was  of  tho 
illustrious  family  of  the  Xeemanides  and 
related  to  Stephen  Doushan.  She  mar 
ried  Lazarus  Grbljanovich,  the  last  in 
dependent  king  of  Servia.  Ho  came  to 
tho  throne  in  1371.  He  was  grandson 
of  Stephen  Doushan.  They  had  eight 
children.  Lazarus  was  killed,  June  15, 
',  in  the  battle  of  Kossowa,  whore 
the  Turks  defeated  tho  Christian  host 
with  great  slaughter,  and  made  them 
selves  masters  of  Servia  and  the  neigh 
bouring  states.  Bajazet,  the  conqueror, 
gave  the  enslaved  kingdom  jointly  to 
Stephen  the  son,  and  Wuk  Brankovich 
the  son-in-law,  of  Lazarus  and  Angelina, 
and  took  their  daughter  Olivera  for  one 
of  his  wives.  Stephen  found  his  position 
so  difficult  that  ho  withdrew  for  a  time, 
with  his  mother  and  a  younger  brother, 
Vuk  or  Vlk,  to  tho  monastery  of  liussi- 
kon,  on  Mount  Athos,  where  tho  monks' 
republics  were  respected  and  left  in 
peace  by  all  tho  belligerents.  Ho  was 
accused  of  plotting  with  tho  Hungarians 
:ist  liis  over-lord,  and  Angelina  had 
to  go  to  r.ajuzet  to  convince  him  of  her 
son's  innocence.  Angelina,  Lazarus,  and 
hen  wero  universally  beloved  in 
their  lives,  and  were  worshipped  as  saints 
after  their  death.  La/arus  was  accounted 
a  martyr.  Two  different  monasteries, 
liavauitsch  and  Vrdnik,  claim  to  have 


his  body  in  their  church,  and  pilgrims 
go  to  visit  his  shrine  at  each  place.  At 
Vrdnik  lie  appears  wrapped  in  the  em 
broidered  mantle  which  ho  is  .said  t  • 
have  worn  at  Kossowa.  Stephen  died 
in  1427,  and  was  buried  at  Belgrade. 
Mas  Latrie  says  that  a  chrysobull  of 
Juno  H,  1305,  in  favour  of  the  monastery 
of  Kussikon,  on  Mount  Athos,  emanates 
from  the  nun  Eugenia,  her  sou  prince 
Stephen  Lazarevich,  and  his  brother 
Vuk.  Among  tho  spoils  of  war  in  the 
Serai,  at  Constantinople,  hangs  tho 
armour  of  a  son-in-law  of  Angelina  and 
Lazarus,  Milosch  Kobilovich,  who  killed 
the  Sultan  Murad  at  Kossowa,  and  was 
taken  by  the  guards  and  hewn  in  pieces. 
Martinov,  Annux  Ecclcsiasticus,  June  15, 
July  1!>.  Hammer,  Q&ekickte  dc#  Otto- 
manitcken  JRficJtx,  i.  P.  J.  V.  Safai-ik, 
Gfsch.  der  Scrbischen  Litcratur.  C.  J. 
Jirecek,  Gcsch.  der  Bulyaren.  Meyer, 
Conversations  Lexikon.  Lebeau,  B<i* 
Kinjn'r<;  xx.,  xxi.  Mas  Latrie,  Trcsor  de 
Okronologie. 

B.  Angelina  (3)  Corbara,  July  14, 
15,  and  Dec.  22,  V.  of  Marsciauo.  1377- 
1435.  Called  in  her  own  order  LA  B. 
MINISTUA,  B.  CONTESSA.  Countess  of 
Civitella  and  Montegiove.  Patron  of 
Foligno  and  of  the  family  of  Corbara. 
Founder  of  tho  cloistered  nuns  of  the 
Third  Order  of  St.  Francis,  of  tho  con 
vent  of  St.  Anna  at  Foligno,  and  of  15 
other  houses  of  the  same  order  in  dif 
ferent  parts  of  Italy.  Represented  in 
the  habit  of  tho  Third  Order  of  St. 
Francis,  holding  a  church  in  one  hand, 
as  a  founder,  and  a  flaming  heart  or  a 
ball  in  tho  other. 

Her  father,  Giacomo  della  Corbara, 
was  of  an  ancient  and  powerful  family, 
and  very  rich  ;  he  was  count  of  Corbara, 
Montemarta,  Tisiguiauo,  and  several 
other  castles  and  villages  in  the  terri 
tories  of  Orvieto,  Todi,  and  Perugia. 
Her  mother  was  Countess  Anna  dc  Bur- 
^ari,  of  tho  family  of  the  counts  of 
Marsciano.  Angelina  was  born  at  Monte 
Giovc,  ono  of  her  father's  fortresses,  10 
miles  from  Orvioto.  Sho  was  pious  from 
her  earliest  childhood,  and  at  the  ago  of 
1 2  dedicated  herself  to  Christ  with  a 
vow  of  virginity.  The  first  miracle  re 
corded  of  her  is  that,  ill  her  enthusiastic 


02 


B.  ANGELINA  CORBARA 


love  of  almsgiving,  she  took  meat  out 
of  the  pot  in  her  father's  kitchen  to  give 
to  the  poor.  The  cook  was  very  angry, 
and  complained  that  she  gave  her  chari 
ties  at  the  expense  of  his  character, 
as  he  would  be  suspected  of  stealing ; 
whereupon  the  meat  was  miraculously 
increased  to  the  original  quantity. 

Her  beauty,  amiability,  and  connec 
tions  soon  brought  numbers  of  suitors 
for  her  hand,  among  whom  her  parents 
chose  the  Count  of  Civitella,  in  the 
Abruzzi.  In  vain  did  Angelina  beg  to 
be  allowed  to  remain  unmarried.  Her 
father  threatened  to  kill  her  unless  she 
consented  to  an  alliance  with  the  count. 
It  was  revealed  to  her  in  a  vision  that 
she  might  obey  and  still  keep  her  vow. 
On  the  day  of  the  marriage,  she  threw 
herself  on  her  knees  before  a  crucifix, 
and  implored  the  Saviour  to  remember 
that  she  had  dedicated  herself  to  Him. 
An  angel  appeared  and  comforted  her. 
Meantime  the  count,  wondering  where 
she  was  and  what  she  was  doing,  looked 
through  a  crack  in  the  door,  and  saw  a 
young  man  talking  to  her.  He  broke 
into  the  room  in  a  fury,  and  found  her 
alone.  He  asked  to  whom  she  had  been 
talking.  Angelina  then  confessed  all 
the  circumstances.  From  that  moment 
he  considered  himself  privileged  in 
having  under  his  care  a  virgin  espoused 
to  Christ.  He  followed  her  example 
and  advice  in  taking  a  vow  of  celibacy, 
and  they  lived  devoutly  at  Civitella, 
spending  their  time  in  works  of  piety 
and  mercy. 

There  were  at  least  six  places  in  Italy 
called  Civitella  ;  this  was  Civitella  del 
Tronto,  and  in  the  time  of  Jacobilli  was 
a  royal  free  city  with  N.-J7  fires,  a  castle, 
and  a  tower.  It  gave  to  its  possessor 
the  title  of  count,  as  also  did  Montorio, 
another  place  belonging  to  Angelina's 
husband ;  both  were  near  Teraiio  and 
Ascoli. 

The  young  couple  lived  happily  at 
Civitella  for  a  year,  and  then  the  count 
died,  exhorting  his  wife  to  persevere  in 
all  her  good  intentions  and  good  works. 
Angelina,  who  was  now  17,  joined  the 
Third  Order  of  St.  Francis,  with  all  the 
young  women  who  were  her  companions 
or  attendants.  They  travelled  through 


various  places  in  the  Abruzzi,  inspiring 
many  persons  with  the  wish  to  follow 
their  saintly  example.  She  was  sum 
moned  to  appear  before  Ladislas,  king 
of  Naples  (i:5Si>-1414),  accused  of  being 
an  extravagant  woman  who  had  spent 
all  her  husband's  property,  and  of  being 
a  vagabond  and  a  heretic  who  dis 
approved  of  marriage  and  misled  the 
ignorant.  The  king  resolved  to  have 
her  burnt  alive ;  he  did  not  tell  any  one 
of  his  intention,  but  Angelina  knew  it. 
Before  entering  his  presence,  she  went 
into  the  kitchen  of  his  palace,  and  got 
one  of  the  servants  to  fill  the  corner  of 
her  poor  cloak  with  burning  coals,  which 
she  carried  to  him.  He  saw  that  she 
was  not  afraid  of  fire,  and  that  God 
would  save  her  by  a  miracle  if  He  chose 
her  to  do  His  work.  Ladislas  conversed 
with  her,  and  was  completely  disarmed 
and  won  over  to  her  side  by  her  modest, 
fearless  answers,  her  good  sense,  and  un 
selfishness.  He  parted  from  her  with 
demonstrations  of  respect  and  friendship. 
Her  reputation  for  sanctity  was  esta 
blished  by  her  raising  from  the  dead  a, 
young  man  of  one  of  the  principal 
families  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples.  So 
many  persons  wished  to  do  her  honour 
that  she  had  to  leave  Naples  by  night  to- 
avoid  the  distinction  which  was  thrust 
upon  her.  Her  influence  led  so  many 
young  girls  of  noble  families  to  become- 
nuns,  that  their  parents  persuaded  the 
king  to  banish  her  from  his  dominions. 

She  returned  to  her  father,  who  gave 
her  his  blessing  and  his  consent  to  the 
lino  of  life  she  had  taken.  She  sold  all 
she  had,  and  distributed  the  money  to  the 
poor.  In  August,  1, '>!>.">,  she  went  with 
her  companions  to  visit  the  sepulchre  of 
St.  Francis  at  Assisi,  and  to  obtain  the 
indulgence  at  the  famous  church  of  Santa 
Maria  degli  Angeli,  a  mile  from  Assisi. 
While  there  she  was  instructed  in  a 
vision  to  found  a  convent  in  Foligno,  of 
Tertiario  Claustralc,  cloistered  nuns  of 
the  Third  Order.  She  went  to  Foliguo 
with  her  friends,  and  visited  all  the 
churches  in  the  town,  including  that  of 
St.  Francis,  where  the  body  of  St.  Aug.  In 
of  Foligno  was  kept.  Then,  having  ob 
tained  a  piece  of  ground  from  the  lord 
of  Foligno,  and  procured  the  consent  of 


B.  ANGELINA 


03 


the  Pope,  Angelina,  in  obedience  to  her 
vision,  Imilt  the  monastery  of  St.  Anna, 
for  twelve  nuns.  It  was  finished  in  1  .">'.' 7. 
In  addition  to  the  ordinary  vows  of  ter- 
tiaries,  they  took  one  of  perpetual  cloister. 
It  was  the  first  convent  of  nuns  of  the 
Third  Order,  and  Angelina  was  elected 
the  first  abbess.  She  would  not  have  a 
larger  number  in  her  own  convent,  but 
so  many  holy  women  wished  to  adopt 
her  new  institution,  that,  in  i:{(,»(.',  she 
had  to  build  another  house,  the  church 
of  which  was  consecrated  in  the  name  of 
ST.  AONKS,  V.  M.  She  appointed  1'.. 
MAI;<;AKI:T  m  DOMENICO  of  Foligno  to  be 
its  first  superior.  Margaret  would  only 
accept  this  great  responsibility  and 
dignity  on  condition  that  Angelina 
should  always  pray  for  her  and  her 
charge. 

•  The  nuns  of  the  first  convent  were 
popularly  called  Conte»set  and  the  convent 
Santd  Ann<t  <t<'llr  Cuntet9et  in  honour  of 
their  founder.  The  nuns  of  the  second 
convent  were  known  as  Margaritcle,  and 
the  convent  La  Margaritura.  Margaret 
died  there,  in  the  odour  of  sanctity, 
Juno  13,  144H. 

Angelina  built  1  <>  monasteries  of  her 
order.      Their  names  arc  given  in  her 
Life,  by  Jacobilli.    Besides  B.  MARGARET, 
Angelina  had    two   disciples   numbered 
among  the  "  Blessed,"  namely,  B.  AXTOXIA 
!.oui:\ri:  and  15.    I'AII.A  OP  FOLIGNO. 
After  edifying  her  order  and  her  country 
by  her  great  virtues  and  mortifications, 
and  after  'J^  years  of  success,  Angelina 
died  happily,  in  her  first  convent  of  St. 
Anna,  at  Foligno,  on  July  14,  14M5,  in 
her  .V.'th  year.     The  people  immediately 
began    to    worship    her.      The    bishop 
red    all    the    canons,    priests,   and 
ks  to  accompany  her  blessed  body  to 
the  church  of  the  Minors  of  St.  Francis, 
re  she  ha<l  sisk<-d  to  be  buried.     The 
nuns  of  the  Miif-fin-iliim  bogged  that  the 
nil  might  pass  by  their  monast<  rv. 
\\lien  it  did  so,  II.  Margaret  threw  her 
self  at  the  bishop's  feet,  and  begged  him 
to  take  the  holy  ahhess's  ana.  and   1 
tin-  nuns  with  it,   which   lie   did.     Th •• 
'l<:i'l  saint  was  expos.-. I  to  public  venera 
tion  in  the  church  of  tho  Franciscans  for 
ttiree  day  s,  during  which,  not  with  standing 
the   extreme    heat,    the    body   rema: 


fresh  and  lifelike.  Immense  crowds 
pressed  round  tho  bier.  So  great  wa*; 
the  desire  to  possess  a  relic  of  the  beloved 
saint,  that  a  guard  of  soldiers  had  to  bo 
stationed  on  each  side  of  her  to  prevent 
any  pious  theft.  Many  people  went  to 
pray  in  the  chapel  where  her  body  was 
laid,  and  miracles  were  soon  recorded. 
In  14.">:i,  17  years  after  her  death, 
the  walls  of  her  chapel  sweated  blood. 
There  was  universal  consternation  :  some 
attributed  the  miracle  to  some  fearful 
crime  which  was  to  be  brought  to  light ; 
some  to  an  impending  calamity;  and 
while  all  were  in  fear  and  distress, 
Angelina  appeared  to  a  devotee,  and  told 
him  it  was  because  the  Christians  had 
lost  Constantinople.  In  1402  Angelina, 
appeared  to  Era  Giacomo  Colombini,  who 
had  been  praying  to  her  to  procure  for 
him  some  alleviation  of  his  great  pain 
and  infirmity.  She  promised  to  cure 
him,  and  ordered  him  to  tell  the  father, 
guardian,  and  all  the  brothers,  to  move 
her  body  from  under  the  arch,  and  put 
it  on  the  altar  in  the  same  chapel. 
Accordingly,  they  opened  tho  cypress- 
wood  chest,  found  the  sacred  body  fresh 
and  flexible,  took  it  in  procession  round 
the  town  and  through  the  seven  churches 
of  Foligno,  and  translated  it  to  the  place 
she  had  named.  A  second  translation 
was  made  in  ir>'_M.  She  was  publicly 
venerated,  particularly  by  the  counts  and 
countesses  of  Corbara,  who  considered 
her  their  advocate  and  protectress.  The 
people  of  Foligno  took  her  for  one  of 
their  chief  patrons,  although  without  tho 
authority  of  the  Church  until  1825, 
when  tiny  petitioned  Leo  XII.  to 
sanction,  by  a  solemn  canonization,  the 
worship  they  already  paid  to  her.  i 
tin-  Pope  did  by  declaring  her  "  Blessed." 
A.B.m.  T&mcM(h8erapkic  M<nt.,  July  i."». 
Jacobilli,  Santi  */*•//'  T///////'",  S<mti  <!/ 
Fnlitjiin,  and  Vltn  <l>If<i  ll,-nt,i  Any  HH-I. 
Hclyot,  OrtlwH  Minm*ti<jii'  9. 

B.  Angelina  (  4  )  of  Spoleto,  Juno  2< », 
V.  f  14:,(».  O.S.F.  Of  a  noble  family 
of  Spoleto.  She  became  a  nun  in  III" 
in  tho  Franciscan  convent  of  St.  Gregory, 
under  her  aunt,  Francesca,  who  wasabbeifc 
there.  The  purity  of  Angelina,  and  tho 
fervour  of  her  devotion,  were  so  great 
that  an  angel  brought  her  u  ring,  in 


04 


ST.  ANGELINA 


token  that  Christ  had  married  her  in 
paradise.  She  died  at  the  age  of  LV>, 
having  been  a  nun  of  extraordinary 
sanctity  for  10  years.  While  she  lay 
dead  on  the  bier,  a  wicked  woman  tried 
to  kiss  her  hand.  Angelina  would  not 
submit  to  such  contamination,  but  drew 
her  hand  away.  Jacobilli,  Santi  <!<//' 
Umbria.  Mas  Latrie,  Tresnr.  Papebroch, 
AA.SS.,  relates  that  he  went  to  Spoleto, 
to  satisfy  himself  that  she  was  not  a 
duplicate  of  one  of  the  other  ANGELAS  or 
ANGELINAS  of  Umbria.  He  was  told 
that  innumerable  miracles  were  wrought 
through  her  intercession,  and  he  was 
shown  her  tomb  and  pictures  in  the 
church,  representing  some  of  her  many 
cures. 

St.  Angelina  (5),  July  30.  -f  c.  1510. 
Queen  of  Servia,  or  despotess  of  Eascia. 
Wife  of  St.  Stephen  the  Blind.  Mother 
of  SS.  George  (Jan.  18)  and  John  (Dec. 
10),  called  despots  of  Kascia,  now  Novi- 
Bazar  or  Yeni-Bazar,  the  capital  of 
Servia.  Saverstia  Angelina  was 
descended  from  the  imperial  family  of 
the  Comneni,  and  was  the  daughter  of 
George  Arianita  Topia  Golem,  lord  of 
Durazzo  and  Valona,  and  one  of  the 
greatest  nobles  of  Southern  Albania. 
He  was  a  Eoman  Catholic,  and  to  him 
Pope  Eugenius  IV.  committed  the  banner 
of  the  Church,  to  carry  it  against  the 
Turks.  Angelina  grew  up  in  very 
troublous  times.  She  was  a  child  when, 
in  144!-!,  the  Christians  were  defeated  in 
the  second  great  battle  of  Kossowa. 
Under  the  tyranny  and  cruelty  of  the 
Turks,  many  of  the  Albanians  became 
Mohammedans ;  many  emigrated  to 
Hungary  ;  and  some  of  the  chief  families, 
holding  obstinately  to  the  Greek  or  to 
the  Koman  Church,  were  exterminated 
by  the  conquerors.  Stephen,  a  great- 
grandson  of  St.  Lazar  and  of  the  elder 
ST.  ANGELINA  OF  SEHVIA,  was  now  despot 
of  Ixascia.  He  had  been  blinded  in  his 
youth  by  the  Turks,  and  driven  from 
his  poor  remnant  of  a  kingdom  by  his 
brother,  but  had  succeeded,  for  the  second 
time,  to  the  throne,  and  been  hailed  by 
the  Serbs  as  their  prince.  Ho  was  living 
on  his  own  estates  in  Albania  when, 
about  1  -I'll i,  he  married  Angelina.  They 
continued  to  live  in  Albania  for  some 


time,  until,  the  Turks  becoming  more 
and  more  of  a  scourge,  they  withdrew  to 
Kupinik,  now  Sirmisch,  on  the  Save, 
where,  according  to  Martinov,  they  and 
their  sons  died  and  were  buried ;  the 
date  of  Stephen's  death  is  given  by  this 
account  as  1477.  Schafarik,  Serbischen 
Literatur,  however,  says  they  went  to 
Italy  in  14ii7,  apparently,  among  the 
;  In, nun  Albanians  who — on  the  death  in 
that  year  of  Angelina's  brother-in-law, 
George  Castriota  (Scantier  Beg),  their 
champion  against  the  Turks — migrated 
to  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  and  founded  a 
colony  at  San  Demetrio.  Here  Stephen 
died  about  1481.  Angelina  then  went 
with  her  sous  to  Transylvania,  and  after 
wards  returned  to  Kupiuik.  Both  her 
sons  bore  the  title  of  despot,  and  she  was 
called  deymtisKa.  In  1400"  the  two 
brothers  used  the  formula:  "Nos  Georyhi* 
reyni  Hascise  despotus  et  Johannes  f  rater 
ejusdem  caniulis."  In  1490  George  be 
came  a  monk,  taking  the  name  of  Maxim, 
and  afterwards  bishop  and  archbishop. 
He  resigned  these  dignities,  and  retired 
to  the  monastery  of  Krusedol,  which  he 
had  built;  and  there  he  died,  Jan.  is, 
1510.  His  mother  survived  him  only  a 
few  days.  At  Krusedol  the  bodies  of  the 
four  saints,  Stephen,  Angelina,  George, 
and  John,  were  preserved  as  fresh  as  in 
their  lives  until  1710,  when  the  Turks 
plundered  the  monastery,  and  destroyed 
the  holy  relics.  Angelina  was  so  good 
and  charitable  that  the  Servians  to  this 
day  speak  of  her  with  affection  as 
"Mother  Angelina."  Several  MSS., 
now  in  the  cloisters  of  Sirmia,  belonged 
to  her  collection,  and  some  contain  notes 
made  by  her  own  hand.  She  was  a  nun 
during  the  last  years  of  her  life,  aud  was 
called  THEODORA.  The  life  of  her  sou, 
George  Maxim,  is  said  to  bo  preserved 
in  a  book  of  legends  at  Krusedol.  Be 
sides  her  two  sons,  she  had  a  daughter, 
Mary,  who  married  at  Innspruck,  in  1 4s,'), 
Boniface  IV.  Paleologus,  Marquis  of 
Moutfcrrat.  Martinov,  Annus  Ecclex., 
July  o<>,  Oct.  t»,  Dec.  10,  Jan.  is. 
Hammer,  Otmanischen  Reich.  Lebeau, 
xx.,  xxi.  Meyer,  Conurrxntiimx  L<-xi- 
/,•<>//.  Schafarick,  ,SV/7,/>r//r//  Lit'-ratitr. 
C1.  J.  Jirecek,  Gexchichte  der  Lnl<i«,-< •«. 
Lenormant,  L<i  Grande  Grccc. 


ST.    ANNA 


65 


Ven.  Angilburga,  or  E\r;iu:ri;,:. 
Jan.  11'.  "(• '.  '!.">.  Empress.  Daughter 
of  Louis,  king  of  Germany.  Wife  of 
Louis  II.,  Emperor.  Although  innocent, 
sh.  \\as  divorced.  She  lived  in  the 
convent  of  the  Resurrection,  which  she 
had  founded  at  Placentia.  On  the 
Emperor's  death  she  took  the  veil,  and 
ia  time  became  abbess.  After  a  few 
years  she  was  sent  to  the  convent  of  St. 
Julia,  at  Brescia,  over  which  she  pre 
sided  for  many  years.  Sho  died  at  a 
great  ago.  Bucelinus. 

St.  Angre,  May  14,  V.  M.  Honoured 
at  Apt,  in  Provence.  French  Mdit. 

St.  Ania,  May  28  (ANIAS,  AMA),  M. 
at  Rome.  AA.SS. 

St.  Animais,  M.,  with  ANNA  <  7  . 

St.  Animida,  or  AMIDA,  July  2,  M. 
at  Rome  or  in  Mesopotamia.  Boll., 
AA.SS. 

St.  Anna  (1),  Oct.  :J.  Called  in  our 
IJil do  HANNAH,  and  by  Mgr.  Guerin  STE. 
ANSI:  i»'Mi.«  ASK.  Wife  of  Elkanah,  and 
mother  of  the  prophet  Samuel,  who  was 
born,  B.C.  1105,  in  answer  to  her  fervent 
prayers  for  a  son,  accompanied  by  a  vow 
to  dedicate  him  to  God.  Her  hymn 
'.  1  Sara,  ii.  1-1  oj  has  strong  points  of 
resemblance  with  that  of  the  B.  V.  MARY 
<  St.  Luke  i.  4<J-.">.")j,  and  her  mention  of 
the  Lord's  "anointed,"  with  which  it 
ends,  is  regarded  as  the  first  instance  in 
which  the  Christ  is  expressly  so  called 
in  the  Scriptures.  On  this  account  she 
is  considered  a  prophetess.  In  fulfil 
ment  of  her  vow,  she  placed  her  son 
in  the  tabernacle,  and  left  him  with 
the  judge  and  prophet  Eli.  With 
maternal  tenderness  she  made  him  a 
little  coat  each  year,  and  took  it  to  him 
when  she  and  her  husband  went  from 
their  homo  at  Ramathaim-Zophim  to 
make  their  annual  offering.  After 
.Samuel,  she  had  three  sons  and  two 
daughters.  She  is  commemorated  in 
the  Greek  Church,  Oct.  3.  All  that  is 
known  of  her  is  in  the  first  and  second 
chapters  of  the  First  Book  of  Samuel. 
Jso  Smith's  l)',t-l'iunnrii  <>/  ///••  7> //•/,- 
and  Calmet's  Dii-t'n-mu //  »/  ///••  /;//»/»-. 

St.  Anna  (-'>,   Feb.';;,  Sept.  J,  is 

represented  holding  the  tables  of  tin 
Jewish  Law,  to  denote  that  she  lived 
blamelessly.  She  was  a  prophetess, 


daughter  of  Phamiel,  of  the  tribe  of 
A  srr.  At  the  age  of  eighty-four  she 
was  a  widow  who  spent  her  time  in  the 
temple,  and  "  served  God  with  fastings 
and  prayers  night  and  day."  When  the 
Infant  Jesus  was  presented  there,  she 
recognised  in  Him  the  expected  Messiah. 
She  is  the  earliest  of  the  New  Testament 
saints.  Her  name  is  in  the  11. M.,  Sept.  1. 
Ughelli  and  the  Greek  Meneas  honour 
her  with  St.  Simeon,  Feb.  3.  The  Feast 
of  the  Purification  was  anciently  called, 
in  the  East,  the  Feast  of  the  Meeting, 
i.e.  of  St.  Simeon  and  St.  Anna,  with  the 
Christ,  in  the  Temple,  at  the  Presenta 
tion.  This  feast  is  mentioned  in  the 
Pilgrimage  of  St.  Silvia,  late  in  the  4th 
century  ;  but  at  that  early  date  it  was 
probably  celebrated  with  so  much  honour 
only  at  Jerusalem,  whence  the  custom 
of  its  solemnization  extended  to  other 
countries.  Richard  et  Giraud,  1M//0- 
tli^itw  Sacree.  St.  Luke  ii.  36-38.  R.M. 
St.  Anna  (3),  July  26  (ANN,  ANNE). 
t  A.I).  1.  Mother  of  the  B.  V.  MARY. 
Patron  of  two  places  called  Anuaberg, 
one  in  Brunswick,  the  other  in  Misuia  ; 
of  Madrid,  which  adopted  her  in  a  pesti 
lence  in  l.";97  ;  of  Apt,  Brittany,  Bruns 
wick,  and  Ourcamp  ;  of  the  Counts  of 
Schlick,  and  the  Counts  of  Haiuault ;  of 
the  cathedral  of  the  Canaries ;  of  mar 
ried  people  ;  takes  the  place  of  Juno 
Lucina  as  patron  of  confinements;  is 
called  in  Southern  Italy  /«  vecchia potcnte 
( thu  powerful  old  woman);  pregnant 
women  who  place  themselves  under  her 
special  protection  wear  an  apron  or 
some  other  article  of  a  brilliant  emerald 
green.  Sho  is  also  patron  of  makers 
and  sellers  of  lace ;  makers  and  sellers 
of  linen  cloth  ;  broom- makers ;  house 
keepers  ;  grooms  ;  stable- boys  ;  dealers 
iu.  old  clothes ;  carpenters ;  cabinet 
makers  ;  turners  ;  inlayers  of  wood  ;  and 
all  workers  in  hard  wood.  St.  Gomer 
is  patron  of  workers  in  soft  wood. 
According  to  Cahier,  the  reason  for 
Anna  being  adopted  patron  of  workers 
in  wood  is  that  no  one  was  received  to 
the  rank  of  master  in  any  guild  or  cor 
poration  of  tradesmen  until  ho  had  made 
a  masterpiece.  In  the  10th  and  17th 
centuries  the  tabernacle  was  a  very  im 
portant  part  of  the  ornamentation  of  an 

F 


C6 


ST.   ANNA 


altar,  and  a  wood-worker  generally 
showed  his  greatest  skill  in  its  construc 
tion.  St.  Anna  was  considered  to  have 
made  the  first  tabernacle,  namely,  the 
Virgin  Mary.  A  composition,  called  in 
the  workshops  "  the  brains  of  St.  Anna," 
was  the  great  resource  for  hiding  certain 
defects  in  the  wood.  It  consisted  of  a 
strong  glue  mixed  with  sawdust  of  the 
defective  wood,  and  was  cleverly  used 
to  fill  up  cavities. 

Azevedos  counts  SS.  Joachim  and 
Anna  among  the  "  Advocates,"  or  "  AUXI 
LIARY  SAINTS." 

Pictures  or  drawings  of  Anna  have 
been  found  in  the  catacombs :  these  and 
other  early  representations  depict  her 
with  her  hands  stretched  out  in  prayer  ; 
near  her  a  dove,  bearing  a  ring  or  a 
crown  in  its  beak.  In  mediaeval  art  she 
holds  a  book,  and  generally  appears  to 
be  teaching  the  Virgin  Mary  to  read, 
and  sometimes  pointing  to  the  words, 
"  Radix  Jesse  floruit."  In  some  of  these 
pictures  the  Virgin  Mary,  although  she 
appears  as  a  child  sitting  on  her  mother's 
lap,  holds  the  Infant  Christ.  St.  Anna 
is  sometimes  the  centre  figure  of  a  com 
plicated  picture  of  the  relatives  of  our 
Saviour.  Sometimes  she  appears  meet 
ing  and  kissing  St.  Joachim  at  the 
Golden  Gate,  bearing  a  lily,  on  the 
flower  of  which  is  represented  the  face 
of  the  Virgin  Mary. 

According  to  the  Golden  L<'<(<-n<l, 
Pcrfetto  Leggendario,  etc.,  she  was  the 
daughter  of  Stolano,  also  called  Gazarius, 
of  the  house  of  Juda,  and  her  mother 
was  Emerentia.  They  had  another 
daughter,  Hysmerye,  who  had  a  daughter, 
ST.  ELIZABETH,  mother  of  St.  John  the 
Baptist,  and  a  son,  Elynd,  father  of 
Emynen,  of  whom  came  "  S.  Servace 
whoso  bodye  lyeth  in  Mastreyght  upon 
ye  ryver  of  Ye  Mase." 

St.  Anna  was  married  three  times, 
and  by  each  marriage  she  had  a  daughter 
named  Mary.  Her  first  husband  was 
Joachim,  father  of  the  B.  V.  Mary,  "  who 
chylded  our  lorde  Jhesu  cryste."  Joa 
chim  was  of  Nazareth ;  Anna  was  of 
Bethlehem,  and  of  the  tribe  of  Juda. 
They  were  rich.  They  divided  their 
goods  into  three  parts :  one  they  gave 
to  the  temple  and  its  servants,  one  to 


pilgrims  and  the  poor,  and  the  third 
part  they  spent  on  themselves  and  their 
servants.  When  they  had  been  married 
twenty  years,  and  had  long  sorrowed 
because  they  had  no  child,  they  made  a 
vow  that  if  God  would  give  them  one, 
they  would  dedicate  it  to  His  service.  At 
the  Feast  of  the  Dedication  of  the  Temple, 
St.  Joachim  went  with  his  friends,  to 
Jerusalem,  as  usual,  to  make  his  offering. 
The  high  priest  scornfully  rejected  it, 
saying  that  a  man  who,  inasmuch  as  ho 
had  no  children,  was  evidently  under 
the  displeasure  of  God,  ought  not  to  pre 
sume  to  offer  gifts  at  the  altar.  Joachim 
went  away  sorrowful  and  confused.  In 
stead  of  returning  to  Anna,  he  went  to 
his  herdsmen  and  stayed  some  time  with 
them,  until  he  was  comforted  in  a  vision 
by  an  angel,  who  told  him  his  prayers  and 
alms  were  accepted  before  God,  and  that 
Anna  should  have  a  daughter  named 
Mary.  She  was  to  be  brought  up  in  the 
temple,  and  of  her  should  be  born  a 
great  Lord,  through  whom  salvation 
should  come  to  all  people.  The  angel 
said,  "  By  this  sign  thou  shalt  know  that 
the  vision  is  from  the  Lord :  when  thou 
shalt  come  to  the  Golden  Gate  of  Jeru 
salem,  thou  shalt  meet  Anna  thy  wife." 
Meantime,  Anna  remained  sorrowfully 
at  home.  One  day,  as  she  sat  under  a 
laurel  in  her  garden  watching  a  bird 
bringing  food  to  its  little  ones  in  the 
nest,  she  said  to  herself,  "  Every  wife 
has  children  except  me  ;  the  very  birds 
in  the  trees  have  their  children,  but  I 
have  none."  Then  she  heard  her  maid, 
on  the  other  side  of  the  bushes,  deriding 
her  because  of  her  barrenness.  But  now 
the  same  angel  who  had  appeared  to 
Joachim  visited  her  in  a  dream,  promised 
her  a  child,  and  relieved  her  anxiety 
about  her  husband's  prolonged  absence 
by  telling  her  she  should  find  him  at 
the  Golden  Gate.  They  both  obeyed 
the  heavenly  messenger,  and  went  to 
Jerusalem.  There,  at  the  Golden  Gate, 
they  met.  The  next  year  Anna  had  a 
daughter,  according  to  the  promise  of 
the  angel ;  and  they  called  her  Mary,  as 
he  had  commanded.  When  Mary  was 
three  years  old,  they  brought  her  to  the 
temple,  with  offerings.  There  were  fifteen 
steps  up  the  temple,  and  the  child,  who 


ST.    ANNA 


67 


had  never  yet  walked,  ran  up  to  the  top 
of  the  flight  without  assistance.  When 
Joachim  and  Anna  had  made  their  offer 
ing,  they  left  Mary  in  tin-  temple  with 
the  other  virgins,  and  returned  home. 
Mary  grew  in  holiness  daily,  and  had 
visions  from  God. 

Anna  was  thirty-six  years  old  when 
Joachim  died.  She  then  married  (1h>pa<. 
brother  of  St.  Joseph  the  carpenter,  and 
had,  by  him,  a  daughter  Mary,  whomarri<  -d 
AlpluunK  and  had  four  sons — James  the 
Less,  Judas  Thaddeus,  Simon  Zelotes, 
and  Joseph  the  Just.  After  the  death 
of  Clopas,  Anna  took,  as  her  third  hus- 
hand,  Salome,  and  had  another  daughter, 
Mary  Salome,  who  married  Zebedee,  and 
was  the  mother  of  the  two  apostles, 
SS.  James  the  More  and  John  the 
Evangelist.  Anna  lived  until  our  Lord 
Christ  was  one  year  old.  In  the  time 
of  Octavian  her  soul  was  carried  to 
Abraham's  bosom;  at  the  ascension  of 
Christ  it  was  carried  to  heaven,  where 
she  has  a  very  honourable  place,  being 
one  of  the  saints  who  enjoy  the  glory  of 
the  great  God. 

Another  legend,  giving  miraculous 
birth  and  ancient  lineage  to  Anna,  is  to 
bo  found  among  those  collected  by  Le 
Roux  de  Lincy,  who  derives  it  from  a 
metrical  IJible  of  the  i:5th  century.  It 
is  as  follows:  — 

A   thousand  years   after   the   fall    of 

m,  God  transported  the  tree  of  life 

into    the    garden   of   St.    Abraham,   and 

sent  an  angel  to  inform  the    patriarch 

that  on  this  tree  the  Son  of  God  should 

:  ucilit -d,  that  the  flower  of  the  tree 

would  give  birth  to  a  knight  who  would 

bring  into  the  world,  without  the  assist- 

of   any    woman,   a    virgin,    whom 

i     would     choose     for    His    mother. 

Abraham  had  a  daughter  who  breathed 

tin-    perfume    of  the  tree,  and    thereby 

lx-r;une  '  in;  /'////•„       TllO    Je\VS    condemned 
to    he    burned    1<»   death.       She    went 
into  the  tire,  and  proved  her  innoc. 
by  remaining  unhurt  in  the  midst  of  it. 
All  the  flames  then  changed  into  How- 
then-    was   not   a  coal  or  a  brand   bnt 

irae  a  lily  or  a  rose.      Uy-and-by  she 

birth   to   a   son,  who    grew  up  a 

valiant  knight,  and    rose  t<>  be  king,  and 

:.tually    Kmp«  ror.       His     name     W;H 


Fanonel.  He  was  the  possessor  of  the 
Tree  of  Life,  and  although  he  did  not 
thoroughly  understand  all  its  properties, 
when  sick  or  wounded  persons  came  to 
him  for  help,  he  cut  a  fruit  from  tho 
tree,  divided  it  in  several  pieces,  and 
distributed  them  to  the  sufferers,  who 
were  thereby  cured  of  whatever  disc:, 
or  injuries  they  had.  When  he  cut  tho 
fruit  ho  always  wiped  tho  knife  on  his 
thigh,  until  at  last  the  juice  of  the  fruit 
got  into  tho  thigh,  which  swelled  and 
gave  him  some  trouble  and  anxiety.  All 
the  physicians  of  the  country  tried  their 
skill  in  vain.  The  thigh  grew  bigger 
every  day  for  nine  months,  and  then 
produced  the  prettiest  little  ///•/!/»./»///• 
that  ever  was  seen.  That  was  "  Sninl 
An  in-  qiu-  Dim  <iu,m  /"///."  The  Emperor 
was  much  ashamed  of  the  slur  that  thus 
fell  on  his  character.  He  called  a  knight, 
who  was  his  confidential  attendant,  and 
told  him  to  take  tho  child  into  tho 
middle  of  a  forest  and  kill  her.  The 
knight  proceeded  to  ol>ey.  Just  as  he 
was  going  to  strike  his  victim,  a  dove 
appeared  from  heaven,  saying,  "  Knight, 
do  not  kill  this  child ;  for  of  her  shall  be 
born  a  virgin  whom  God  will  choose  for 
His  mother."  So  he  put  the  babo  into  a 
swan's  nest  and  left  her.  A  stag  brought 
her  food,  and,  if  she  cried,  gave  her 
flowers  to  comfort  her.  About  ten  years 
after  this,  Fanouel  one  day  went  hunting 
in  the  wood,  and  followed  the  very  stag 
that  had  adopted  the  deserted  child. 
The  stag  took  refugo  under  the  swan's 
nest,  •  where  the  little  girl  still  lived. 
The  Emperor  was  astonished  to  find  a 
beautiful  yonng  lady,  ten  years  of  age, 
in  a  swan's  nest,  and  said  to  her,  "  My 
beauty,  who  are  you?"  To  which  tho 
wise  child  replied,  "  Sire,  I  am  your 
daughter.'1  He  found  she  knew  tho 
whole  story,  so  ho  took  her  to  court  and 
married  her  to  Joachim,  a  knight  of  his 
empire.  Of  this  marriage  was  born  the 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary. 

A  legend  of  Anna,  told  by  Dr.  Mant, 
and  said  to  be  derived  from  tho  writings 
of  Ilippolvtus  tho  martyr,  is  that  sin- 
was  tho  youngest  of  three  daughters  of 
Matthan  tho  priest,  and  Mary  his  wile. 
Tl.e  two  elder  sisters,  Mary  and  > 
married  in  Ut-thk-hem.  Mary  had  a 


B.   AXXA 


daughter,  Salome  the  midwife  ;  Sobe  was 
the  mother  of  St.  Elizabeth,  mother  of 
St.  John  the  Baptist ;  Anna,  the  youngest, 
married  in  Galilee,  and  brought  forth 
Mary,  the  mother  of  Jesus. 

Baillet,  F/rx  ///  *  Snint*,  "  St.  Joachim," 
March  20,  says  that  wo  know  from  St. 
Gregory  of  Nyssa  and  other  reliable 
•writers,  that  these  traditions  come  to  us 
from  apocryphal  histories  of  St.  Mary, 
containing  divers  superstitions. 

Nothing  is  known  with  certainty  of 
the  father  of  the  B.  V.  Mary,  except  that 
he  was  of  the  house  of  David.  If  the 
genealogy  given  by  St.  Luke  is  that  of 
Mary,  then  her  father  was  Heli. 

St.  Gregory  XIII.,  by  a  brief  dated 
1584,  commanded  a  double  feast  to  be 
celebrated  in  honour  of  St.  Anna,  through 
out  all  Christendom.  The  worship  of 
St.  Joachim  was  not  established  by 
authority  in  the  Latin  Church  until 
1<;22,  under  Gregory  XV. 

B.  Anna  (4),  March  5,  V.  Time  of 
the  Apostles.  Wife  of  St.  Conon,  bishop 
of  Bida  or  Bidaua,  in  Isauria,  who  con 
verted  his  father  and  mother,  Nestor  and 
Nada,  to  the  Christian  faith.  Anne, 
together  with  Nestor,  is,  by  the  Greek 
Church,  honoured  among  the  martyrs. 
Conon  is  commemorated  March  5.  Pape- 
broch  and  Henschcnius  are  uncertain  as 
to  Anna's  right  to  the  honours  of  saint- 
ship.  Boll.,  AAJSS. 

St.  Anna  (5),  Oct.  22.  2nd  or  3rd 
century.  Was  converted  by  seeing  the 
constancy  under  torture  of  St.  Alexander, 
M.,  bishop  of  a  place  unknown,  and  was 
put  to  death  with  him,  Heraclius  a 
soldier,  and  SS.  THEODOTA  (2)  and  GLI- 
CERIA  (2).  ST.  ELIZABETH  (2)  is  com 
memorated  with  them,  but  is  supposed 
to  have  been  martyred  at  another  place 
and  time.  A  church  in  their  honour 
was  built  at  Constantinople.  They  are 
mentioned  in  the  Mcnoloyy  of  JJasii,  but 
Greek  saints  were  received  with  caution 
by  the  Western  Church,  because  many 
schismatics  were  honoured  among  them. 
Benjamin  Bossue,  in  Boll.,  AA.SS.,  Oct. 
22,  ix. 

St.  Anna  (0),  Nov.  20,  V.  M.  c.  343, 
with  BAHUTA. 

St.  Anna  (7),  March  2(5,  M.  c.  370. 
One  of  the  earliest  Christians  among  the 


Goths  on  the  Danube.  She  was  with  five 
other  women  and  twenty  men  in  a  church 
which  was  burned  by  Jungerich,  king 
of  the  Goths,  in  the  time  ot  the  Emperors 
Valens  and  Gratian :  the  names  of  the 
other  women  were  ALLAS  or  HALAS,  PARIS 
or  BAKIS  or  BAKKA,  Moiro  or  MAMICA, 
VIRGO  or  Vico,  and  ANIMAIS.  Boll., 
AAJ3S. 

St.  Anna  (8),  Oct.  2  or  2S,  or  May  4, 
M.  at  Jerusalem,  in  the  4th  century. 
Patron  of  Ancona.  Went  with  her  son, 
St.  Cyriacus,  bishop  and  martyr,  to  visit 
the  holy  places.  They  were  arrested  by 
order  of  Julian  the  apostate,  hung  up  by 
her  hair,  and  burned  with  lamps ;  she 
died  under  the  torture.  Her  body  was 
translated  to  Ancona  by  the  Empress  B. 
GALLA  PLACIDIA,  in  the  following  cen 
tury.  Anna  is  mentioned  in  the  Greek 
and  Ethiopian  calendars.  Her  history 
is  only  known  from  the  fabulous  Act*  of 
her  son.  As  a  fact,  there  was  no  general 
persecution  of  Christians  under  Julian, 
although  there  doubtless  were  cases 
where  the  malice  or  covetousness  of 
those  in  power,  or  special  provocation 
on  the  part  of  certain  Christians,  led  to 
the  oppression  or  murder  of  individuals. 
Boll.,  AA.SS.  GynccdBiiw. 

St.  Anna  (i»).  5th  or  (>th  century. 
Patrpn  of  the  church  of  East  Looe,  in 
Cornwall.  Daughter  of  the  Prince  of 
Glamorgan.  Married  Amwyn,  or  Amuon 
the  Black,  prince  of  Bro-Weroc,  in  Brit 
tany,  i.e.  the  country  about  Vannes  which 
was  colonized  from  Britain.  SS.  Padarn, 
Malo,  and  Magloire  were  of  the  same 
illustrious  Welsh  stock.  Anna  was  sister 
of  GWEN  JULITTA  and  mother  of  St. 
Samson,  bishop  of  Dol,  in  Brittany,  who 
was  born  about  520.  A  holy  well  in 
the  churchyard  of  Whitstone,  in  Corn 
wall,  bears  her  name.  Her  worship — in 
England,  at  all  events — is  much  older 
than  that  of  ST.  ANNA  (3),  mother  of  the 
B.  V.  MARY.  Rev.  S.  Bariug  Gould,  Book 
of  the  West.  Stadler.  Butler. 

St.  Anna  (10),  Nov.  2S.  A  young 
widow  of  high  rank  dwelling  in  Con 
stantinople  towards  tho  middle  of  the 
Sth  century.  Disciple  and  spiritual 
daughter  of  St.  Stephen  of  Mount  St. 
Auxentius,  also  called  St.  Stephen  the 
Younger,  to  distinguish  him  from  two 


ST.    ANNA 


contemporaries.  Her  real  name  is  un 
known.  She  took  that  of  Anna  on 
becoming  a  nun  in  a  convent  at  the  foot 
of  the  mountain  on  which  St.  Stephen 
lived  as  a  hermit,  after  ho  had  been  per 
secuted  by  the  iconoclasts  at  Constanti 
nople.  In  7.~>4,  refusing  to  support  a 
false  accusation  against  Stephen,  she  was 
cruelly  scourged  by  order  of  the  Emperor 
Constantino  Copronymus,  and  put  in 
prison  at  Constantinople,  where  she  soon 
died,  in  consequence  of  the  ill  usage  she 
received.  She  is  mentioned  by  Surius 
in  the  life  of  St.  Stephen,  Oct.  28.  The 
Bollandists  promise  more  information 
when  their  calendar  comes  down  to  her 
day.  This  is  perhaps  the  saint  called 
Anna  Greca  by  Gut-nebault,  who  says  she 
was  an  abbess  of  the  Order  of  the  Ace- 
metes,  and  that  she  is  represented  hold 
ing  a  statuette,  doubtless  to  denote  that 
she  adhered  to  the  use  of  holy  images, 
notwithstanding  the  persecution  of  the 
iconoclasts. 

St.  Anna  ( 1 1 )  Euphemian,  Oct.  29. 
8th  and  beginning  of  \nh  century.  A 
native  of  Constantinople.  After  the 
death  of  her  husband  and  children,  she 
gave  all  her  property  to  the  poor,  and, 
disguised  as  a  man,  obtained  admission 
to  a  monastery  on  Mount  Olympus,  where 
she  lived  several  years,  under  the  name 
of  Euphemian.  She  was  much  perse 
cuted  by  a  fellow-monk,  changed  her 
residence  several  times,  and  died  a  re 
cluse  at  Constantinople.  Her  story,  from 
the  Mcnoas  of  the  Greek  Church,  is 
given  at  considerable  length,  with  notes, 
by  the  Bollandists,  who  do  not  seem  to 
think  it  ivlkhlr.  AA.SS. 
TSt  Anna  (12),  July  2:;.  f  c-  918- 
V.  of  Leucada,  or  Lencata,  a  promontory 
<<i  K{'iius,  or  lUthynia.  She  was  of  noble 
birth.  After  the  death  of  her  parents, 
the  Kmjuior  liasil,  the  Macedonian, 
desired  her  to  accept  a  husband  of  his 
choosing;  but  she  chose  rather  to  kud 
iibato  ascetic  life.  She  was  about 
seventy-eight  years  of  age  when  she  died. 
Perier,  in  .!/!.>  v 

St.  Anna   (13).     Grand-princess   of 
Ku»ia.    !'r,:;-ini  1.   There  are  many  con 
tradictions  in  tin:  accounts  of  this  prin- 
.    and    it    is    doubtful    whether    she 
should    be    placed    among    the    saints. 


More  information  regarding  her  is  to 
be  found  in  tho  histories  cited  at  the 
end  of  this  article. 

Anna  was  born,  of  wicked  parents,  at 
Constantinople  in  1H>:5,  a  few  days  before 
the  death  of  her  father,  Romanus  II., 
Emperor  of  the  East.  Her  elder  sister, 
Theophano,  married  Otho  II.,  king  of 
Germany  and  Emperor  of  the  West  (see 
ADELAIDE  (3)).  Romanus  II.  was  suc 
ceeded  by  his  sons,  l>asil  II.  and  Con 
stantino  VIII.,  who  reigned  together. 
In  their  time  Anna  married,  with  con 
siderable  repugnance,  St.  Vladimir  (mon 
arch  of  Russia,  grandson  of  ST.  OLGA), 
to  make  peace  between  tho  Greek  empire 
and  their  dangerous  neighbours,  and 
still  more  with  the  object  of  winning 
him  and  his  immense  country  over  to 
the  Christian  faith.  As  a  condition  of 
his  marriage,  he  put  away  his  other 
wives,  and  deposed  his  god  Perune.  He 
was  threatened  with  blindness,  and  Anna 
promised  him  that  his  sight  should  be 
restored  if  he  would  be  baptized.  Ho 
complied,  taking  the  name  of  l>asil,  and 
was  immediately  cured.  He  then  built 
a  church  in  Kief,  dedicated  it  in  the 
name  of  St.  Basil,  and  enforced  his  new 
religion  with  all  the  determination  he 
had  previously  shown  in  other  matters. 
His  life,  after  baptism,  was  as  strict  as 
it  had  before  been  dissolute.  He  died 
lOlo.  Anna  died  lull.  He  is  called 
Isapostolos,  and  has  also  been  called  the 
New  Solomon,  not  from  his  wisdom,  but 
from  the  great  number  of  his  wives.  He 
was  father  of  Yaroslav,  whoso  wife  was 
ST.  ANNA  (14).  Lebeau,  Hintoirc  du  13ax 
lrr,  xvi.  57,  etc.  Martinov,  Grxco- 
.  Cdh-ndar.  Karamsin,  Hiutoire  de 
/e,  i.  207-283. 

St.  Anna  (14),  Grand-princess  of 
Russia,  Feb.  lo,  and,  with  her  son  St. 
Vladimir,  Oct.  4  (!NGAUDAS,  INGEBIOUG, 
I\I.K,I.I;DA,  IKENE).  She  was  daughter 
of  Olaf  Skoetkouung,  king  of  Sweden, 
who  gave  her  for  dowry  tho  town  of 
Aldeigaburg,  or  Old  Ladoga.  She  took 
the  name  of  Irene  at  her  baptism,  and 
that  of  Anna  with  the  monastic  habit, 
shortly  before  her  death.  She  was  tho 
wife  of  Yaroslav  the  Groat,  son  of  the 
first  St.  Vladimir  and  father  of  the  second, 
who,  in  l<>i;()  succeeded  his  father  as 


ST.   ANNA 


Grand-prince  of  all  the  Eussias,  and 
reigned  from  the  Baltic  to  Asia,  and  to 
Hungary  and  Dacia.  He  was  far  more 
enlightened  than  his  predecessors,  and 
than  many  of  his  successors  for  some 
generations.  He  caused  the  Bible  to  bo 
translated  into  the  Slavonian  tongue, 
and  transcribed  some  copies  with  his 
own  hand;  he  founded  many  schools, 
but  his  great  glory  was  the  code  of  laws 
he  enacted.  He  built  the  church  of  St. 
Sophia,  at  Kief,  one  of  the  oldest  in 
Eussia.  That  of  St.  Sophia,  at  Novgorod, 
was  built  by  the  second  St.  Vladimir ; 
it  is  the  oldest  building  in  Novgorod, 
and  one  of  the  three  oldest  churches  in 
Eussia.  In  it  the  founder  and  his 
mother,  St.  Anna,  lie  buried.  The  date 
of  Anna's  death,  1<)50,  is  still  to  be  seen 
on  her  tomb.  She  was  the  first  of  the 
Eussian  princesses  to  take  the  religious 
veil  on  the  approach  of  death,  a  custom 
which  afterwards  became  general.  Yaro- 
slav  and  Anna  had  six  sons,  one  of  whom 
was  St.  Vladimir  II.,  and  one  is  said  to 
have  married  a  daughter  of  Harold  God- 
wiusson  of  England.  Anna  had  three 
daughters :  Elizabeth,  queen  of  Norway  ; 
Anna  or  Annte,  queen  of  France ;  and 
Anastasia,  or  Agmunda,  who  married 
Andrew  I.,  king  of  Hungary ;  perhaps 
also  a  fourth  daughter,  Agatha,  who 
married  the  English  Prince  Eadward 
Aethling,  and  was  mother  of  Edgar 
Atholing  and  ST.  MAHGAKET,  queen  of 
Scotland.  Yaroslav  died  in  1054,  and 
was  buried  at  Kief. 

These  accounts  of  these  Eussian  prin 
cesses  are  chiefly  taken  from  Karamsiu, 
Ilixtoirc,  <!<'  Eusisie.  S.  Anna  Ingigerda 
is  also  mentioned  by  Mailath,  titamint- 
afd  dcr  Arpadi'ii ;  Martinov,  Slav.  Calen 
dar;  Snorri  Sturlusson,  Kin  <js  of  Norway; 
Neale,  Holy  Eastern  CJiun-l/. 

St.  Anna  (15),  daughter  of  the 
Emperor  Eomanus.  Wife  of  the  Eus 
sian  Prince  St.  Vladimir  II.  ( Yarosla- 
vitchj,  son  of  ST.  ANNA  (14).  Mother 
of  the  Grand-prince  St.  Mistislav  the 
Brave,  who  feared  no  person  or  thing, 
but  God  only.  He  defended  Novgorod 
against  Andrew  of  Sousdalia,  and  was 
beloved  all  over  Eussia.  Mistislav,  his 
father  St.  Vladimir,  his  mother,  and 
grandmother  are  buried  in  the  church  of 


St.  Sophia  at  Novgorod,  which  Vladimir 
Yaroslavich  built  on  the  site  of  the 
wooden  church  of  the  year  100U :  the 
stone  church  was  built  by  Greek  archi 
tects,  and  is  preserved,  with  its  gilt 
domes,  in  all  its  grandeur,  unspoilt  by 
wars  or  storms.  St.  MiBtislav's  dead 
hand,  quite  black,  protrudes  from  under 
the  cloth  which  covers  his  body,  and  is 
exposed  for  the  kisses  of  the  faithful. 
Chester's  RiiHxta,  and  the  authorities  for 
the  other  Eussian  saints. 

B.  Anna  (16)  Michieli  Giustini- 
ani,  Nov.  21.  O.S.B.  Daughter  of 
Vitale  Michieli,  doge  of  Venice  (1156- 
1172J,  the  last  doge  who  was  elected  by 
the  people,  the  seventeenth  who  was  vio 
lently  dethroned,  and  the  sixth  who  was 
murdered  in  a  riot.  In  117<>  there  was 
war  between  the  state  of  Venice  and  the 
empire  of  Constantinople.  At  the  same 
time,  the  Emperor  had  a  personal  dis 
like  to  and  quarrel  with  the  Giustiuiani, 
one  of  the  most  ancient  and  wealthiest 
of  the  Venetian  noble  families,  and  much 
beloved  by  all  classes  in  the  city.  They 
therefore  took  up  the  national  quarrel 
with  family  pride  as  well  as  political 
and  patriotic  ardour,  contributing  a  large 
contingent  of  ships  and  men,  and  desir 
ing  to  make  good  all  loss  that  might 
accrue  to  the  Eepublic  from  the  war. 
The  doge  led  the  expedition,  and  every 
man  of  the  Giustiniaui  family  went  with 
him.  At  first  the  Venetians  had  some 
successes,  but  after  suffering  greatly 
from  the  treachery  of  the  Greeks,  they 
were  attacked  by  the  plague.  Some  of 
the  Giustiniani  had  been  killed  in  skir 
mishes,  and  all  the  rest  were  among  the 
victims  of  the  pestilence.  About  two  years 
from  the  time  he  had  set  forth  so  gallantly, 
Vitale  returned  home,  bringing  back 
only  seventeen  of  the  hundred  ships  he 
had  taken  out.  The  people  were  furious 
with  the  doge,  and  threw  upon  him  the 
whole  blame  of  the  ill  success  of  the 
expedition,  and  the  destruction  of  a 
family  so  popular  among  them.  The 
Emperor  triumphed  in  the  extermina 
tion  of  the  hated  race,  but  Vitalo  knew 
there  was  one  scion  of  the  family,  a 
certain  brother  Niccolo,  who,  although 
accounted  dead  to  the  world,  was  still 
living  in  the  monastery  of  S.  Niccolo 


B.   ANNA 


71 


«lel  Lido.  Through  tins  man  he  re 
solved  to  revive  the  great  aud  popular 
family  so  tragically  cut  off,  and  applied 
to  Pope  Alexander  III.  for  permission  to 
marry  his  o\vn  daughter  to  Xiccolo 
<;iustiniani.  Tin-  Pope  freed  Xiccolo 
from  his  monastic  vows,  and  commanded 
him  to  restore  his  family  to  its  proper 
place  in  Venice  by  marrying  Anna 
Michieli.  It  soon  became  evident  that 
the  ships  which  had  returned  had  brought 
the  plague  witli  them;  hundreds  of 
us  died  within  a  few  days.  Terror 
reigned.  The  fickle  populace  again  laid 
all  the  fault  on  their  doge,  and  mur 
dered  him  in  a  tumult.  As  soon  as 
they  had  done  it,  they  repented,  and 
remembered  how  good  he  had  been. 
Xiccolo  and  Anna  spent  many  years  to 
gether,  rich  in  this  world's  goods,  and 
richer  in  good  deeds.  They  had  six 
sous  and  three  daughters.  Eventually 
Xiccolo  returned  to  his  monastery,  and 
Anna  went  to  live  in  the  magnificent 
nunnery  of  St.  Adrian,  which  she  had 
built  at  Aniiauo;  and  there  she  spout 
the  rest  of  her  life  in  fastings,  prayers, 
and  good  works.  The  pictures  of  Nic- 
colo  and  Anna  are  kept  with  great  vene 
ration  in  the  church  of  St.  Nicholas,  in 
token  of  their  sanctity.  Many  miracles 
have  been  wrought  l>y  both  saints.  Life 
!>.  L"i  -i  /c~.'"  Giuatiniani,  their  descen 
dant,  who  died  Jan.  8,  1455,  written  by 
Bernardo  Giustiuiani,  and  given  in  the 
AA.tiS.1  Jan.  8.  The  story  is  told  with 
many  interesting  details  by  Lebeau, 
in  >l»  I  In*  Kinjtti-f,  xix.,  xx.  of  the 
old  edition,  xvi.,  xvii.  of  the  new  (  18-">:»  ). 


U«t.,,-<i  of  Venice,  "  lluglishod  "  by  \V. 
Slmte  i  MIL'  i.  Wion,  Liynum  Vilx,  wh<» 
calls  Anna  v>  Duchess  of  the  Venetians." 
Mas  Latrie,  7'/vW.  Bucelinus,  M-  //. 
/>'/(.,  Nov.  21.  Light  is  thrown  on  the 
customs  of  Venice  at  the  time,  aud  the 
status  of  the  families  of  Michieli  and 
Giustiniani  hy  Molmouti,  Storin  ili 
\'<ii'::i'i  K>ll<i  \'i(<i  /',-,'/••//</.  The  Life  of 
Anna  is  promised  by  the  Bollandists 
when  they  com*-  t  i  her  <l;iv. 

B.  Anna  i  17  i,  Mtfob  8.  t  |L'1L 
Of  the  noble  family  of  Frankeuhof.  n. 
Cistercian  nun  at  Srefeld  ;  succeeded  l'». 
'1  i  DE<  \  us  abbess.  In  1241  Conrad  of 


"\Yiiiterstcttiii  built  the  nunnery  of 
1'aindt,  near  the  monastery  of  Weiugar- 
ten,  in  the  ancient  diocese  of  Constance, 
and  thither  Anna  moved  as  abbess. 
She  died  124i,  and  was  succeeded  by 
Ermengard,  daughter  of  the  founder. 
Buceliuus,  JL'ti.  Ben.  Migne,  Di-  /.  des 
Alilmiji-x.  Moustier,  Gynecseum.  The 
accounts  of  the  situation,  etc.,  of  the 
nunneries  do  not  quite  agree. 
B.  Anna  (18),  AMICIA. 
St.  Anna  <  li'),  Duchess  of  Silesia, 
bom  ftt  Prague,  1204.  f  1246.  Daughter 
of  Preuiysi  Ottokar  I.,  first  king  of 
Bohemia  (  1 1(JS-12:!<> ),  by  his  second 
wife,  Constance  of  Hungary.  ST.  AGNES 
nr  1  >OHEMIA  was  her  sister,  ST.  ELIZABETH 
OF  Hi'MjAHY  her  cousin,  ST.  ABDELA  her 
half-sister,  ST.  HEDWIG  her  mother-in- 
law.  Anna  married,  in  1210,  Henry  II., 
the  pious  duke  of  Silesia ;  he  was  killed 
at  Legnitz,  1241,  in  a  great  battle 
against  the  Tartars,  where,  although  the 
Christians  were  defeated,  overpowered 
by  numbers,  they  made  such  a  good 
fight  against  the  heathens,  and  inflicted 
on  them  such  heavy  loss,  that  the  tide  of 
their  invasion  was  effectually  arrested. 
St.  Anna,  St.  Hedwig,  and  all  the  nuns 
of  Trebnitz  were  in  the  fortress  of 
Chrosna  when  the  battle  was  fought. 
Anna  buried  her  husband  in  the  Fran 
ciscan  convent  which  he  had  begun  to 
build  at  Breslau,  and  which  she  finished 
after  his  death.  She  had  six  sous  and 
three  daughters.  For  some  particulars 
of  the  Tartar  invasion  and  the  battle 
of  Legnitz,  see  St.  lied  wig,  duchess  of 
Silesia.  Dlugosch,  Hwtoria  Polonica. 
Palacky,  Gcw-hicte  von  Jlohwen.  Stenzol, 
,s'iv/y>/"/vx  l('i  rum  Silesise,  ii.  127,  etc. 
A.  Knoblich,  Herzoyin  Anna  von  »SV///»  >•/»  //, 
I5iv>lau.  L665«  Anna  is  called  "Blessed" 
by  several  writers,  and  "  Saint  "  by  Mas 
Latrie,  Tr&or,  p.  905. 

B.  Anna  (  2»> ),  April  S,  of  Sehlussel- 
bt-i-^.  i:;th  century.  Daughter  of 
Conrad,  barou  of  Schlusselberg,  near 
lliiiiiberg,  in  Frauconia.  Anna  became 
nid  abbess  of  the  Cistercian  house  of 
Sfhlusselberg,  and,  being  a  woman  of 
many  virtues,  received  sundry  privileges 
from  lu-r  brother-in-law  Leopold,  bishop 
of  r,;imberg.  When  she  was  dying  she 
directed  that  her  grave  should  be  left 


72 


ST.   ANNA 


open  to  receive  her  sister-in-law  and 
successor,  Anna,  countess  of  Zollern, 
who  would  die  within  a  month,  which 
happened.  Henriquez,  Lilia  CV.v/v/r//, 
ii.  250.  Bucelinus.  Rigollot,  in  Index 
to  Boll.,  AA.SS. 

St.  Anna  (21)  of  Viterbo,  Sept.  21. 
T  13(>6.  3rd  O.S.D.  Worship  un 
certain. 

St.  Anna  (22 ),  Oct.  2.  1338.  Duchess 
of  Tver,  and  Grand-princess  of  Russia. 
Daughter  of  Demetrius  Borissovitch, 
duke  of  Rostov.  Married,  c.  12}»4, 
Michael  Jaroslavitch,  duke  of  Tver, 
nephew  of  St.  Alexander  Nevski.  Her 
sister  was  married  to  Andrew,  grand- 
prince  of  Russia,  who  died  about  121'5. 
Michael,  duke  of  Tver,  succeeded  to  the 
principality.  According  to  Martinov's 
Slavonian  Calendar,  he  was  killed  in  a 
glorious  battle  against  the  Tartars  in 
1315.  But  according  to  Karamsin's 
Histoire  de  Russia,  iv.,  he  survived  the 
battle.  His  nephew  George,  duke  of 
Moscow,  who  had  married  a  sister  of 
Usbek,  khan  of  Tartary,  tried  to  deprive 
him  of  his  right.  Michael  took  Moscow, 
and  carried  away  George's  wife  among 
the  prisoners.  Unfortunately,  an  epi 
demic  broke  out  in  Tver,  and  she  fell  a 
victim  to  it.  George  accused  his  uncle 
of  poisoning  her.  The  grand-prince 
had  to  go  to  the  horde  and  appear  before 
the  khan  to  clear  himself  of  the  alleged 
crime.  After  undergoing  much  ill  usage, 
which  he  bore  with  great  fortitude  and 
dignity,  Michael  was  put  to  death, 
Nov.  22,  131!).  Some  months  after 
execution  his  body  was  brought  home, 
and  found  to  be  in  perfect  preservation. 
It  was  buried  with  all  honour  in  the 
Kremlin  of  Moscow,  in  the  monastery  of 
St.  Saviour,  on  the  spot  where  now 
stands  the  old  church  of  the  Transfigura 
tion.  He  was  mourned  as  the  friend  of 
his  country  throughout  all  Russia,  most 
of  all  in  his  own  dukedom  of  Tver.  He 
is  honoured  as  a  saint  and  martyr.  The 
Duchess  Anna  took  the  veil,  and  so  did 
Xenia,  the  virtuous  and  pious  mother  of 
Michael.  Anna  removed  from  Tver  to 
Kasan,  at  the  request  of  her  son  Basil, 
and  died  there  in  133S.  Her  body  was 
translated  into  the  cathedral  in  the  reign 
of  Alexander  Michaclovitch  ( 1  (345-  ID  7  •  \), 


the   first   of  the    Romanoffs ;    the   king 
himself  carried  the  venerable  corpse. 

B.  Anna  (23  ),  April  Ki,  of  Camerino, 
O.D.S.  f  1 3(59.  A  native  of  the  march  of 
Ancona.  Mentioned  in  the  Dominican 
Martyrology  and  by  various  writers  of 
that  order.  Jacobilli  calls  her  a  nun 
famous  for  sanctity  and  miracles.  Pio,, 
KTbmtftt,  etc. 

B.  Anna  ("24;  of  the  Cross.  K'.th 
century.  First  abbess  of  the  first 
nunnery  of  the  Order  of  the  Assumption 
of  our  Lady,  otherwise  called  our  Lady 
of  Mercy.  The  order  was  founded  for 
men,  by  Peter  Nolasca,  in  1 235,  but  had 
no  communities  of  women.  The  first 
nunnery  was  founded  at  Seville  about 
1508.  (See  ST.  MARY  OF  HELP.)  Helyot,, 
Hist,  dcs  Ordrcs  Monastiques,  part  iii. 
chap.  37. 

B.  Anna  (25)  Toschel,  Jan.  28, 
Nov.  in.  j-  1 582.  A  Benedictine  abbess 
at  Riga,  who  distinguished  herself  by 
her  streuous  opposition  to  the  Lutheran 
and  Calvinistic  heresies.  She  lived  to 
the  age  of  13o.  Bucelinus,  Men.  Ben., 
Jan.  28,  spells  her  name  TOICHEL. 
Collin  de  Plancy,  Saintes  et  Bienltcureuscs^ 
Nov.  10. 

B.  Anna  (26)  de  Roussy,  founder  of 
the  first  convent  of  Ursulines  at  Paris, 
c.  1612.  (Sec  ANGELA  MEIUCI.)  Guene- 
bault. 

B.  Anna  (27)  of  Beaulieu,  June  24. 
•f  Ki  18.  GAI.I.IOTA. 

Ven.  Anna  ( 2S)  of  St.  Bartholomew, 
June  7.  1 53<  >- 1  (528.  Born  at  Almandral, 
in  Old  Castile.  Her  parents  were  Fer 
nando  Garcias  and  Mary  Manganas. 
Anna  was  a  Carmelite  nun  of  the  re 
formed  order.  One  of  the  first  who  took 
the  habit  in  St.  Teresa's  monastery  of 
St.  Joseph,  at  Avila.  Her  humility 
made  her  a  great  favourite  with  Teresa,, 
who  calls  her  "  a  great  servant  of  God,'" 
and  says  that,  although  only  a  lay-sister, 
she  was  of  more  use  to  her  than  any  of 
the  other  nuns  whom  she  took  with  her 
on  her  journeys  to  assist  in  making  re 
forms  and  establishing  new  monasteries 
of  the  reformed  rule.  She  accompanied 
her  beloved  mistress  on  many  of  these 
expeditions  as  her  secretary,  and  attended 
her  with  devoted  affection  in  her  last 
illness.  On  October  4,  1582,  at  Alba. 


15.    ANNA 


78 


do  Tonnes,    Teresa    lay   the   last  hour 

of  her   life    with    her  head    on  Anna's 

shoulder,  and  died  in  her  arms.     Having 

served    her    apprenticeship   under  this 

great  reformer  and  founder,  Anna  went 

to    France,   about    1004,    and    founded 

houses  of  the  same  Order  of  Barefooted 

Carmelites  at  Tours  and  Pontoise.     In 

loll    she  was  sent  for   by  Albert   and 

Isabel,  to  found  ;i  monastery  at  Antwerp. 

Tlu-ro  sli,    r,  mained  until  her  death  in 

1  '"•_»',,  four  years  after  the  canonization  of 

her  ^mistress,  aged  seventy-six.    The  / 

vfSt  Jaw  di'  Clmntal, written  by  her  niece 

Mother  Chaugy,  says,  "  Mother  Anne  of 

St.  Bartholomew,  who  is  now  held  to  bo 

a    saint,    hud   a   vision    respecting    tho 

Congregation    of    tho   Visitation,   more 

than  four  years   before   its   foundation. 

Madame  do  Chantal  one  day  told  her 

that  she  often  wished  to  enter  the  Order 

of    Reformed    Carmelites.     Anna    said, 

Wo,     St.  Teresa  will  not  have  you  as 

her  daughter.     You  will  have  so  many 

daughters  of  your  own  that  you  will  be 

tin-  companion  of  our  blessed  Mother. 

(Jod  ha-  work  for  you  to  do  through  tho 

Bishop  of  Geneva.' "    Anna  was  regarded 

i  saint  by  tho   people   of  Antwerp. 

>\  hen  her  body  was  laid  in  the  church, 

re  burial,  they  came  and  touched  it 

With  more  than  twenty  thousand  rosaries 

1  linages.     \(  xt  day  the  people  from 

the  country  round   came   to  honour 

'  saint  and  derive  some  benefit  from 

touching  h,.r  saeivd  remains.     She  is  not 

canonized.     Sh«    is  called  "  Venerable  " 

'V  Butler  and  Dalton,  also  by  tho  Bol- 

fe  who  relate  that   her  heavenly 

'ions   twice   saved    the    city   of 

Antwerp  from  imminent  danger  in  sieges. 

<  uliKT,     quoting      Tenvecorin,     Preci* 

*>'""/"<  *,  says  that,  after  her  death,  the 

ttioipal  body  of  Antwerp  went  every 

in  procession,  carrying  candles,  to 

r  Convent,    to  acknowledge   solemnly 

owed  their  deliverance  to  her 

She  it  mentioned  several  times 

P.  reresa's  account  of  her  F<.tni,l... 

lu   1 735  Clement  XH.  permitted 

ings   for  her  canonization   to  be 

Utinhand.     Guerin,  Petite  Bollandistes 

Anna  <-•,  Toussaint  <le  Voh 

1  aoble  family  of  iJn-tagne, 
Jled  Sainte  Anne,  also  the 


Saint  of  NY-ant.  Neant  was  her  parish 
i  <!>]>.  Morbihan  ).  She  built  the  hospital 
of  Ploermel.  PftiU  HoUan<U*tr*t  xv. 

B.  Anna  (:'»•'  i  Maria  Taigi,  June  9. 
17u'.t-ls:;7.  :;rd  Order  of  Trinitarians. 
Represented  looking  up  to  a  sun.  Anna 
Maria  Antonietta  Gesulda  was  born  at 
Siena.  Her  father  was  Luigi  Pietro- 
Gesulda,  a  chemist.  In  177.")  he  was 
ruined  by  his  own  fault.  The  family, 
being  reduced  to  extreme  poverty,  re 
moved  on  foot  to  Rome.  Gesulda  and 
his  wife  became  servants.  Their  little 
girl  worked  in  a  silk  factory.  She 
married  Domeuico  Taigi,  a  servant  in 
the  noble  family  of  Chigi.  Anna  Maria 
was  fond  of  dress  and  amusement, 
especially  theatrical  entertainments. 
These  frivolous  tastes  facilitated  the 
wicked  designs  of  an  old  libertine  who, 
with  great  patience  and  cleverness, 
pursued  her  with  unholy  attentions, 
until  a  day  came  when  her  passion  for 
finery  delivered  her  into  his  hands. 
From  that  day  her  existence  was  em 
bittered  by  shame  and  regret.  The 
whole  of  her  after-life  was  an  incessant 
penance  for  this  sin.  Her  husband's 
presence  was  a  continual  reproach  to  her, 
and  she  bore  all  his  exactions  and 
caprices  with  great  humility.  She  had 
four  sons  and  three  daughters,  whom  sho- 
brought  up  very  carefully  and  piously. 
She  dutifully  cared  for  and  waited  on 
her  father  and  mother  as  long  as  they 
lived.  Sho  was  naturally  inclined  to 
gluttony,  and  mortified  this  temptation 
with  great  ardour  and  self-denial, 
especially  by  going  for  days  together 
without  drinking. 

In  1  7'. is  the  Taigi  were  reduced  almosi 
to  destitution,  in  consequence  of  tho 
attempt  of  the  French  to  establish  a 
republic  in  Rome,  which  took  away  tho 
means  of  subsistence  from  tho  poorer 
classes.  Tho  Chigi  were  unable  to  pay 
the  wages  of  so  many  servants,  and  they 
were  thrown  upon  tho  charity  of  those 
who  had  anything  left  to  give. 

From  the  time  of  her  conversion  and 
tho  beginning  of  her  penitent  life,  Anna 
always  sa\v  before  her  what  sho  described 
as  a  sun.  It  was  of  tho  size  that  the 
real  sun  in  the  heavens  appears  to  our 
ordinary  bight,  of  extreme  brightness, 


ST.   AXXOFLEDIS 


and  yet  she  could  look  at  it,  even  with 
her  eye  which  was  nearly  blind.  In 
this  sun  she  saw  events  past,  present, 
and  future,  and  sometimes  thoughts  and 
motives.  She  first  saw  it  while  taking 
the  discipline,  and  for  the  rest  of  her 
life  it  was  always  before  her.  She  had 
frequent  ecstasies,  during  which  she  was 
so  insensible  to  all  that  went  on  around 
her,  that  her  husband  used  to  shake  her 
and  reproach  her  with  falling  asleep  in 
the  midst  of  her  duties,  and  even  at  her 
prayers.  She  would  never  suffer  any 
one  to  be  spoken  ill  of  in  her  presence, 
and  always  suggested  excuses  for  those 
who  had  done  wrong.  She  was  zealous 
in  the  conversion  of  the  wicked,  there 
fore  some  who  were  pronounced  hope 
lessly  hardened  were  commended,  in 
desperation,  to  her  intercession.  While 
obtaining  of  God  the  conversion  of  a 
sinner,  she  suffered  great  agony  of 
body,  as  well  as  anguish  of  mind. 
Her  charity  included  condemned  crimi 
nals,  whom  she  was  sometimes  successful 
in  persuading  to  repentance  and  con 
fession,  after  priests  had  been  discouraged 
by  their  obduracy.  She  was  much  liked 
and  respected  for  her  piety  and  her  gift 
of  prophecy  by  Cardinal  Fesch,  Napo 
leon's  uncle,  by  Marie  Louise  de  Bourbon, 
queen  of  Etruria,  by  Cardinal  Pedicini, 
and  several  other  persons  of  much  higher 
education  and  station  than  herself;  but 
although  she  had  taken  alms  when 
her  family  were  at  the  verge  of  starva 
tion,  she  would  never  accept  from  any 
of  those  exalted  persons  any  favours  or 
benefactions  which  would  in  the  least 
<legreo  raise  her  out  of  her  humble  state 
of  life,  and  this  was  for  two  reasons : 
first,  she  wished  to  remain  independent, 
to  be  always  free  to  speak  fearlessly  and 
truly;  secondly,  she  did  not  desire  to 
place  within  reach  of  her  children 
luxuries  and  leisure  which  they  might 
miss  when  they  were  grown  up.  She 
feared  for  them  idleness  and  love  of 
pleasure ;  she  thought  that  if  they  were 
lifted  for  a  time  out  of  the  life  of  toil 
and  privation  to  which  they  were  born, 
and  then  dropped  back  into  it,  the 
remembrance  of  their  temporary  ease 
and  luxury  might  become  a  temptation 
to  them.  She  died  in  1837.  Her  beati 


fication  took  place  in  1  Si i: I,  under  Pius  IX. 
Her  husband,  then  a  very  old  man,  was 
one  of  the  important  witnesses  on  the 
occasion.  He  said  that  she  was  a  very 
good  woman ;  he  as  little  suspected  her 
of  being  a  saint  as  of  having  ever  sinned 
against  him ;  he  said  he  had  always 
considered  her  a  person  of  great  virtues 
and  an  incomparable  wife,  but  most  of 
her  extraordinary  gifts  and  graces  ho 
had  only  heard  of  since  her  death.  She 
was  a  tertiary  of  the  Order  of  the  Trini 
tarians  for  the  Redemption  of  Captives. 

While  her  canonization  was  going  on, 
in  18i)o,  her  Life  was  written  by  Dr. 
Luquet,  bishop  of  Hesebon,  and  during 
that  time  sundry  notices  appeared  in 
the  Giornale  <li  Iloma  and  the  Analecta 
Juris  Pontificii,  iii.,  iv.  The  author  of 
Les  Mystiques  says  that  her  reputation 
for  sanctity  and  prophecy  was  such  that 
she  was  the  fashion  among  cardinals 
and  prelates,  and  attained  a  degree  of 
notoriety  and  the  entree  to  houses  and 
society  to  which  her  position  would  not 
have  entitled  her.  Dr.Luquet's  little  book 
is  the  chief  authority  for  this  article. 

St.  Annofledis,  Dec.  1  and  7  (AGNE- 
FLETTK,  LANOFLEDIS,  NOFLEDIS,  NOFLETE 
ONOFLETTE).  c.  055.  Nun  under  ST 
FAHA.  Angels  were  heard  singing  at  the 
moment  of  her  death.  Chastelaiu,  Voc 
Ha>/.  Mabillon,  AA.SS.  O.S.B. 

St.  Anominata,  V.  M.  Sister  01 
ST.  COLOMBA  OF  EVOHA. 

Anonymous  Saints.  Besides  the 
vast  number  of  saints  named  in  the 
various  calendars  of  Christian  Churchi 
a  multitude  of  others  are  commeinoratec 
whose  names  are  not  preserved. 

In  the  Roman  Martyroloyy  alone  there 
are  more  than  thirty-six  thousand  un 
named  martyrs.  Of  these,  a  great  numbei 
arc  women,  who  perished  in  the  indis 
criminate  massacre  of  Christians  by 
heathens,  or  of  orthodox  or  Catholic 
Christians  by  heretics.  When  a  whole 
family  were  massacred,  the  names  o: 
the  men  are  often  mentioned,  while 
the  wives,  daughters,  or  companions 
who  shared  the  martyrdom  are  com 
memorated,  but  not  named.  Thus  we 
have,  Feb.  15,  St.  Crato  with  his  wife 
and  family;  Sept.  1,  forty  virgins  arc 
honoured  at  Heracles,  disciples  anc 


ST.    . \\SOAIJ) 


75 


l'« •llo\v-iuiirtyiis  of  St.  Ammon  tlio  deacon. 
<  '.i  Dec.  L'.~>  welind  that  seventy  women  and 
two  hundred  nu-n  were  companions  of  the 
martyrdom  of  ST.  A  NAM  ASIA,  early  in 
the  4th  century.  ( )n  the  same  day  aro 
uKo  honoured  ''many  thousands"  who 
perished  about  that  time,  at  Xicomedia, 
under  Diocletian.  These  Christians  had 
assembled  in  church  ou  Christmas  Day. 
The  Emperor  ordered  the  gates  to  bo 
shut,  and  tires  prepared  all  round  tho 
building,  trip. .Is  with  incense  being  set 
before  the  doors.  An  officer  then  pro 
claimed,  with  a  loud  voice,  that  whoever 
wished  to  escape  had  only  to  come  out 
and  offer  incense  to  Jove.  The  Christians 
all  answered  with  one  voice  that  they 
would  rather  die.  So  they  were  burnt 
uli\v.  and  were  born  in  heaven  on  the 
anniversary  of  the  same  day  that  Christ 
was  born  on  earth.  There  occur  fre 
quently  in  tho  R.M.,  such  entries  as 
••eii  virgins,"  "forty  virgins,"  "six 
sisters,"  "  four  hundred  martyrs  of  both 

Besides  these,  there  aro  the  nuns  who 
followed  the  precept  and  example  of 
ST.  EIJISA,  their  abbess,  and  obtained 
martyrdom  by  disfiguring  themselves 
rather  than  endure  desecration  from  tho 
barbarians  who  attacked  their  convent. 

The  legend  of  ST.  UKSCLA  and  her 
eleven  thousand  virgins  of  Cologne  may 
be  mentioned,  whose  story,  if  mythical, 

:  very  ancient  origin. 
In  addition  to  the  unnamed  martyrs, 
a  number  of  comparatively  obscure  per- 
aro  honoured  by  writers  of  saintly 
ry,  and  some  of  the  stories  told  of 
them   arc  worthy  of  a  place  among  tho 
tic  legends  of  the  Middle  Ages:  tho 
llowiugisan  example:— 
<->n  a  wide  and  somewhat  dreary  plain 
in  New  Castile,  not  far  from  tho  BOOTOe 
the  Tagus,  stood,  in  the  middle  of  tho 
5th  century,a  J-nedu-tine  nunnery.    Its 
ioly  inmates  wen-   threatened  with  cap- 
tare  by  an  army  of  Saracens.     The  walls 
the  building,  being  only  of  Kuffirirnt 
-Hi  to  withstand  the  attacks  of  wild 
ta  or  any  chance  intruder,  could  offer 
MfoctuaJ  reOffcmoe  to  an  armed  hand. 
1  <"  abbess  ran-  the  bell,  and,  assembling 
Bliten   in    the    ehapel.   exhorted 
to    pray    that    the    earth    should 


swallow  them  up,  rather  than  that  thoy 
should  fall  alive  into  the  hands  of  the 
infidels.  Their  prayer  was  -ranted,  and 
the  Saracens,  approaching,  found  nothing 
but  scanty  heath,  lavender,  and  wild 
shrubs,  where  from  a  distance  they  had 
seen  the  towers  of  a  stately  convent. 
While  vainly  seeking  for  that  which 
was  no  longer  to  be  found,  at  Vesper- 
time  they  suddenly  heard  the  convent 
bells  ringing  beneath  their  feet.  To 
this  day  shepherds  and  travellers  passing 
over  the  spot  at  the  hours  of  prayer. 
hear  the  mullled  ringing  of  tho  convent 
bell  and  the  sweet  distant  voices  of  the 
nuns  singing  the  office  underground. 

There  are  many  other  nameless  soldiers 
of  the  noble  army  of  martyrs,  who  in 
largo  and  uncertain  numbers  followed 
their  leaders  of  either  sex  to  martyrdom, 
and  are  commemorated  with  them,  but 
whoso  names,  in  the  words  of  an  old 
hagiologist,  "are  known  only  to  God." 

St.  Anor,  or  HONOUIA,  de  Monte- 
bard.  12th  and  i:!th  centuries.  Cousin 
of  St.  Bernard.  Married  a  brother  of 
Hugh  de  Seiguelay,  archbishop  of  Sens 
and  Diambert,  bead  of  the  Seignelay 
family.  Her  son,  William  de  Seignelay, 
was  Bishop  of  Auxerre,  1_!»>7-12LM. 
Gall  la  Cln-isi'mmi.  Mas  Latrie,  7V 

St.  Anscrida,  April  us,  V.  Wor 
shipped  with  a  double  office  at  Xonau- 
tula,  in  Italy,  where  her  body  is  kept. 
It  was  probably  taken  there  from  one  of 
tho  Koman  cemeteries.  AA.SS.  Boll., 


St.  Ansitrudis,  AISTUI-DK. 

St.  Ansoald,  Aug.  1>4,  V.  at  Mau- 
beuge.  1  1  tli  century.  B.  Theodoric, 
abbot  of  Andagin  or  Audain,  in  the 
forest  of  Ardennes  in  Belgium,  was 
vowed  t;>  a  religious  life.  by  his  mother 
in  his  childhood.  His  father  was  very 
angry,  and  insisted  that  he  should  bo 
brought  up  as  a  soldier.  The  child  broke 
liis  arm  and  was  nearly  killed,  whereupon 
his  father  gave  him  up  to  his  mother, 
saying  that  if  it  were  God's  will  that  ho 
should  be  a  monk,  he  would  recover. 
She  tended  him  so  well  that  ho  did 
recover,  and  then  she  confided  him  to 
her  daughter  Ansoald,  in  tho  convent  of 
Maubeugo,  to  be  taught  his  letters  and 
the  Psalter.  Ausould  was  a  woman  of 


76 


ST.  ANSOMIA 


great  piety  and  very  dirty.  She  in 
structed  and  tended  her  little  brother 
with  gentleness  and  diligence.  She  died 
of  cancer.  Boll.,  AA.SS.,  inter  Prse- 
termissos. 

St.  Ansomia,  June  4,  M.  Same  as 
AUSONIA,  June  2,  M.  at  Lyons. 

St.  Anstrude,  AUSTKUDE. 

St.  Anstruse,  AUSTKVDE. 

St.  Antea,  ANTHIA. 

St.  Antha,  Dec.  12,  M.,  with  AMMO- 
NAJMA. 

St.  Anthia,  April  18  (ANCIA,  ANTEA, 
ANTIA),  M.  at  Home  or  Messina,  with 
her  son,  St.  Eleutherius,  Bishop,  perhaps, 
of  Illyricum.  She  is  said  to  have  been 
contemporary  with  the  Apostles  and  to 
have  seen  St.  Paul ;  but  the  Acts  of  St. 
Eleutherius,  on  which  the  story  rests,  are 
pronounced  by  Papebroch  to  be  apocry 
phal.  EJL  Boll.,  AA.SS.  Martin. 

St.  Anthilia,  Sept,  24, 25  (ANTHILLA, 
ANTILIA),  V.  M.  at  Arezzo,  in  Tus 
cany. 

St.  Anthilia,  ANTHILIA. 

St.  Anthusa(l),  or  DOMNINA,  March 
20.  Nero,  angry  at  the  success  of  ST. 
PHOTINA'S  preaching  at  Carthage,  ordered 
her  and  her  five  sisters  to  bo  taken  to 
a  golden  chamber,  seven  golden  chairs 
and  a  table  to  be  placed  there,  and  his 
daughter  Domnina,  with  a  hundred  fol 
lowers,  to  go  in  and  talk  to  these  Chris 
tian  women.  Domnina  and  her  attendants 
were  speedily  converted.  She  was  bap 
tized  by  Photina,  and  took  the  name  of 
Anthusa  (sometimes  given  to  Photina 
herself).  There  are  several  saints  of 
the  names  of  Domnina  and  Anthusa 
honoured  in  the  Church  on  various  days, 
but  it  is  not  recorded  that  any  one  of 
them  was  daughter  of  Nero. 

Henschenius  and  Papebroch  give  the 
story  in  the  Life  of  St.  PJivtina,  from 
some  old  Greek  Act*,  but  do  not  consider 
it  probable.  Boll.,  AA.SS. 

St.  Anthusa  (2 ),  Aug.  22.  Time  of 
Valerian.  4th  century.  Called  in 
Roman  Martyrology  Anthusa  the  Elder. 
A  woman  of  Seleucia.  Daughter  of  rich 
idolaters.  She  took  her  two  servants, 
Charisius  and  Xeophytus,  and  left  her 
home,  pretending  she  was  going  to  visit 
her  nurse,  but  took  the  road  to  Tarsus, 
where  she  wanted  to  go  and  be  baptized. 


St.  Athanasius,  bishop  of  that  city,  was 
brought  by  an  angel  to  meet  her  on  the 
road.  There  was  no  water  to  be  had,  so 
he  prayed  and  brought  water  out  of  the 
ground,  wherewith  he  baptized  Anthusa 
and  her  two  servants.  She  then  re 
turned  to  her  mother's  house,  but  was 
refused  admittance ;  so  she  betook  her 
self  to  a  solitary  life  in  the  desert,  and 
lived  among  the  beasts  for  twenty-three 
years,  and  then  died  in  peace.  Meantime 
SS.  Athanasius,  Charisius,  and  Neophytus 
were  taken  by  Valerian  and  put  to  death. 
All  four  are  commemorated  together. 
Anthusa  is  called  "Martyr"  in  the- 
Roman  Martyrology.  AA.SS. 

St.  Anthusa  (3)  the  Younger,  Aug. 
27,  M.  Clothed  in  a  rough  and  ragged 
garment  and  thrown  into  a  well.  Wor 
shipped  in  Sicily.  R.M.  Piuius,  in 
AA.SS. 

St.  Anthusa  (4),  July  27,  V.  8th 
century.  Abbess  of  Constantinople. 
She  dedicated  herself  to  an  ascetic 
religious  life,  after  the  example  of  St, 
Sisinnus,  and  founded  two  religious 
houses,  one  for  men  and  the  other  for 
women;  she  herself  presided  over  the 
latter.  In  the  iconoclastic  persecution, 
the  Emperor  Constantino  Copronymus, 
hearing  that  Anthusa  and  her  nuns  wor 
shipped  images,  sent  for  her.  She  was 
brought  to  trial  with  her  nephew,  who- 
had  succeeded  Sisinnus  in  the  care  of  the 
monastery.  Anthusa  was  subjected  to 
many  tortures,  and  would  perhaps  have 
been  put  to  death,  but  it  happened  that 
the  empress  was  at  the  point  of  death  in 
child-birth.  Anthusa  prophesied  for 
her  a  safe  delivery  of  twins — a  son  and 
daughter.  As  this  presently  proved 
true,  the  saint  was  liberated,  and  taken 
into  great  favour  by  the  empress.  The 
girl  was  called  after  Anthusa  and  edu 
cated  by  her,  and  is  commemorated 
April  17.  R.M.  AA.SS. 

St.  Anthusa  (5),  April  17.  8th 
century.  A  benevolent  and  pious  prin 
cess.  Daughter  of  Constantino  V.  (Co- 
pronymousj.  Named  after  and  educated 
by  ST.  ANTHUSA  (4).  Founded  the  first 
orphan  asylum  in  the  Christian  world. 
Finlay,  l>ij::<mttn<'  L'////-/'/v,  p.  81.  Hen 
schenius.  Boll.,  AA.SS. 

St.  Anthusa  (C;,  Feb.  22.   A  Grecian 


B.   AXTONIA 


77 


lady  put  to  tho  sword  with  her  twelve 
servants.  Henschenius.  Boll.,  AA.>  ^ 

St.  Anthusa  i  7  >,  mother  of  ST. 
AKTHKI.I.AIS. 

B.  Anthusa  (8),  Jan.  27.  4th  cen 
tury.  Mother  of  St.  Chrysostom. 
StJidler. 

St.  Antia,  ANTHIA. 

St.  Antiga,  Feb.  22,  M.  at  Xico- 
meiliii,  witli  SS.  VICTORINA,  PAULA,  EME- 
KITA.  A  ST..  MAN  A,  DATIVA,  ROGATIANA, 
UUIIANA.  MAXIMA, MARINA,  MATKONA  aud 
her  daughter  PEKEGHINA,  SEcr.sDri.A, 
.II-TA,  CASTULA,  MAHCELLINA,  CASTA, 
DMNMI -LA,  LIBOSA,  FLAVIA,  DOTA,  Fru- 
.  uii.l  K'KGINA  (3).  Many  Christians 
were  martyred  at  Xicomedia,  in  Bithynia, 
at  different  times.  Ten  thousand  are 
commemorated  on  one  day  in  the  Greek 
calendars  and  .'5628  on  another.  Whether 
the  few  whose  names  are  here  preserved 
are  amongst  the  same,  or  were  slain  at 
other  times,  we  do  not  know.  Heu- 
schenius.  AA.SS. 

St.  Antigone  (1),  Feb.  27,  M.  at 
Home.  AA.SS. 

St.  Antigone  (2)  of  Panuonia,  Feb. 
28,  M.  Perhaps  the  same  as  the 
above. 

Antilia,  ANTHILIA. 

St.  Antiquiora,  Aug.  :n,  M.  at 
Ancyra,  in  Galatia.  4.4.$$. 

SS.  Antonia  (I )  and  Tertulla, 
April  2'.',  VV.  MM.  Consecrated  virgins, 
rat  to  death  at  Cirtha,  in  Xnmidia,  with 
Jfi  Agapius  and  Secundinus,  bishops, 
win »  had  long  been  in  exile  there;  also 
\omilianus,  a  soldier;  and  a  woman 
with  her  twin  children.  li.M.  AA.SS. 

St.  Antonia  ('2  >,  May  4,  M.  at  Xico 
media,  in  Bithynia.  Mentioned  in  tho 
Martyrology  of  St.  Jrrumc.  She  was  hung 
np  hy  one  arm  for  three  days,  kept  in 
prison  for  two  years,  and  then  burned  to 
Henschenius  thinks  she  may 
possibly  bo  tho  same  as  ANTONINA  (1). 
8.M.  AA.SS. 

St.  Antonia  (3\  One  of  the 
martyrs  of  Lyons,  who  died  in  prison. 

S''  •      I5\I.I:IN.\. 

St.    Antonia   (4),   June    4.      Com 
memorated  with  TBOPHONIA.     AA.SS. 
St.    Antonia    (5),    April     12,    M. 

1 . 1 .  .s  ,s'. 

B.    Antonia    («)),    ANK.INMIE,  or 


AMOMKTTA,  Feb.  2S,  April  7.  1401- 
1472.  O.S.  F.  A  native  of  Florence. 
She  was  still  very  young  when  left  a 
willow  with  one  son.  She  took  the  veil 
in  Florence,  in  tho  convent  of  Sant' 
Ouofrio,  of  cloistered  nuns  of  tho  Third 
Order  of  St.  Francis.  B.  ANGELINA 
CORBAHA  was  founder  and  superior  of 
all  the  cloistered  tertiaries.  In  1430 
she  set  Antonia  over  her  head  convent 
of  ST.  ANNA,  at  Foligno,  where  she 
formed  a  great  friendship  with  B.  PAULA. 
In  14.'W  Angelina  sent  them  to  Aquila 
to  found  two  convents  of  the  observance. 
Autonia  became  superior  of  ST.  ELIZA 
BETH'S.  While  she  was  there  Angelina 
died,  and  was  succeeded  by  B.  MAH- 
GAUET  of  Foligno.  Through  St.  John 
of  Capistrano,  vicar-general  of  tho  ob 
servance,  who  visited  Aquila  at  the  time, 
A  iitouia  obtained  the  monastery  of  Corpo 
di  Cristo,  or  the  Holy  Eucharist,  which 
had  just  been  built  at  Aquila  for  another 
order.  She  settled  there  in  1447,  with 
twelve  nuns  of  her  order,  to  follow,  in 
all  its  rigour,  the  first  rule  of  ST.  CLARA. 
In  this  monastery  Paula  died.  Autonia 
soon  had  to  enlarge  the  house.  Her 
son  and  her  other  relations  came 
troubling  her  with  their  worldly  affairs, 
which  was  a  trial  to  her.  She  ruled 
here  for  seven  years,  and  died  Feb.  28, 
1472,  aged  seventy  -  one.  Her  body 
lay  in  the  church  there  for  over  four 
centuries,  with  the  limbs  supple,  the 
eyes  open,  and  every  appearance  of  life. 
In  1847  Pius  IX.  approved  her  im 
memorial  worship.  Her  feast  is  only 
kept  in  her  own  order.  A.R.M.  Romano- 
'/>///<•,  April  7.  Jacobilli,  Saints  of 
/'//>/'/•/".  Loon,  Aureol<>  di-  Sninte  Claire. 
Collin  do  Plancy  gives  her  day  as 
Feb.  29, 

B.  Antonia  1 7 )  Guaineri,  Oct.  27. 
O.S.D.  1407-1507.  Xuu  in  tho  Do 
minican  convent  of  ST.  CATHERINE  THE 
M\I:TYU,  in  Brescia.  While  very  young, 
she  was  reproved  one  day  by  tho  choir- 
mistress  for  not  singing  loud  enough. 
Hither  not  understanding  how  to  modu 
late  her  voice,  or  being  a  little  obstinate, 
she  did  not  obey.  To  teach  her  sub 
mission,  she  was  stripped  down  to  her 
waist,  und  whipped  in  presence  of  tho 
nuns  in  the  chapter.  She  became  a 


78 


R.   AXTOXIA 


pattern  nun.  At  sixty-six  she  was  sent 
with  others  to  reform  the  convent  of  St. 
Catherine  at  Ferrara.  There  she  was 
unanimously  chosen  prioress.  She 
governed  so  well  that  that  convent  was 
soon  remarkable  for  sanctity,  and  several 
of  her  nuns  were  sent  to  reform  other 
convents.  Several  of  them  are  num 
bered  among  the  saints ;  they  are  BB. 
VERONICA,  who  died  July  (>,  1511 ;  CE 
CILIA,  who  died  1511;  ANGELA  (»',) 
SERAFIXA,  who  died  1512;  PAULA  SPEZ- 
ZANI,  who  died  Aug.  IS,  1 501* ;  PERPETUA 
SAUDI;  and  COSTANZA.  Antonia  was 
humble  arid  self-denying,  but  strict,  and 
at  one  time  some  discontented  subordi 
nates  succeeded  in  deposing  her ;  but 
the  old  nuns  remonstrated,  and  had  her 
reinstated.  She  died  in  1507,  at  the 
age  of  a  hundred,  and  was  honoured 
thenceforth  as  a  saint.  AA.SS.  Eazzi, 
Prediction.  Pio,  Uomini  Uliistri  per 
Santiia. 

B.  Antonia  (S),  or  ANTOINETTE 
D'ORLEANS,  April  22.  -fKUS.  Marquise 
do  Belle  Isle.  Founder  of  the  Bene 
dictines  of  Mount  Calvary.  She  was 
(laughter  of  the  Duke  of  Longueville, 
and  related  to  the  royal  family  of  France. 
She  married  the  Marquise  de  Belle  Isle, 
eldest  son  of  the  Duke  of  Retz,  and  was 
left  a  widow  while  still  young  and  beau 
tiful.  She  took  the  veil,  at  the  age  of 
twenty-seven,  in  a  Cistercian  monastery 
at  Toulouse,  where  she  was  buried.  She 
founded  the  nunnery  of  SS.  MARY  and 
SCHOLASTIC  A,  at  Poitiers,  and,  on  be 
coming  abbess  there,  restored  the  primi 
tive  strictness  of  the  rule  of  St.  Benedict. 
The  members  of  this  reformed  rule  are 
called  the  Congregation  of  Benedictine 
Nuns  of  Mount  Calvary.  Guenebault, 
Diet.  (Vlcon.  AA.SS.,  April  22,  Prseter. 
Butler's  Lives,  note  to  "  St.  Benedict," 
March  21.  Henriquez,  Lil'ut. 

St.  Antoniana^M.  with  ST.  ANTIGA. 

St.  Antonina  (\),  May  :;,  V.  M. 
Called  "  the  Disguised,"  to  distinguish 
her  from  two  other  martyrs  of  the  same 
name.  Represented  wearing  a  veil,  to  indi 
cate  disguise.  At  Constantinople,  in  the 
persecution  under  Diocletian  and  Maxi- 
mian,  c.  :>on,  she  was  condemned  by 
Festus,  the  governor,  to  the  lowest  de 
gradation.  Alexander,  a  soldier,  changed 


clothes  with  her,  and  thus  enabled  her 
to  escape  from  the  infamous  place  in 
which  she  was.  Both  were  taken,  their 
hands  cut  off,  and  they  were  burned  to 
death. 

The     story    of    SS.    THEODORA    and 
Diclymus  is  almost  identical  with  this ; 
the  incident,  in  their  case,  happened  at 
Alexandria  during  the  same  persecution. 
St.  Ambrose,  writing  in  the  4th  century, 
tells  the  story  with  some  amplifications, 
laying  the  scene  at  Antioch.     He  says 
that  the   young  woman,   being   ordered 
to  choose  between  abjuring  her  religion 
and    being    sent   to    the   hipanar,    said, 
"  What  I  lose  by  force  and  .against  my 
will  is  not  my  sin,  and  my  Lord  will 
not   account   me    polluted   if  my   heart 
is   pure,    but   if  I   renounce   Him    and 
sacrifice  to  idols,  that  which  I  keep  at 
such  a  price  will   profit   me  nothing.'* 
So  they  took   her   to   a   place   resorted 
to  by  the  wicked.     One  of  her  guards 
changed  clothes  with  her,  and  she  es 
caped  in  safety.     Soon  afterwards  some 
wicked  men  came  into  the  room  where 
she  had  been,  and  finding  a  man  in  her 
stead,  thought  the  place  was  bewitched. 
They  said,  "  Did  not  the  governor  send 
a  woman  hero  in  this  very  dress  ?     AVhcv 
knows  what  metamorphosis  may  befall 
us  if  we  stay?     Let   us  escape  out  of 
this  house  while  we  know  what  we  are.'* 
The  pious  fraud  was  soon    discovered 
The   soldier   was    brought    before    th( 
governor,  who  condemned  him  to  death 
for  aiding  the  escape  of  a  prisoner  undei 
his  care.     The  Christian  maiden,  hear 
ing  of  it,  came  and  begged  to  be  put  to 
death   instead.      The   governor   secrnec 
willing  to  consent.     The  soldier,  how 
ever,  entreated  that  the  sentence  already 
pronounced  against  him  might  be  exe 
cuted,  and  the  woman  liberated.     The 
governor    said    that    as   they   were    so 
anxious  to  die  they  might  be  gratified 
Accordingly    both    were    burnt.     li.M 
Golden  L<'<i<'i«l. 

Quintaduenas  says  Alexander  anc 
Autonina  were  natives  of  Ocana,  neai 
Madrid,  and  suffered  about  the  year  loo 
The  Spanish  and  other  hagiologista 
occasionally  claim  as  compatriots  the 
saints  and  martyrs  who  have  become 
popular  among  them ;  this  doubtless 


ST.   APHRODISIA 


79 


gives  rise,  in  soraer  cases,  to  a  multi 
plication  of  saints. 

St.  Antonina  (2),  June  li',  3L  at 
.-i,  in  Hithynia.  In  the  persecution 
under  Diocletian  and  Maximian,  she  was 
scourged,  hung  on  the  equulcns,  her 
sides  torn  with  hooks,  burnt  with  lamps, 
and  finally  killed  with  a  sword.  R.M. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Antonina  (3)  of  Cea,  March  1,  M. 
I.'  presented  with  a  barrel  near  her,  or 
being  put  into  a  cask  or  sack. 

Said  by  the  Spanish  hagiographers 
to  have  been  born  at  Cea,  in  the  pro 
vince  of  Beira,  in  Portugal.  Accused  of 
deriding  tho  gods,  she  was  tortured  in 
various  ways,  then  shut  up  in  a  vessel 
and  drowned  in  a  lake  near  Cea,  under 
Diocletian.  She  is  one  of  tho  most 
popular  of  the  Portuguese  saints.  This 
rhyme  is  common  among  tho  peasants 
of  the  province,  and  refers  to  her — 

"  Antonina  pcquena, 
Dos  olhos  grandcs, 
Mntarao-na  idolatras 
E  fVros  gigantes." 

"Idolaters  and  savage  giants  killed 
little  Antonina  of  tho  large  eyes." 

St.  Antonina  (.'})  is  given  in  the  Roman 
fartyrolot/y.  According  to  Henschenius, 
LA.SS.1  this  is  no  other  than  St.  Anto- 
ina  of  Nicea,  in  Bithynia  ;  her  worship 
was  introduced  into  tho  Latin  Church 
rom  the  Greek,  in  tho  liJth  century; 
ud  tho  word  "  Cea  "  has  been  introduced 
y  mistake  for  "  Xicea  "  by  some  of  the 
opyists  of  old  calendars.  Antonina  of 
;i  has  also  been  set  up  as  another 
aint  of  the  island  of  Cea,  or  Ceo. 

St.  Antonina  (4),  May  7,  M.  in 
Vfrica.  AA.SS. 

St.  Antonina  i  '» ),  June  2.  One  of 
tan  martyrs  commemorated  this 
ay  in  St.  Jerome's  .I/"/-////-"/"-///.  AA.SS. 

St.  Anysia  (I),  Dec.  :io.  +304. 
.  M.  A  young  lady  of  Thessalonica, 
'ho  was  so  hi-iiutiful  and  had  such 
uantitics  of  money,  slaves,  jYwrls,  and 
11  kinds  of  splendid  things,  that  she 
new  not  what  to  do.  She  said  to  her- 

]t'-  "  How  can  I  I..-  MIV,  I  \\-ith  all  this 
ealth  'i "  One  Sunday,  during  tin- 
ersecution  under  Diocletian,  as  sh«  WBB 
"ing  througli  the  Cassandrioto  Gate  on 


her  way  to  church,  or  to  the  secret 
meeting-place  of  the  Christians,  she  met 
a  soldier,  who  rudely  stopped  her,  and 
asked  where  she  was  going.  In  her 
fright  she  made  tho  sign  of  tho  cross. 
He  thought  she  was  making  game  of 
him,  seized  hold  of  her,  and  insisted  on 
having  an  answer.  She  said,  "I  am  a 
servant  of  Christ,  and  I  am  going  to  my 
Lord's  assembly."  "  I  will  not  let  you 
go  there,"  said  the  soldier.  "I  will 
take  you  to  pour  a  libation  to  tho  gods, 
for  to-day  we  worship  tho  sun."  As  she 
tried  to  get  away  from  him,  ho  pulled 
her  veil,  and  rudely  touched  her  face. 
"  May  Christ  Jesus  rebuke  thee,  devil  !  " 
cried  the  maiden,  angry  and  terrified. 
The  soldier  drew  his  sword,  and  plunged 
it  in  her  side.  She  fell,  and  all  the 
ground  was  stained  with  her  blood. 
The  crowd  first  pitied  her  youth,  and 
then  abused  her  for  contemning  the  gods. 
The  Christians  buried  her  two  stadia 
from  that  gate,  and  when  the  persecution 
was  over,  they  built  a  house  of  prayer 
on  the  spot,  to  the  left  of  tho  public 
road.  Such  is  the  story  given  by  Simeon 
Metaphrastes,  Migne's  edition,  iii.  747. 
It  is  also  in  Surius,  Baronins,  the  3/lrno- 
%//  of  the  Emperor  Basil,  Butler,  Mar 
tin.  etc. 

St.  Anysius,  bishop  of  Thessalonica^ 
is  commemorated  with  St.  Anysia.  (  li.  M. 
and  Greek  Synni-ary.  )  Baring-Gould,. 
Lives,  says  Anysius  received  his  name 
from  the  circumstance  of  Auysia's  mar 
tyrdom  being  fresh  in  the  memory  of 
the  Christians  of  Thessalonica  when  he 
was  born.  Ho  was  bishop  there  at  the 
time  of  the  memorable  massacre  under 
Theodosius  the  Great,  in  consequence  of 
which  St.  Ambrose  forbade  that  Emperor 
to  enter  the  church  at  Milan,  in  889. 

St.  Anysia  (2),  Dec.  :u,  M.,  is 
said  by  tho  Bollandists,  Grxco-SInr. 
('>i/>  mltir,  to  mean  ANASTASIA  ;  but  this 
compiler  ventures  to  think  it  is  ANYSIA 
(  1  i. 

St.  Apersia,  July  L>:,.     Commemo- 
in    the  Arctbico-Egyptian  M<irtyro- 


St.  Aphra,  An;\. 

St.  Aphrodisia,  Nov.  5.  There  was 
a  church  in  her  honour  at  Bezicrs, 
where  St.  Gerald,  bishop  of  Bcziers, 


ST.   APHTE 


chose  to  be  buried  in  112.'f  Baring- 
Gould,  Lives  of  the  Saints,  "  St.  Gerald." 

St.  Aphte,  A<;ATHA. 

St.  Apollinaris  (1),  Aug.  2;J.  M. 
with  St.  Timothy  at  Rheims,  in  Gaul. 
B.M. 

St.  Apollinaris  (2)  Syncletica, 
Jan.  5.  Early  in  the  5th  century. 
Daughter  of  Anthemius,  who  is  called 
by  Metaphrastes,  Emperor;  but  Mr. 
Baring-Gould  considers  it'iuore  probable 
that  he  was  grandfather  of  the  Emperor 
-of  that  name,  and  held  the  office  of 
consular  prefect  of  Rome  and  regent 
during  the  minority  of  Theodosius  the 
Younger.  Having  obtained  her  parents' 
permission  to  make  a  pilgrimage  to 
Jerusalem,  she  there  liberated  all  the 
slaves  who  had  been  sent  with  her,  keep 
ing  in  her  service  only  one  eunuch  and 
an  old  man  to  arrange  her  tent.  One 
night,  having  gone  into  her  tent  as 
usual,  her  two  servants  sleeping  outside, 
she  put  on  a  hermit's  habit,  which  she 
had  procured  in  Jerusalem  for  the  pur 
pose,  and  fled  silently  into  the  desert. 
"When  her  servants,  aided  by  the  gover 
nor  of  the  place  where  they  were,  had 
sought  her  in  vain,  they  returned  to  her 
parents,  who  supposed  she  had  taken 
refuge  from  the  world  in  some  sister 
hood  of  holy  women.  Meantime,  Apol 
linaris  betook  herself  to  St.  Macarius  of 
Alexandria,  who  lived  in  the  desert  of 
Scete,  at  the  head  of  a  large  community 
of  recluses  in  cells  and  caves.  Having 
cut  off  her  hair,  and  being  by  this  time 
much  tanned  and  disfigured  by  exposure 
to  hardships,  hunger,  and  the  Egyptian 
sun,  she  easily  passed  for  a  man,  and 
spent  many  years  among  the  brethren 
under  the  name  of  Dorotheus.  Authe- 
inius  had  another  daughter,  who  was 
possessed  of  a  devil,  and  as  he  had 
'heard  of  the  sanctity  and  miracles  of 
St.  Macarius,  he  sent  her  to  him  to  be 
-cured.  Macarius  handed  her  over  to 
Dorotheus,  who  said  that  God  had  not 
conferred  on  him  the  gift  of  miracles, 
and  begged  the  good  abbot  not  to  give 
the  young  women  into  his  charge. 
Macarius  insisted,  and  the  girl  was  shut 
up  with  Dorotheus  in  his  cell  for  some 
days,  that  he  might  cast  out  the  devil 
.by  prayer  and  fasting.  After  a  time, 


the  daughter  of  Anthemius  was  sent 
home  cured.  A  few  mouths  afterwards 
she  became  dropsical.  Her  parents, 
believing  her  to  be  pregnant,  and  turn 
ing  a  deaf  ear  to  her  denial,  insisted  so 
vehemently  on  knowing  who  was  her 
seducer,  that  at  last  she  said  it  was 
Dorotheus,  in  whose  cell  she  had  spent 
some  days.  Anthemius  therefore  sent 
to  St.  Macarius,  and  requested  an  inter 
view  with  the  guilty  Dorotheus.  The 
monks  were  horrified  at  the  charge 
brought  against  their  brother ;  but  Doro 
theus  said,  "Fear  not,  brethren,  God 
will  reveal  my  innocence.1'  When  Apol 
linaris  was  brought  into  the  presence  of 
Anthemius,  she  told  him  she  was  his 
lost  daughter.  He  rejoiced  greatly  to 
see  her  again.  When  she  had  stayed  a 
short  time  with  her  parents,  and  had  by 
her  prayers  obtained  her  sister's  cure, 
she  returned  to  the  desert.  The  Ji'.J/. 
says  that  her  illustrious  actions  are 
praised  by  St.  Athanasius.  Boll., 
AA.SS.  Her  story,  as  told  by  Meta- 
phrastep,  is  given  by  Baring-Gould, 
Lives  of  the  Saint*. 

St.  Apollonia  (1),  Feb.  si,  is  called 
in  French  APPOLINE,  V.  M.  at  Alexan 
dria,  249.  Patron  against  toothache  and 
diseases  of  the  teeth.  Represented 
bound  to  a  pillar,  having  her  teeth  pulled 
out,  or  holding  a  tooth  in  pincers.  After 
the  murder  of  ST.  QUIXTA  (q.v.\  the! 
mob  pillaged  the  houses  of  the  Christians/ 
burning  what  they  did  not  carry  away, 
so  that  the  city  looked  like  a  place 
taken  by  storm.  After  this  they  seized 
•'  that  admirable  and  aged  virgin  Apol 
lonia  ; "  and  first  they  broke  all  her 
teeth  with  heavy  blows,  then  they  kindlec 
a  great  fire,  and  told  her  she  should 
be  thrown  into  it  unless  she  would 
repeat  their  blasphemies.  At  first  she 
seemed  to  hesitate ;  then,  taking  courage, 
she  leapt  into  the  fire,  and  became  a 
burnt  sacrifice  to  the  Lord.  ( Crake, 
llixt.  of  tlr  Church,  quoting  a  letter  oi 
Dionysius,  bishop  of  Alexandria,  describ 
ing  the  seventh  persecution.) 

Suicide  and  courting  martyrdom  and 
persecution  have  been  repeatedly  com 
tlemued  by  the  Church  in  all  age£ 
and  decrees  have  been  made  forbidding 
the  honours  of  martyrs  to  those  who 


ST.   AQt'ILIXA 


81 


voluntarily  sought  them ;  but  St.  Apol- 
lonia  has  always  bccu  ranked  among 
the  martyred  Saints. 

This  persecution  is  described  in  a 
letter  (preserved  by  Eusebius)  from  St. 
Dionysius,  Bishop  of  Alexandria,  to 
Fabius,  Bishop  of  Antioch.  It  was  not 
commanded  by  the  Emperor  Philip,  who 
favoured  the  Christians,  but  was  an  out 
break  of  ill  feeling  on  the  part  of  tho 
Alexandrians,  stirred  up  to  hostility 
against  the  Christians  by  a  poet  and 
soothsayer. 

//..I/.  Villegas.  Tillemont.  Baillet, 
Callot.  Husonbeth. 

Her  apocryphal  Act*,  given  by  Bol- 
landus,  place  her  martyrdom  in  the  time 
of  Julian  the  Apostate,  who  kills  her 
with  his  own  hand. 

B.  Apollonia  <  2),  Sept.  1<),  1022.  M. 
A  widow,  aged  sixty,  descended  from 
the  Kings  of  Firando.  She  lived  with 
MAKV  M"ii;  AYAMA,  and  was  put  to  death 
with  her  and  LUCY  FUKITAS  (  q.v.).  Apol- 
lonia's  nephew,  Gasper  Cotenda,  and 
his  son  Francis  were  martyred  next 
day. 

St.  Appamia.  31.  with  ST.  JULIA 
of  Troyes. 

St.  Apphia,  or  APPIA  (1),  Nov.  22,  M. 
1st  century:  \.Yifo  of  St.  Philemon,  a 
citizen  of  Colosse.  The  Epistle  of  SS. 
Paul  and  Timothy  concerning  Onesimus 
is  addressed  to  Philemon  and  "  our  bo- 
loved  Apphiu."  In  the  Roman  Catholic 
version  she  is  called,  "  Appia,  our  dearest 
sister."  The  liomnn  Martyroloyy  and 
the  Greek  menologies  say  SS.  Philemon 
and  Apphia,  disciples  of  St.  Paul,  suf- 
i  martyrdom  at  Colosse  in  Phrygia. 
AVI  ion,  on  the  festival  of  Diana,  tho 
heathen  invaded  the  churches  and  some 
Christians  fkd,  these  two  were  scourged 
by  order  of  Articles,  the  prefect,  and 
afterwards  buried  up  to  their  waists  in 
tho  ground,  and  stoned  to  death  in  that 
<1<  1-  nceless  condition.  More  modern 
writers  say  the  manner  of  their  death 
appears  to  indicate  that  it  was  per]..  - 
t rat «d  by  ;i  moh,  in  a  riot,  and  not  by 
legal  trial  and  sentence.  Tradition 
makes  St.  Philemon  liishop  of  Gaza. 
The  M>  nnln-iy  «f  Until  ])hu-,(  s  tho  martyr 
dom  at  EpheetH,  Baillct,  I'/.  *.  Phi'lc- 
mou  1'. 


St.  Appia  (i  ),  AITHIA. 

St.  Appia  (2),  June  1,  M.  with  ST. 

AUCEGA.       ,/L-I.>V 

St.  Appia  (:]),  June  2<>,  M.  at 
Corinth.  ^Ll.Nv 

St.  Appoline,  APOLLONIA. 
St.  Apra,  AFRA. 

St.  Aprincia,  or  PKECE,  June  L'L',  25, 
V.  Abbess  of  Epinal  on  tho  Moselle, 
loth  century.  Her  relics  were  kept  in 
the  monastery  of  St.  Clement  at  Metz 
(Metis).  Papebroch  could  ascertain 
nothing  of  her  date  or  history,  and  sus 
pected  she  in  it/lit  be  the  same  as  APHO 
NIA,  July  15.  AA.SS.  Stadler. 

St.  Apronia,  or  EVKONIA,  July  15, 
Sept.  15.  5th  century.  Invoked  by 
women  in  labour  and  other  danger. 
Born  at  Troyes,  in  Champagne.  Sister 
of  St.  Apere,  or  Epirns  (in  French  Evre), 
Bishop  of  Toul.  AA.SS.,  July  15. 
I'.aillet,  in  the  Life  of  St.  Evre,  Sept.  15. 
Prtifi  Jiollandistcs. 

St.  Apt,  or  APHTE,  Feb.  5.  ST. 
AGATHA  is  worshipped  under  this  name 
in  Provence,  and  a  town  is  called  after 
her. 

St.  Aquila,  Jan.  2:5,  M.  with  SS. 
Severian  her  husband,  and  Florus  their 
son ;  they  were  burnt  at  Xeo-Ciesarea, 
anciently  Jol,  on  tho  coast  of  Mauri 
tania.  M<i /•////•"/«///  i>i'  Salitbury.  Boll., 
AA.SS.  li.M. 

St.  Aquilina  (1),  Jan.  22,  M.  291. 
Mother  of  St.  Victor,  a  priest  or  deacon, 
who  for  the  crime  of  showing  hospi 
tality  to  the  martyrs  SS.  Vincent  and 
Oronto,had  his  arms  cut  ott"  by  the  elbows^ 
and  was  then  beheaded.  His  father, 
although  a  Christian,  was  going  to  fleo 
from  the  persecutors,  but  at  the  entreaty 
of  Aquiliua,  ho  remained  at  home,  where 
thoy  were  both  soon  put  to  death  with 
another  eon.  These  events  took  placo 
either  at  Gerunda(Gerona  in  Catalonia), 
or  at  Pax  Augusta  (  Badajoz ),  or  Pax 
Julia  (  Bojaj.  Tho  relics  of  all  these 
martyrs  were  removed  to  Ebrodunum 
i  Kmhruii,  Alpcs  Maritimcs,  in  France). 
I5«»llaiidu.s,  AA.SS.  Cahier,  Caractdr- 
ittiguei  \  <><•.  (irouix-*. 

St.  Aquilina  (2),  June  1:5,  V.  M. 
293,  Daughter  of  Christians  at  Byblus, 
the  place  called  in  the  Old  Testament 
Gcbal,  the  city  of  the  Giblites,  a  very 

o 


82 


ST.   AQUILIXA 


ancient  city  of  Phoenicia  and  a  chief  seat 
of  the  licentious  worship  of  Adonis.  The 
votaries  of  this  horrible  religion  and  the 
priests  who  profited  by  it  wore  bitterly 
opposed  to  Christianity,  and  although 
there  was  at  this  time  no  general  per 
secution  of  the  Church,  there  were  al 
ways  laws  and  customs  that  could  be 
brought  into  play  by  malice  or  greed. 
The  priests  were  incensed  to  find  that 
Aquilina,  an  orphan,  scarcely  twelve 
years  old,  was  converting  many  of  her 
companions  and  the  women  with  whom 
she  came  in  contact  in  her  daily  work, 
and  was  constantly  speaking  against  the 
religion  of  the  place.  So  when  Volusian, 
the  proconsul,  came  to  Byblus,  they  ac 
cused  her  of  impiety.  He  had  her  ar 
rested.  When  she  was  brought  into  his 
presence  he  was  touched  with  compassion 
at  the  sight  of  her  youth  and  beauty  and 
her  fragile  appearance,  and  besought  her 
to  renounce  her  dangerous  opinions,  as 
the  least  of  the  tortures  to  which  she 
might  be  subjected  would  certainly  de 
stroy  her  life  at  once.  She  answered 
that  she  did  not  want  his  pity,  and 
would  gladly  suffer  tortures  and  deatli 
for  the  sake  of  her  Master.  Ho  then 
ordered  the  executioners  to  beat  her  with 
their  hands,  and  asked  her  how  she  liked 
this  first  and  least  of  the  torments.  "As 
little,"  said  she,  "  as  you  spare  the 
Christians,  will  the  God  of  the  Christians 
spare  you."  Then  he  caused  her  to  be 
stripped  of  her  clothes,  and  held  by  two 
of  the  executioners,  while  a  third  beat 
her  with  a  scourge  ;  at  the  same  time 
Volusian  said  to  her,  "  Where  is  this 
God  of  yours,  who  will  not  spare  me  ?  " 
Other  tortures  and  insults  were  heaped 
upon  the  brave  little  girl,  and  at  last  red- 
hot  awls  were  driven  into  her  ears  to 
burn  the  brain,  the  smoke  came  out  at 
her  nostrils,  and  the  pain  was  so  great 
that  she  fell  lifeless  to  the  ground. 
Volusian  commanded  that  she  should  not 
be  buried,  but  cast  out  to  be  eaten  by 
dogs  and  unclean  beasts  ;  so  her  body 
was  tin-own  into  the  road  outside  the  gate 
of  the  town.  But  she  was  not  dead,  and 
as  she  lay  an  angel  touched  her  and 
bade  her  arise  and  go  back  to  the  city 
and  address  a  final  remonstrance  to  her 
tyrant.  She  arose,  gave  thanks  to  God 


for  her  recovery,  and  then  kneeled  down 
and  prayed,  "  Lord,  I  hoped  yesterday 
that  I  was  counted  among  Thy  martyrs. 
Thou  kuowest  that  I  suffered  pain  and 
shame  for  Thee,  and  was  willing  to  suffer 
even  unto  death.  Lord,  let  me  not  lose 
my  crown."  Then  she  was  comforted ; 
and,  in  obedience  to  the  angel,  returned 
to  the  town.  She  went  through  the  gates, 
passed  the  guards  unnoticed,  and  walked 
into  the  room  where  Volusian  lay  asleep. 
He  awoke  and  saw  a  small  white  ghostly 
creature  in  the  room.  In  his  fright  he 
called  to  his  servants  to  bring  a  light, 
and  asked  who  had  disturbed  him.  They 
said, ."  It  is  the  Christian  maiden  that 
you  killed  yesterday,  and  cast  out  for 
the  dogs  to  eat."  Then  Aquiliua  said, 
"  Volusian,  my  God  sends  me  back  to 
warn  you  again  that  you  cease  from  per 
secuting  His  servants.  If  you  will  still 
repent,  you  may  be  as  one  of  us ;  but  if 
not,  know  that  our  God  will  punish  you 
with  everlasting  torments  greater  than 
those  you  inflict  upon  us."  "  Take  her 
away,"  said  Volusian  ;  "  keep  her  safely 
until  it  is  day."  In  the  morning  he 
tried  again  to  persuade  her  to  apostatize. 
Finding  his  efforts  vain,  he  condemned 
her  to  be  beheaded.  She  kneeled  down 
and  died  praying,  untouched  by  the  exe 
cutioner,  and  the  Christians  took  her 
away  and  buried  her.  EM.  and  AA.SS., 
from  ancient  Acts  given  in  Greek  and 
Latin  by  Henscheuius. 

St.  Aquilina  (:J),  March  :{u,  V.  M. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Aquilina  (4),  July  2<5,  M.  Be 
headed  in  Lycia.  Disciple  of  St.  Chris 
topher.  Scr  Xll'HTA.  E.M. 

St.  Aquilina  ('»).  See  AIMHAXGELA 
]>E  PIM-:<;XACHIS. 

St.  Arabia,  March  i:-J.  Burnt  at 
Nicea,  with  ST.  THEUSETA  and  others, 
/i'. M.  Henschenius,  AA.SS.  ST.  AUIAMA 
is  possibly  the  same. 

St.  Araclea,  or  HEKACLEA,  Sept.  2D. 
The  first  name  in  a  list  of  martyrs  in 
Thrace.  It  is  uncertain  whether  Araclea 
is  a  place  or  a  person.  AA.SS. 

St.  Aradegundis,  liAi>i:<;t-.M>. 

St.  Aragond,  IIAIH-:<;UXI>. 

St.  Aragone,  KAPKCH-ND. 

B.  Archangela  (1)  de  Pregna- 
chis,  M.  Said  to  have  been  a  martyr  at 


ST.   ARMA(ilLl) 


83 


Brescia,  in  tin-  2nd  century.  ST.  AQUI- 
I.INA  (.'>')  was  her  fellow-Christian  and 
martyr.  Their  story  was  considered  by 
I'.ollaiidists  unworthy  of  attention,  being 
found  only  in  a  fabulous  martyrology  of 
Bresci*. 

B.  Archangela  (2)  Girlani,  Jan.  2:., 

.  Feb.  U,  li»,  June  1,  '27.  f  i:'(il- 
Superior  <if  the  convent  of  St.  Mary  of 
Paradise  at  3Iantua  :  it  was  called  Little 
Carmol.  Her  penitence  and  asceticism 
w«  re  wonderful.  Her  holiness  was  at 
tested  by  miracles.  Her  worship  was 
authorized  by  Louis  Gonzaga,  Bishop  of 
3Iantua,  and  his  successors.  Her  Life, 
in  Italian,  by  Guastalla,  was  printed  in 
Slu-  is  commemorated  in  the 
A.ll.M.  for  th<>  Order  of  ,S';.  Miry  <f 
Mount  6 '"/•///</,  Jan.  _•">,  Feb.  0;  in  that 
for  the  Barefooted  Carmelites,  Jan.  2s, 
Feb.  lit.  AA.SS.,  Prosier.,  June  1.  Stad- 
ler  gives  the  date  of  her  death  as  14  >  . 

St.  Archelaa,  or  AKQUKLAIS,  Jan.  1  s, 
V.  31.  :Jrd  century.  Took  refuge  with 
SS.  THKCI.A  and  SUSANNA,  at  Nola,  in 
Campania;  they  wore  all  martyred  at 
rno.  AA.SS.  in  SS.  Cesarius  and 
Julian,  Nov.  1. 

St.  Archelais,  Oct.  2H,  M.  at  Antioch 
in  Syria,  with  SS.  Marianus  and  Sma- 
ragdus.  Mentioned  in  the  apographs  of 
St.  Jerome.  Pi-tit*  Hulldmltxtrs. 

St.  Archiroga,  Jan.  22,  is  mentioned 
in  the  Mart,  llirli,  as  a  saint  of 

Spoleto. 

St.  Arddun  Benasgell.  <'»th  cen 
tury.  Sister  of  St.  Dunawd,  husband  of 
St.  Dwywe.  Wife  of  I:rochwel  Ysy- 
throg,  son  of  a  Prince  of  Powis.  In  the 
war  against  the  Northumbrians,  Brochwel 
was  left  to  defend  the  monks,  who  wen 
praying  at  u  distance  from  the  main 
body  of  the  army.  Kthelfrid,  King  of 
Northumberland,  unexpectedly  attacked 
the  monies  and  >  mid  defeated 

them.  It  i<  said  that  some  Welsh 
church,  ^  were  dedicated  in  her  name, 
but  their  plaee  is  not  now  known.  !,'• 

*  />•//  Stiinfs,  p.  L'I  17. 

St.    Areapila     is     honoured     a 
Subert   as  one  of  the  eleven  thousand 
virgins  <>f  Cologne,     (in.'iii;. 

St.  Aregundis,  I;AI.I:«;I-M.. 
f  St.    Arema,    June   «',,  M.  at    Home. 
rin. 


St.  Aretina,  ABTBNA. 

St.  Argentea  of  Andalusia,  May  i:{, 
M.  in  «.':;  1,  at  Cordova,  witli  St.  Yulfurus, 
a  Frenchman.  They  are  represented 
together.  Cahier,  Groupts.  Pah-xtm 
flfagrrodo,  i. 

St.  Ariaba,  31.  Possibly  the  same 
as  AIJ.M'.IA. 

St.  Ariadne,  Sept.  17,  31.  Repre 
sented  hiding  in  a  rock  from  her  pursuers. 
In  the  reign  of  Adrian  or  Antoninus 
Pius,  she  was  a  servant  of  Tertillus,  at 
Prymuesia,  in  Phrygia.  She  was  cruelly 
beaten  and  sent  away  because  she  refused 
to  join  an  idol  festival  in  honour  of  the 
birthday  of  her  master's  son.  After 
wards  she  was  brought  before  the  prefect 
and  put  to  the  torture,  to  induce  her  to 
sacrifice  to  the  gods.  Being  set  at 
liberty,  she  fled  to  the  hills,  but  was 
pursued  by  soldiers.  Seeing  no  help  or 
chance  of  rescue,  she  cried  to  God  to 
deliver  her.  A  rock  opened,  admitted 
her,  and  closed  again.  Thus  she  re 
ceived  her  martyrdom  and  her  tomb  at 
the  same  moment,  praising  and  giving 
God  thanks.  Her  pursuers  were  killed 
by  an  apparition  of  angels  sitting  on 
horses  and  holding  spears.  Stilting, 
AA.SS.  R.M.  Jiloif.  Eccle*. 

St.  Ariene  is  honoured  in  Ethiopia. 
Same  as  IHKNK.  Guerin. 

St.  Arild,  or  AKII.A,  Oct.  30,  V.  31.  of 
virginity,  at  Kingtou,  near  Thornbury. 
She  is  commemorated  at  Gloucester, 
Oct.  30.  The  church  of  Oldbury,  in 
(  iloueestershire,  IK  dedicated  in  her  name. 
Victor  de  Duck,  in  AA.SS.,  from  Leland 
and  others.  Memorial  of  British  Pi<  ///, 
supplement.  Parker's  C<il<>nd<(r.  1 
is  supposed  to  be  the  date  of  her  trans 
lation  to  St.  Peter's  Abbey  at  Gloucester. 
Her  martyrdom  probably  occurred  very 
much  earlier.  Kekcnstein. 

St.  Ariotrudis,  KI;I:M  KI  I.K. 

SS.  Arisima  and  Agaieta.     Same 

/is   Kii'siMA  and  GAIANA. 

St.  Arixa,  July  2,  31.  at  Homo  or  in 


St.  Armagela,  or  AKMI-I,  Oct.  24. 
According  to  3Ias  Latrie,  7'/  vW,  she 
\\a<  a  servant  at  Vienne,  but  she  is 

probably  the  same  as  A  KMKI.  i.\. 

St.    Armagild,    Aug.    27. 
Bdlandittes. 


84 


ST.  ARMATA 


St.  Armata,  Feb.  14.  M.  at  Alex 
andria,  with  many  others.  Henschenius, 
in  AA.SS. 

St.  Armella,  Oct.  24  (  ARMKL,  AKMF- 
GELA).  "J"  1(571 .  Represented  sitting  on 
the  floor  in  a  kitchen,  with  cooking 
utensils  in  her  hands. 

Daughter  of  pious  peasants  at 
Kampeneac,  in  Brittany.  At  twenty  she 
went  to  be  nursery-maid  in  the  neigh 
bouring  town  of  Plormel.  When  one  of 
her  master's  daughters  married  a  noble 
man,  Armella  went  to  be  her  maid.  At 
sixty  she  had  her  leg  broken  by  a  kick 
from  a  horse.  Long  before  sho  was 
sufficiently  recovered  to  walk,  she  sat  in 
a  corner  of  the  kitchen  to  look  to  the 
housekeeping,  and  do  what  she  could  for 
her  master  and  mistress.  Ott,  Die 
Lencnde. 

St.  Arminia  ( 1 ),  March  20,  is  men 
tioned,  among  other  martyrs,  this  day,  in 
some  old  martyrologies.  A  A.SS.,  Prsetcr. 

St.  Arminia  ('2;,  or  MAHIMINIA, 
May  28,  M.  in  Africa.  AA.SS. 

St.  Arminia  (3),  April  19,  M.  at 
Melitina,  in  Armenia.  AA.SS. 

St.  Arndrude,  EHEXTRUDE. 

SS.  Aroa,  or  ROA,  and  Lucy.  See 
CYPRILLA. 

St.  Arquelais,  ARCHELAA. 

St.  Arsenia,  HEREXIA. 

Arsima  and  her  mother,  Agatha, 
are  mentioned  in  the  Coptic  calendar, 
Sept.  2(>.  AA.SS. 

St.  Artemia  (1),  or  ARTHEMIA,  Aug. 
s,  16.  Daughter  of  the  Emperor  Dio 
cletian  and  ST.  SERENA.  Artemia  was 
delivered  from  a  devil  by  St.  Cryia- 
cus,  who  afterwards  baptized  her.  She 
was  killed  by  the  Emperor  Maximian 
after  the  martyrdom  of  Cyriacus.  Her 
body  is  supposed  to  be  in  the  church  of 
St.  Silvester,  in  the  Campus  Martins,  at 
Rome.  Artemia  appears  as  a  saint  in 
Greven's  Calendar,  but  her  worship  has 
never  been  generally  recognized  through 
out  the  Church.  AA.SS. 

SS.  Artemia  ( 2 )  and  Attica,  Feb. 
1  x,  YV.  Daughters  of  Gallicanus,  who 
was  to  have  married  ST.  CON  STANCH. 

St.  Artemia  (3)  t»tli  century. 
Abbess  of  (,'utcclar,  in  Spain.  One  of 
her  nuns  was  ST.  MAKY,  fellow-martyr 
of  ST.  FLORA.  Baillct,  !  *  9. 


St.  Artemidos.  Patron  of  weakly 
children  in  Scio,  one  of  the  Cyclades. 
J.  Theodore  Bent,  "  Old  Mythology  in 
New  Apparel,"  Macmillan'l  ILnjazinc, 
March,  issr>. 

St.  Artena,  or  ARETIXA,  of  Tuderto, 
Jan.  2<».  f  303.  She  buried  St. 
Seustio,  martyr  of  Todi,  and  honoured 
him  by  building  a  church  over  his  grave. 
Jacobilli,  Saints  of  Uml>ri<f,  iii.  2»>3. 

St.  Arthella'iS,  or  ARTHELAIS,  March 
3,  V.  "f  c.  570.  A  native  of  Con 
stantinople.  The  beautiful  daughter  of 
Lucius,  proconsul  under  the  Emperor 
Justinian,  and  of  ST.  AXTHUSA  his  wife. 
As  the  Emperor  expressed  great  admira 
tion  for  her,  Lucius  concealed  her  for 
a  time.  Anthusa  wept  and  lamented 
because,  her  daughter  being  already 
vowed  to  a  religious  life,  she  did  not 
wish  her  to  return  to  the  world  or  to  fall 
into  the  power  of  the  Emperor.  At  her 
own  request,  sho  was  sent,  under  the  care 
of  three  confidential  servants,  to  her 
uncle  Narses,  who  ruled  in  Italy.  When 
she  had  accomplished  more  than  half  the 
journey,  she  was  seized  by  robbers.  Her 
guardians  fled  to  the  church  of  ST, 
EULALIA,  where  they  prayed  for  the 
release  of  their  mistress,  and  gave  alms 
of  her  money  to  the  poor.  One  of  the 
beggars  who  received  their  alms  said, 
"Inasmuch  as  you  gave  to  one  of  the 
least  of  these  My  brethren,  ye  gave 
unto  Me."  And  when  He  had  thus 
spoken  He  vanished  out  of  their  sight. 
Then  they  knew  that  Christ  had  accepted 
their  charity  and  heard  their  prayers. 
The  robbers  resolved  to  sell  their  captive 
for  wicked  purposes.  As  they  went  out 
of  their  house  they  were  seized  by  the 
devil,  and  so  died  ;  at  the  same  time  an 
angel  of  the  Lord  slew  her  gaoler  and 
all  his  men,  loosed  her  bonds,  and  led 
her  out  of  the  prison.  She  soon  met  her 
servants,  and  they  all  proceeded  to 
Sipontum,  a  city  of  Apulia.  She  made 
an  offering  in  the  church  of  St.  Michael 
at  Monte  Gargano  near  the  town.  Mean 
time  Narses  was  informed  in  a  dream  of 
her  approach.  He  went  to  meet  her,  and, 
having  stayed  three  days  by  the  way  at 
Luceria,  broiight  her  to  Lenevento. 
She  walked  barefooted  to  the  church  of 
the  Virgin  Mary,  where  she  offered  six 


ST.   ASELLA 


"hundred  pieces  of  gold  on  the  altar,  and 
then,  with  her  friends,  received  the  Holy 
Communion.  Soon  after  her  arrival  she 
was  seized  with  fever,  and  died  in  her 
seventeenth  year.  All  the  women  of 
the  city  lamented  and  wept.  She  was 
buried  in  the  church  of  St.  Luke,  at  the 
Porta  Kufiua,  and  afterwards  translated 
into  the  cathedral.  Henschenius  and 
Papebroch,  in  AA.SS.  from  an  old  L(l'< 
in  a  manuscript  martyrology  in  the 
Library  at  Beuoveuto,  and  a  /,//''',  in 
Longobardic  characters,  in  the  Vatican ; 
also  from  Vipera's  History  of  the  Bisltoi* 
«/'  !>•  H' i-i-nto ;  and  Ferrarius'  Italian 
Saints. 

St.  Arthongathe,  EHCONOOTHA. 

St.  Artongate,  ERCONGOTHA. 

St.  Ascelina,  Aug.  *J:-J,  Dec.  27,  V. 
Cistercian,  -f  1 1  i»5.  Related  to  St. 
Bernard.  When  she  was  twelve  years 
old,  a  young  clerk,  being  much  struck 
with  her  beauty,  and  desiring  some  oppor 
tunity  of  conversing  with  her  alone, 
offered  to  teach  her  Latin,  music,  and 
singing.  As  he  could  not  talk  to  her 
long  at  a  time,  he  wrote  letters  and 
verses  to  her  in  French.  At  the  third 
lesson,  he  confessed  his  love.  The  un 
suspecting  child  answered  that  if  he 
would  become  a  monk  she  would  givo 
him  her  love.  The  sinner  changed  his 
dress,  but  not  his  heart,  and  dwelt  three 
months  among  the  brethren — a  wolf  in 
sheep's  clothing.  About  this  time,  a 
Jeper  appeared  to  Ascelina,  and  bade  her 
beware  of  her  false  teacher,  as  he  was  an 
instrument  of  Satan  to  rob  her  of  her 
innocence.  The  girl,  distressed  and  per 
plexed,  ran  and  told  her  mother,  who 
camo  at  once  to  question  the  leper ;  but 
he  was  gone,  and  no  trace  of  him  could 
be  found.  Her  mother  took  her  to  a 
holy  priest,  who  cut  off  her  hair,  and 
from  that  time  she  led  an  ascetic  life, 
which  soon  destroyed  her  beauty.  Tho 
false  monk  soon  left  his  cloister  and  re 
turned  to  the  world.  l>y  the  advice  of 
St.  Bernard,  Ascelina  became  a  Cister 
cian  Dun  under  his  niece  Adeline,  at 
Pouligny,  near  the  monastery  of  Boulan- 
c-Miirt,  in  Haute  Marne.  AA.SS.,  from  a 
Irf/e  given  as  contemporary  by  Henriquez. 

St.  Asclepiodote,  Sept.  l  .">,  M.  under 
Maximian.     A  relation  of  SS.  Maxiuius 


and  Theodotus,  and  put  to  death  with 
them  at  a  village  between  I'hilippopolis 
and  Adriauopolis  in  Thrace.  Ascelepio- 
dote  was  tied  to  a  wild  bull  at  Adria- 
noplo;  it  stood  quiet  and  did  not  hurt 
her.  Teres,  the  tyrant  of  Thrace,  had 
the  three  martyrs  taken  to  a  villa  called 
Saltys,  and  there  beheaded.  Very  soon 
after,  he  was  struck  dead  by  lightning. 
Tho  Act*  end  by  a  prayer  of  the  writer 
for  the  cessation  of  the  persecution. 
Stilting,  in  AA.SS.  from  Greek  Act*, 
believed  to  be  contemporary  and  authen 
tic.  In  the  R.M.  the  name  is  written 
ASCLEPIODOTUS,  and  the  story  seems  to 
bo  of  three  men. 

St.  Asella  (OCELLA,  OSELLA),  Dec.  6, 
V.  Born  c.  ;W4,  f  between  4<  »;>  and  408. 
Friend  and  disciple  of  St.  Jerome, 
whose  writings  are  the  authority  for  her 
story.  Whether  ho  is  to  be  understood 
literally  or  not  when  ho  speaks  of  her 
as  the  daughter  of  Albina  and  sister  of 
MAHCELLA,  she  seems  to  have  been  a 
member  of  a  noble  and  wealthy  Koinan 
Christian  family.  She  was  not  more 
than  ten  years  old  when  St.  Athanasius 
paid  his  third  and  last  visit  to  Home. 
His  conversation  made  a  deep  impression 
on  her,  and  being  already  a  pious  child, 
she  'wished  to  dedicate  her  life  to  tho 
service  of  Christ.  For  a  long  time  her 
parents  would  not  give  her  the  rough 
brown  gown  worn  by  the  women  who 
devoted  themselves  to  a  life  of  asceticism 
and  charity,  so  she  sold  her  gold  neck 
lace  and  bought  tho  coarse  stuff,  made 
tho  dress  secretly,  and  when  she  was 
twelve,  surprised  her  family  by  appear 
ing  before  them  in  this  garb  of  consecra 
tion.  From  this  time  she  lived  in  great 
silenco  and  seclusion,  inhabiting  a  narrow 
cell  where  she  enjoyed  the  breath  of 
Paradise,  having  one  stone  for  a  place  of 
prayer  and  of  repose.  She  lived  on 
bread,  salt,  and  water,  sometimes  fasting 
for  days  together.  She  would  not  go 
into  society  nor  speak  to  any  man. 
She  worked  with  her  hands  and  sang 
psalms.  When  she  attended  tho  Church 
of  tho  Holy  Martyrs  she  went  very  fast,  so 
as  not  to  bo  soon.  *'  You,"  writes  Jerome 
to  Marcella,  "  have  seen  with  your  own 
eyes  her  holy  knees  hardened  like  those 
of  a  camel."  These  austerities  never 


86 


ST.  ASGITH 


injured  her  health  or  her  skin  j  she  was 
over  fifty  when,  according  to  Jerome, 
"  with  a  sound  body  and  a  still  sounder 
soul,  she  found  for  herself  a  monkish  cell 
in  the  midst  of  busy  Rome."  In  :?84, 
in  one  of  St.  Jerome's  letters  to  St.  Mar- 
cella,  he  praises  St.  Asella,  and  says, 
"  Do  not  tell  her  what  I  say,  for  she  will 
be  displeased  with  eulogies  of  herself, 
but  read  the  letter  to  young  girls,  that 
they  may  find  in  her  conduct  a  rule  of 
perfect  piety.  Let  widows  and  virgins 
imitate  her.  Let  wives  make  much  of 
her,  let  sinful  women  fear  her,  and 
let  bishops  look  up  to  her."  St.  Jerome 
highly  valued  Asella's  affection  for 
him ;  he  calls  her  an  "  example  of 
modesty,"  "  the  ornament  of  virginity," 
"  a  flower  of  the  Lord."  To  her,  as  one 
of  the  eldest  and  most  honoured  of  the 
community  of  learned  and  pious  women 
who  so  valued  his  instruction,  he  ad 
dressed  the  farewell  letter  which  he 
wrote  from  the  ship  in  the  port  of  Ostia, 
by  which  he  was  leaving  Rome  for  the 
East  in  ;-J85.  In  it  he  indignantly  refutes 
the  calumnies  which  called  him  an 
impostor  and  a  hypocrite,  and  miscon 
strued  his  friendship  with  ST.  PAULA  and 
other  friends.  He  bids  her  salute  several 
of  the  familiar  group  by  name,  and 
among  them  "  Albina  your  mother,  and 
Marcella  your  sister."  Notwithstanding 
these  words,  and  the  fact  that  she  was 
undoubtedly  on  a  sisterly  footing  in  the 
house  and  social  circle  of  Marcella, 
Tillcmont  and  some  other  historians  and 
commentators  say  that  this  relationship 
is  not  to  be  understood  literally,  and 
that  it  is  not  known  to  what  family 
Asella  belonged. 

Palladius,  who  visited  Rome  in  4a~>, 
says  that  he  saw  there  the  excellent 
Asella — that  virgin  of  Christ  who  had  so 
holily  grown  old  in  a  monastery.  Ho 
calls  her  the  gentlest  of  women,  and  says 
that  she  took  the  most  loving  care  of  a 
company  and  a  house,  where  they  re 
ceived  and  instructed  new  converts. 
She  was  then  about  seventy. 

R.H.  St.  Jerome's  Lcttrrx,  Free- 
mantle's  edition,  letters  24, 4.*>.  Baronius, 
Annalcft.  Tillemont,  ///>7o//v 
Ecclesiastiqucs,  xii.  Baillet, 
Saints. 


St.  Asgith,  OSITH. 

St.  Askama.     *SW  AOUABONIA. 

St.  Aspasia,  ATHAVASIA  (1). 

St.  Aspedia,  Dec.  1 4,  M.  Mentioned 
in  the  M<xrtyrology  of  St.  J<YO///<'. 

St.  Aspida,  Feb.  :>.  r,th  century. 
Related  t-j  St.  Avitus,  Archbishop  of 
Vienne,  who  took  an  important  part  in 
the  religious  and  theological  contro 
versies  of  his  time.  His  name  is  in  the 
R.M.,  Feb.  .">,  the  day  of  his  death,  which 
occurred  in  ~>2:>,  and  some  of  his  poems 
and  letters  are  extant.  Aspida  is  men 
tioned  in  his  Lift',  but  her  right  to  the 
title  of  Saint  is  uncertain.  AA.SS.  >SV< 
FUSCIXA. 

St.  Aste,  Nov.  I'D,  V.  M.  in  Persia, 
with  a  man  called  Boithazate,  and  a 
great  many  other  holy  martyrs.  Petin, 
Diet.  Haij. 

St.  Asteria,  or  HESTEHIA,  Aug.  10, 
V.  M.  Patron  of  Bergamo.  Sister  of 
ST.  GRATA  of  Bergamo,  where,  in  the 
time  of  Diocletian  and  Maximian,  they 
both  buried  St.  Alexander.  Grata  was 
put  to  death.  Astoria  buried  her,  and 
afterwards  was  herself  arrested,  tortured, 
and  beheaded.  See  the  legend  of  Hes- 
teria.  R.M.  ]>i<><j,->ijia  EccJcs, 

St.  Astrude,  ArsrurDE. 

St.  Astuta,  Feb.  28.  One  of  many 
martyrs  at  Alexandria.  Henschcnius, 
in  AA.SS.,  from  Mnrt.  of  Iteickenau. 

St.  Atalduid,  Ai>rAu>nn. 

St.  Atea,  May  2:>,  July  5  (AETHA, 
ALEA,  ATHEA,  ATHY),  t»th  century,  was 
a  cousin  and  disciple  of  ST.  MoDWENNA. 
They  lived  in  Ireland,  and  built  a  monas 
tery  on  a  hill,  laboured  with  their  hands 
for  their  daily  bread,  "  fall  often  digging 
with  a  mattocko  and  sowing  seeds  in 
the  earth,"  and  feeding  on  raw  herbs. 
They  came  from  Ireland  to  England 
with  Luge,  Brigid,  and  St.  Ronan  the 
brother  of  Modwenna.  \Vhen  they 
arrived  on  the  Irish  shore,  they  found 
no  boat  to  take  them  across  the  sea. 
They  prostrated  themselves  on  tho 
ground  and  prayed  for  aid,  and  lo,  the 
earth  on  which  they  lay  was  severed 
from  the  land  and  floated  out  to  sea  ; 
and,  directed  by  an  angel,  they  arrived 
on  the  coast  of  England.  When  Mod 
wenna  built  her  monasteries,  she  left 
Atea  in  charge  of  Pollesworth  while  she 


ST.    ATHANASIA 


went  to  Strenshalen.  After  her  return 
from  Home,  Modwenna  built  herself  aa 
oratory,  dedicated  to  St.  Andrew,  on  an 
island  of  Kent,  called  Scalecliff,  after 
wards  Andresia,  and  when  she  went  back 
to  Ireland  she  left  Atea  in  charge  of  it. 
Livt'8  <>f  //"  II'""' "  .^"ints  of  .  .  . 
W,  E.E.T.S. 

St.  Atela,    May  '24.     In  Campania. 
M     '.  of  I!'  (''In  ?/"". 

St.  Athala,  sometimes  means  ADELA 
or  AUKI.AIDK,  and  sometimes  Attala. 

St.  Athna,  ETHNKA. 

St.  Athanasia  ( 1  ),  or  ASPASIA,  Jan. 
•"»  1 .  M.  :;  1 '_',  towards  the  end  of  the  per 
secution  under  Maximinus.  She  and  her 
three  daughters, THEODOSIA,  Tm:o<  i 1 
and  ErnoxiA,  the  eldest  of  whom  was  fif 
teen,  were  tortured  and  beheaded  at  Cano- 
pus,  not  far  from  Alexandria.  They  were 
encouraged  by  St.  Cyrus,  a  physician 
of  Alexandria,  and  St.  John,  who  were 
tortured  at  tin-  same  time  as  Athanasia 
and  In  -r  daughters,  and  put  to  death 
after  them.  They  were  the  last  martyrs 
in  this,  the  last  general  persecution  of 
the  Christians.  AA.SS.  Neale,  //«/// 
Easti-rii  f'liid-i'li.  Martin. 

St.  Athanasia  <  'J),Feb.  27.  .5th  cen 
tury.  Wife  of  St.  Andronicus,  and  com 
memorated  with  him,  Oct.  !>.  He  was  a 
silversmith  of  Antioch.  They  were  rich 
in  this  world's  goods  and  also  in  good 
works.  They  had  one  son  and  one 
daughter,  who  both  died  on  the  same  day, 
when  they  were  about  twelve  years  old. 
Andronicus  resigned  himself,  like  Job, 
he  will  of  God.  Athanasia,  overcome 
with  grief,  would  not  leave  the  church 

3t.  Julian,  where  her  children  were 
buried;  but  said  she  would  die  there, 
and  bo  buried  with  them.  At  midnight, 
St.  Julian  the  martyr  appeared  to  her 
-cd  as  a  monk.  He  asked  her  why 
she  wept,  and  why  she  did  not  leave  tho 
dead  aloin-.  She  told  him  her  grief.  Ho 
coiuforti-d  her  with  the  assurance  that 
her  children  were  alive  with  Christ  in 
li-e.  Tho  saint  disappeared,  and 
she  understood  that  she  had  seen  a 
TlBlon.  She  r«-turned  to  her  house  and 
told  everything  to  her  husband.  They 
liberated  their  slaves,  sold  their  goods, 
gave  most  of  their  money  to  tho  poor, 
and  the  ivst  to  his  father-in-law,  bidding 


him  to  show  charity  and  hospitality  to 
sick  persons,  monks,  and  pilgrims.  Leav 
ing  Antioch,  they  went  to  tho  holy 
places  at  Jerusalem,  and  conversed  with 
golly  persons  living  in  that  city.  Then 
they  journeyed  to  Egypt  to  tho  desert  of 
Sceto,  and  visited  the  Abbot  Daniel,  who 
had  a  great  reputation  for  sanctity.  By 
his  advice  Athanasia  took  tho  veil  in  a 
convent  at  Tabenna  or  in  Alexandria. 
Andronicus  became  a  monk,  and  re 
mained  with  Daniel  and  his  brethren. 
After  twelve  years  spent  among  these 
monks,  Andronicus  had  a  great  longing 
to  revisit  Jerusalem,  and  with  Daniel's 
permission  he  set  out  on  a  journey 
thither.  One  day,  as  ho  sat  resting 
under  a  palm-tree,  ho  saw  a  monk  coming 
towards  him.  This  monk  was  Athanasia, 
who  also  had  been  seized  with  an  ardent 
desire  to  return  to  Jerusalem,  and  had 
disguised  herself  as  a  man  for  the  pur 
pose.  She  recognized  her  husband,  but 
he  only  saw  in  her  a  stranger  of  his  own 
sex  and  profession.  She  was  the  moro 
altered  of  the  two,  her  ascetic  life  having 
deprived  her  of  all  remains  of  beauty, 
and  made  her  as  black  as  an  Ethiopian. 
Andronicus  had  no  suspicion  that  her 
dress  was  a  disguise,  and  they  sat  to 
gether  and  talked  as  two  pilgrims  who 
met  for  tho  first  time.  Hearing  that  ho 
came  from  Daniel's  monastery,  Athanasia 
asked  if  he  knew  a  monk  there  of  the 
name  of  Andronicus.  "  Yes,"  said  he, 
"  I  know  him  well."  To  which  she  re 
sponded,  "  May  his  prayers  be  with  us." 
"  Amen,"  answered  Audronicus.  As 
they  were  both  going  tho  same  way, 
they  made  the  remainder  of  tho  pil 
grimage  together,  and  when  they  re 
turned  to  Kgypt,  Andronicus  proposed 
that  they  should  live  together.  Atha 
nasia  consented,  on  condition  that  they 
should  observe  a  strict  rule  of  silence. 
They  lived  twelve  years  in  ono  cell, 
never  speaking  except  to  say  their 
prayers.  During  all  that  time  Andro- 
i.i.-us  did  not  suspect  that  his  companion 
was  tho  same  with  whom  he  bad  lived 
so  many  years  at  Antioch,  and  who  had 
borne  him  two  children.  At  last  sho 
was  attacked  by  fever,  and  Andronicns 
went  in  great  distress  for  tho  abbot  of  a 
community,  begging  him 


88 


ST.   ATHAXASIA 


to  come  and  pay  the  last  duties  to  his 
dear  brother  who  was  about  to  depart. 
The  dying  Athanasia  told  her  story  to 
the  abbot,  but  not  to  her  husband.  A 
few  days  after  her  death,  Andronicns 
was  seized  with  the  same  fever.  The 
abbot,  seeing  him  near  death,  told  him 
who  it  was  that  had  shared  his  cell  for 
30  many  years.  Daniel's  monks,  having 
heard  much  of  the  sanctity  of  their 
former  companion,  wished  to  take  his 
body  and  bury  him  near  their  own  abode, 
but  the  brethren  near  whom  he  had  spent 
his  later  years  claimed  him  as  their  own. 
It  was  finally  settled  that  the  pair  should 
be  buried  side  by  side,  near  the  spot 
where  they  had  led  their  silent  ascetic 
life.  AA.SS. 

St.  Athanasia  (3),  Aug.  4, 14,  April 
18,  called  in  some  calendars  AN  AST  ASIA. 
•J"  c.  860.  Abbess  of  Timia,  in  Egypt. 
Kepresented  (1)  weaving  at  a  loom,  a 
star  over  her;  (2)  with  a  star  on  her 
breast. 

Born  in  the  island  of  Egina.  Her 
parents,  Nicetas  and  Irene,  instructed 
her  in  the  Holy  Scriptures  from  her 
earliest  childhood,  and  married  her 
young,  about  822,  to  an  officer  in  the 
imperial  army.  He  was  obliged  to  leave 
her  sixteen  days  after  their  marriage,  to 
oppose  the  Saracens,  who  had  come  from 
Africa,  and  were  threatening  the  shores 
of  Greece.  He  was  killed,  and  she  be 
took  herself  to  a  religious  life,  but  before 
she  had  made  any  vows,  an  edict  was  pro 
mulgated  by  the  Emperor  Michael  the 
Stammerer,  to  oblige  all  marriageable 
girls  and  young  widows  to  marry,  on 
the  ground  that  war  and  other  scourges 
had  depopulated  the  greater  part  of  the 
Greek  empire.  Athanasia's  parents  found 
her  a  good  religious  husband,  who  joined 
in  all  her  pious  and  charitable  works. 
On  Sundays  and  other  holy  days  she  used 
to  assemble  all  the  women  of  her  neigh 
bourhood,  and  read  and  explain  the  Bible 
to  them.  Her  husband  became  a  monk, 
and  Athanasia,  having  no  children  to 
take  care  of,  converted  her  house  into  a 
convent,  of  which  she  was  too  humble  to 
assume  the  direction,  until  it  was  forced 
upon  her  by  the  community.  Austerities, 
which  usually  tend  to  make  the  temper 
sour  and  discontented,  never  diminished 


her  sweetness  and  patience.  After  four 
years,  she  decided  that  her  house  was 
too  near  the  stir  of  the  world.  With 
the  assistance  of  a  holy  priest  named 
Matthias,  she  found  a  more  suitable 
place,  where  she  built  three  churches, 
as  well  as  a  convenient  house  for  her 
increasing  community.  Her  convent  was 
called  Timia,  which  means  a  place  ho 
noured  or  respected.  In  superintending 
the  removal  of  her  nuns  to  their  new 
residence,  Matthias  observed  that  they 
were  all  extremely  thin,  and  looked 
very  ill.  He  advised  St.  Athanasia  to 
moderate  the  severity  of  her  rule,  and 
she  thenceforth  took  more  care  of  the 
health  and  comfort  of  her  spiritual 
daughters.  She  went  to  Constantinople 
to  get  funds  for  her  three  churches,  and 
to  visit  the  Empress  THEODORA,  mother 
and  guardian  of  the  Emperor  Michael 
III.,  who  was  fond  of  receiving  persons 
illustrious  for  sanctity.  She  remained 
there  against  her  will  for  seven  years, 
and  died  soon  after  her  return  to 
Timia.  After  her  death  she  appeared 
in  a  vision  to  her  successor,  the  new 
abbess,  and  reproached  her  for  not 
making  the  prayers  and  alms  for  her 
soul  that  she  ought  to  have  done  for 
forty  days,  bidding  her  do  her  duty  in 
this  respect,  and  assuring  her  that  at 
the  end  of  that  time  she  would  enter 
into  Paradise.  At  the  end  of  forty  days, 
two  of  the  nuns  saw  Athanasia  crowned 
above  the  altar,  and,  many  miracles  being 
performed  at  her  tomb,  her  sanctity  was 
universally  acknowledged.  Long  after 
wards  her  body  was  found  fresh  and 
entire,  and  was  dressed  in  goodly  robes 
and  removed  into  the  church.  The 
Muscovites,  who  follow  the  Greek  rite, 
place  her  fete  on  April  IS.  R.M.,  Aug. 
J4.  AA.SS.,  Aug.  4.  Baillet  says  that 
her  Life  is  contemporary,  but  has  passed 
through  the  hands  of  Metaphrastes.  In 
the  Martyroloyy  of  the  Onlcr  of  St.  Basil 
the  Great,  A.R.M.,  Aug.  21,  she  is  said 
to  belong  to  that  order.  Callot,  Imnyes. 
Husenbeth,  Emh/nnn  <>f  Saint*.  Cahier, 
Caracteristiques.  Die  If ci  lit /en  7> //'/'•/•. 

The  legend  that  explains  the  loom  and 
star  in  her  pictures  is  that  one  day, 
while  she  was  still  a  young  girl,  sitting 
at  her  loom,  she  fell  into  an  ecstasy ;  a 


ST.    ATTIIACTA 


brilliant  star  darted  from  heaven  to  her 
breast,  and  disappeared  there,  but  illu 
minated  her  whole  person  as  long  as  the 
ecstasy  lasted.  From  that  time  she  \vn< 
a  changed  creature,  and  began  to  despise 
earthly  objects  and  interests.  (Stadler 
u.  Heim,  //'  /'//;/•  n  L-  ./•/£••//.  i 

St.  Athea, 'ATE A. 

St.  Athela,  ADELA. 

St.  Athelburga,ETiiELuruGA,  July  7. 

St.  Athora,  Feb.  :>:•*,  M.  in  Africa. 
AA.S8. 

St.  Athy,  ATKA. 

St.  Attala,  or  ATHALA,  Dec.  :J.  f  c. 
711.  Represented  having  a  well  m-ar 
her,  or  as  a  corpse  with  one  hand  cut 
off.  St.  Attala  was  first  abbess  of  the 
first  monastery  in  Strasburg.  She  was 
the  daughter  of  Adelbert,  Duke  of 
Alsace,  by  his  first  wife  Gerlinda.  He 
had  her  carefully  trained  for  the  duties 
of  an  abbess,  by  his  sister  ST.  ODILA, 
and  in  717,  when  he  built  the  monastery 
of  St.  Stephen,  he  set  her  over  it.  She 
won  the  love  and  reverence  of  her  own 
convent  and  of  all  the  inhabitants  of 
Strasburg.  So  highly  was  she  venerated, 
that,  after  death,  her  body  was  exposed 
for  five  weeks,  and  the  faithful  came 
from  all  parts  to  honour  her.  Weren- 
trude,  Abbess  of  Hohenburg,  and  a 
particular  friend  of  St.  Attala,  desiring 
a  relic,  employed  a  priest,  who  cut  off 
the  right  hand  of  the  saint.  Ho  was 
discovered.  The  hand  was  enclosed  in 
ft  crystal  box,  and  is  preserved  in  tho 
church  of  St.  Stephen,  where  it  is  ex 
hibited  on  Dec.  .'5.  Her  black  woollen 
mantle  was  also  preserved,  and  was 
placed  on  the  shoulders  of  each  succeed 
ing  abbess  at  her  installation.  A  well 
in  tho  crypt  was  credited  with  healing 
powers  in  her  time  and  for  centuries 
afterwards.  French  and  German  Mar- 
tyrologies.  Cahier.  Guerin,  Pctitn  Bol- 
landisti  .»•,  xiv. 

St.  Attica,  Feb.  I:!,  V.  4th  century. 
Converted  by  ST.  ('MNMANCE  AUGUSTA 
AA.SS.  Stadler. 

St.  Attracta,  Feb.  '.',  Aug.  li 
(T.\i:.\«-r.\,  TAHMIATTA,  TAHXUTHA,  TIIA- 
»ATTA  L  .Mli  or  r.th  century.  An  Irish 
virgin,  daughter  of  Saran,  or  Talan,  or 
Tigernach,  of  royal  descent  in  Ulster. 

The  legend  is  that  she  made  a  vow 


of  celibacy  at  a  very  early  age.  To 
avoid  marrying  in  obedience  to  her 
parents,  she  left  her  home,  accompanied 
only  by  her  maid  Mitain  and  her  man 
servant  Mochain,  and  came  to  Conuaught. 
She  decided  that  her  house  must  be 
where  seven  roads  met,  that  she  might 
entertain  travellers  from  all  directions. 
Mochain  eventually  discovered  such  a 
site  for  her,  and  there  she  built  a  church 
and  monastery.  In  her  wanderings  she 
caiao  to  a  beautiful  place  where  St. 
Conallus,  her  brother  or  near  relation, 
had  his  church.  She  sent  to  ask  if  she 
might  build  herself  a  house  in  the  neigh 
bourhood.  It  happened  to  be  Lent,  and 
St.  Conallus  was  spending  the  holy 
season,  according  to  his  custom,  saying 
his  prayers  in  cold  water.  He  called 
to  mind  certain  prophecies  concerning 
the  wonderful  works  of  Attracta,  and 
the  fame  she  was  destined  to  attain,  and 
decided  not  to  have  her  within  his  terri 
tory.  He  sent  Dachonna  (probably  the 
same  as  ST.  MACHOXNA)  to  give  her  his 
blessing,  and  to  beg  her,  in  the  name  of 
God,  not  to  erect  any  building  in  that 
place.  She  was  very  angry.  Besides 
other  fierce  and  cruel  things,  she  said, 
"  Since  you  ask  mo  in  the  name  of  God, 
I  cannot  refuse.  And  since  you  order 
me  to  leave  your  lauds,  I  obey  your 
decree.  But  that  Conallus  may  feel 
how  bitter  is  my  sentence,  I  pray  that 
no  corn  may  ever  grow  on  his  estate, 
and  that  no  father  and  sou  together  may 
ever  serve  there.  I  foretell  that  a  sound 
of  bells  will  come  into  your  dwelling, 
which  will  diminish  tho  offerings  you 
receive  from  tho  people,  or  deprive  you 
of  them  altogether."  This  soon  hap 
pened  :  a  monastery  was  built  in  the 
place,  and  took  all  tho  tribute  which 
lormerly  went  to  St.  Conallus'  church. 

Bee,  King  of  Lugua,  sent  for  Attracta 
to  kill  a  monster  which  devastated  his 
country.  As  a  reward,  ho  gave  to  her 
and  her  successors  for  ever,  tho  land 
which  had  been  rendered  uninhabitable. 
In  course  of  time,  tho  King  of  Con- 
naught  went  to  war  against  tho  men  of 
Lugna,  and  hemmed  them  in  by  lake 
Techct.  St.  Attracta  led  them  through 
tho  midst  of  the  lake,  on  condition  that 
no  one  should  look  behind  him.  A  boy, 


90 


ST.   ATZIX 


who  was  the  servant  of  the  drummer, 
had  the  curiosity  to  look  back.  Ho  was 
immediately  drowned.  Whereupon  the 
drummer  told  Attracta  that  if  he  did 
not  without  delay  have  his  boy  back 
safe,  he  would  slander  her  throughout 
the  world.  So  she  prayed  for  the  resur 
rection  of  the  lad..  An  angel  told  her 
she  was  troubling  God  too  much  :  never 
theless,  she  should  have  her  wish,  but 
she  must  ask  St.  Foelan  to  raise  the 
youth.  St.  Foelan  was  lying  asleep  or 
dead,  with  a  stone  in  each  hand,  and 
another  in  his  mouth.  He  arose  as  out 
of  an  ecstasy,  and  raised  the  drowned 
boy  to  life.  Many  other  miracles  are 
told  of  her. 

Once  on  a  time,  Keannfaeland,  King 
of  Connaught,  ordered  that  all  his  sub 
jects,  including  the  clergy,  should  help 
to  build  him  a  beautiful  castle.  Attracta 
begged  to  be  excused  from  this  service, 
promising  the  king  instead  fair  winds 
for  his  snips  to  bring  beautiful  things 
from  unknown  countries,  that  the  king 
dom  should  remain  in  his  family  for 
ever,  and  many  other  advantages,  which 
he  so  undervalued  as  not  to  accept  the 
bargain.  So  she  went  in  a  rage  to  the 
forest,  with  St.  Nathy  and  a  few  men 
and  horses,  to  cut  down  trees  and  saw 
up  the  prescribed  quantity  of  wood. 
One  of  her  servants  suggested  that,  in 
stead  of  the  horses,  the  stags  of  the 
forest  might  as  well  carry  the  wood  to 
the  king — so  the  stags  came  to  be  laden. 
Attracta  pulled  a  few  long  hairs  out  of 
her  own  head ;  with  these  she  tied  the 
planks  on  to  the  stags,  and  sent  them 
off  to  the  king.  Instead  of  being  con 
verted  by  the  miracle,  he  hardened  his 
heart  like  Pharaoh,  and  set  his  dogs  at 
the  stags ;  but  the  devil  entered  into  the 
dogs,  they  bit  the  king  and  queen  and 
everybody  who  tried  to  defend  them, 
and  most  of  the  courtiers  were  killed. 
The  stags  returned  in  peace  to  the  forest, 
and  the  dogs  were  turned  into  stones. 

These  incidents  are  told  in  a  frag 
ment  of  a  Life  of  this  saint,  which 
Colgan  gives  ( Feb.  1'J  in  his  collection 
of  Irish  Saints.  It  is  supposed  to  be 
the  work  of  a  Cistercian  monk  of  the 
llth  century,  and  to  bo  quite  destitute 
of  foundation.  The  beginning  and  end 


of  the  story  are  lost.  Attracta  appears 
in  some  Irish  calendars  on  Aug.  7. 
Bntlcr  and  Lanigan  say  she  was  an 
Irish  nun,  who  lived  and  died  at  a  place 
still  called  Killaraght,  which  is  a  con 
traction  of  Kil  Attracta,  the  church  or 
cell  of  Attracta.  Some  accounts  say 
she  received  the  religious  veil  from  St. 
Patrick,  who  lived  in  the  5th  century, 
but  Lanigan  thinks  she  was  a  sister  of 
St.  Coemgen,  and  lived,  in  the  7th  or 
late  in  the  (Uh  century,  in  a  convent 
founded  by  St.  Patrick  a  century  before, 
but  whicli  afterwards  took  her  name. 
There  are  several  places  in  Ireland 
called  Kil  Attracta :  this  one  is  in  Sligo. 
Sec  also  AA.SS.  and  Britanma  Sancta. 

St.  Atzin,  ACHACHILDIS. 

St.  Allbierge,  ETHELBUKGA  (3). 

St.  Aucega,  or  ACCEIA,  June  1,  M. 
A  queen  of  the  barbarians,  called  in 
some  martyrologies  Aucias,  or  Auceia, 
king,  commemorated  with  a  great  num 
ber  of  Christians  martyred,  either  all 
at  Thessalonica,  or  some  of  them  there 
and  some  at  Rome.  The  story  given 
by  Papebroch  (AA.SS.,  June  25)  of  ST. 
LUCEJA,  V.,  and  St.  Auceja,  king  of  the 
barbarians,  appears  to  be  the  same. 

St.  Aucta,  patron  of  Lisbon.   Cahier. 

St.  Auda,  ALDA. 

St.  Audata,  March  1>S,  M.  at 
Caesarea.  AA.J38. 

St.  Audex,  Nov.  1H,  V.  Sir  H. 
Nicolas,  Chronology  of  History. 

St.  Audientia,  Feb.  :>.  A  holy 
woman,  mother  of  St.  Avitus.  Wife 
of  St.  Isicius.  Bollaudus  is  doubtful 
whether  she  is  to  be  placed  among  the 
saints  or  not.  AA.SS.,  Prsetcr. 

B.  Audouvaria,  Ai  DOYEKA. 

B.  Audovera,  Aug.  17  (ANDOVERA, 
AUDOVAKIA).  "f  .~>s:5.  Queen  of  France, 
the  first  wife  whom  we  know  by  name 
of  Chilperic  I.,  King  of  France.  Wion 
says  she  was  the  daughter  of  a  prince  of 
Spain ;  but  perhaps  he  confounds  her 
with  ST.  GALSWINTIIA,  another  wife  of 
the  same  king.  During  the  absence  of 
Chilperic,  Audovera  gave  birth  to  her 
fifth  child, Childechinda, and, being  a  very 
pious  woman,  she  was  desirous  to  have 
her  admitted  as  soon  as  possible  into 
the  Church  by  baptism.  Her  confiden 
tial  but  treacherous  maid,  Fredegunda, 


ST.  AUGUSTA 


91 


professed  great  affection  for  her  mistress 
and  the  infant  princess,  and  profound 
sympathy  in  the  queen's  anxiety  to  have 
the  child  christened.  Audovcra  was 
much  puzzled  about  her  choice  of  a  god 
mother.  She  was  suro  that  that  honour 
would  cause  jealousy,  quarrels  would 
arise,  tho  husbands  of  the  offended 
ladies  might  give  trouble  to  tho  king, 
and  she  did  not  know  what  to  do.  In 
IK T  prrpli-xity  she  sought  advice  from 
h«-r  slave.  "  What  lady  in  France  is  so 
great  as  the  queen  ?  "  said  tho  designing 
Fredegunda.  "  No  one  can  be  jealous 
of  you,  or  pretend  to  be  your  equal :  hold 
the  illustrious  infant  yourself."  Audo- 
vera  was  delighted  to  find  so  clover  a 
way  out  of  the  difficulty.  The  christen 
ing  took  place  with  great  rejoicing  and 
feasting,  and  everybody  was  pleased.  A 
month  or  two  after,  King  Chilperic  came 
home  victorious  from  his  wars,  and  all 
the  maidens  went  out  to  meet  him  with 
Lr;u  lands,  songs,  and  dances.  Fredegunda 
took  care  to  attract  his  attention  to  her 
self,  made  him  compliments  on  his 
prowess  and  heroism,  and  announced  to 
him  the  birth  of  his  daughter.  When 
she  had  coquetted  with  him  a  little,  she 
said,  ';  There  is  only  one  sad  thing  about 
your  triumphant  home-coming."  "  What 
is  that  ?  "  said  tho  king.  "  Oh,  I  am  so 
sorry  about  it,  I  hardly  like  to  tell  your 
Highness."  Hero  she  pretended  to  shed 
a  ti-ar.  Chilperic  insisted  on  knowing 
what  was  tho  matter,  and  Fredegunda, 
with  feigned  reluctance,  said,  "  Alas,  my 
lord,  tin: re  is  nobody  for  you  to  sleep 
witli  now."  "But  you  said  tho  queen 
was  well."  "  Ali,  yes,  the  queen  is  well ; 
but  she  has  become  your  sister.  For 
getting  tho  duty  she  owed  to  her  king 
and  husband,  she  has  become  godmother 
"iir  child.  Tho  holy  bishops  will 
tell  you,  any  priest  will  tell  you,  you 
cannot  have  a  woman  for  your  wife  who 
is  godmother  to  your  child.  "Very 
well,"  said  tho  king ;  "  if  I  cannot  sleep 
with  her,  I  will  sleep  with  you."  So 
Andovera  was  deposed,  and  went  to  a 
niona<t«  ry  at  Lo  Mans,  taking  her 
hter  with  her.  Fredegunda  was 
.nioti-d  to  IHT  place,  and  nine  years 
alt.-rwards,  in  583,  she  had  them  both 
murdered  in  their  retreat.  Fredegund i 


was  Chilperic's  mistress  for  many  years  ; 
but  not  until  he  hud  married  other 
wives,  and  not  until  she  had  committed 
other  crimes,  did  she  become  his  wife  ; 
and  eventually  she  had  him  nmrd<  n  1 
too.  Bucelinus  calls  Audovera  "  Martyr," 
and  Wion  calls  her  "Saint."  Am»'-d<  '••• 
Thierry,  in  his  Her  it*  MerovtngieH^gvrei 
the  history  of  Fredegunda's  plot. 

The  little  princess,  who  had  been  tho 
tool  used  to  work  her  mother's  mis 
fortune,  was  happy  in  being  put  to  death 
with  her  in  her  innocence.  Basine,  an 
older  daughter  of  Audovcra,  was  cruelly 
treated  by  Fredegunda,  and  after  passing 
through  depths  of  misery  and  degrada 
tion,  was  placed,  against  her  will,  in  the 
monastery  of  Sainte  Croix,  built  by  ST. 
(1)  at  Poitiers,  where  ST. 
(5)  was  abbess.  She  proved  a 
very  bad  nun,  and  gave  a  great  deal  of 
trouble.  Of  the  three  sons  of  Chilperic 
by  Audovera,  Clovis  and  Mcrovce  who 
became  the  second  husband  of  Brune- 
hault,  fell  victims  to  the  malice  of 
Fredegunda. 

St.  Audrey,  ETHELKEDA.  There  is 
also  a  St.  Audrey  or  Aldricus  (Oct.  10), 
Bishop  of  Sens,  i'th  century. 

St.  Audru,  AUSTKUDE. 

St.  Aufidia,  May  ti,  M.  at  Milan 
with  ST.  JUDITH  and  several  others. 
Petin,  Dirt.  Ilu.,. 

St.  Augia  i  1  i,  May  14,  M.  at  Apt, 
in  Provence,  probably  under  one  of  the 
heathen  Emperors.  Claimed  as  a  member 
of  tho  family  of  Salebron,  or  Sabron  ; 
but  they  settled  in  France  not  earlier 
than  the  1  \  th  century.  AA.SS. 

St.  Augia  (  _'  ),  Sept.  25  (AoiA,  AIGE, 
ArsTitKciLD).  Sister  of  St.  Aunarius. 
Mother  of  St.  Loup. 

St.  Augusta  (  1  ),  July  i>s,  V.  M. 
AAJSS. 

St.  Augusta  (2),  Nov.  24,  M.  Said 
to  be  tho  wife  of  the  Emperor  Maxinaian,. 
and  martyred  with  ST.  CATHERINE. 


St.  Augusta  (3),  March  27.  Patron 
and  native  of  Serravalle,  and  worshipped 
there  from  time  immemorial.  Repre 
sented  on  a  funeral  pile  holding  a  sword. 
Frightful  atrocities  were  committed  by 
barbarians,  who  ravaged  Italy  from 
about  4  <  M  i  until  tho  time  of  Charlemagne. 


92 


ST.  AUGUSTICIA 


Somewhere  during  that  time  lived  Mau- 
clrucco,  father  of  Augusta,  aud  ruler  of 
part  of  the  territory  of  Friuli.  He  fixed 
his  residence  at  Serravalle,  and  had  a 
palace  and  fortress  on  a  rock,  since  called 
by  the  pious  natives  St.  Augusta.  Man- 
clrucco  would  have  been  great  had  he 
not  tarnished  his  fame  by  the  murder  of 
his  daughter.  Incensed  at  her  conver 
sion  to  Christianity,  ho  subjected  her  to 
sundry  tortures.  She  was  suspended 
over  a  fire  between  two  trees.  The  fire 
failed  to  injure  her.  He  then  tried  in 
vain  to  have  her  broken  on  a  wheel ;  and, 
finally,  had  her  beheaded.  A.  Minucci, 
1  V//i  di  Santa  Augusta  Vergine  e  Martire, 
Venice,  1754.  AA.SS. 

St.  Augusticia,  or  AUGUSTINA,  May 
8,  M.  at  Constantinople,  with  St.  Aca- 
cius.  See  AGATHA.  AA.SS. 

St.  Augustina,  AUGUSTICIA. 

St.  Aularia,  EULALIA  of  Barcelona. 

St.  Aulaye,  EULALIA  of  Barcelona. 

St.  Aulazie,  EULALIA  of  Barcelona. 

St.  Aunes.  ST.  AGNES  is  so  called 
an  Languedoc. 

St.  Aupaies,  ALPAIS  of  Cudot. 

St.  Aura,  AUREA  of  Paris. 

St.  Aurea  (1),  or  CHRYSE  (Golden), 
Aug.  24,  V.  M.  3rd  century.  Repre 
sented,  in  Callot's  Images,  being  thrown 
into  the  sea  with  a  great  stone  tied  to 
her  neck.  A  lady  of  high  rank  and 
imperial  descent,  tortured  and  drowned 
at  Ostia,  in  the  reign  of  Claudius.  Her 
body  was  washed  ashore,  and  buried  by 
48 1.  Nonnus.  Many  other  martyrs  are 
commemorated  with  her,  amongst  them 
her  slave  Sabinian.  R.M.  Stilting 
thinks  she  is  the  same  as  AUREA  (3). 
AAJ38. 

St.  Aurea  (2;,  July  14,  M.  at  Cor 
dova,  under  Nero.  The  town  of  Soria, 
or  Santoria,  on  the  Douro,  is  named 
after  this  saint,  or  ST.  AURELIA  (2),  or 
ST.  AURIA. 

St.  Aurea  Of),  Sept.  5,  M.  about 
2.")  2.  Patron  of  Ostia.  Aurea  appears 
4o  have  been  one  of  those  women  who, 
during  the  persecutions,  used  to  visit  the 
Christians  in  prison,  and  in  every  pos 
sible  way  minister  to  the  needs  of  the 
suffering  followers  of  Christ.  She  ac 
companied  St.  Maximus,  a  Christian 
priest,  and  his  deacon  Archelaus  when 


they  went  to  visit  the  prefect  Censurinus, 
who  was  imprisoned  at  Ostia.  While 
they  were  all  praying  together  and  sing 
ing  hymns,  the  fetters  of  the  prisoner 
were  suddenly  unloosed.  Seeing  this 
miracle,  the  guards  were  converted. 
Seventeen  of  them  were  baptized  by  St. 
Maximus.  St.  Aurea  was  godmother. 
Soon  afterwards  St.  Cyriacus,  the  bishop, 
confirmed  them  in  the  Faith.  The  ne\v 
converts  led  a  holy  life,  after  the  rule  of 
the  early  Church,  and  many  miracles 
were  done  by  them.  When  the  Emperor 
heard  that  they  had  raised  the  dead  to 
life,  he  said  they  were  using  magic  arts, 
and  had  them  all  apprehended  and  com 
manded  to  sacrifice  to  the  gods.  Cruel 
tortures  were  used  to  compel  them  to  do 
so ;  and  at  last  they  were  led  to  the  arch 
that  stood  in  front  of  the  theatre,  and 
there  beheaded.  The  Christians  buried 
them,  and  raised  a  monument  at  Ostia  to 
their  memory.  This  story  agrees  with 
secular  history  wherever  the  comparison 
can  be  made.  Stilting  thinks  this  is  the 
true  story  of  the  St.  Aurea  who  in  other 
fictitious  Acts  is  said  to  have  been  thrown 
into  the  sea.  AA.SS. 

St.  Aurea  (4),  or  AUUEUS,  May  2n, 
M.  at  Rome  or  Ostia.  Commemorated 
with  SS.  BASILA  and  NUSCA. 

St.  Aurea  (5),  July  22,  M.  at  An- 
tioch. 

St.  Aurea  (6),  Oct.  31,  V.  M.  (AD- 
VISA,  AVIA  ;  in  French  AVEZE,  AVOIE, 
EVE).  Daughter  of  ST.  GERESINA,  Queen 
of  Sicily.  Sister  of  SS.  BABILIA,  VIC 
TORIA,  JULIA  (24),  and  ADRIAN.  Niece  of 
ST.  DAKIA.  Cousin  of  ST.  URSULA,  and 
companion  of  her  famous  journey  and 
martyrdom. 

St.  Aurea  (7),  or  AURA,  Oct.  4.  -fOOii. 
Patron  of  Paris.  Represented  (1)  with 
the  corpse  of  the  cellarer  whom  she 
raised  to  life;  (2)  holding  a  nail,  in 
allusion  to  her  penance.  Born  in  Syria. 
Her  parents  were  Maurinus  and  Quiretia, 
Christians.  After  their  death  she  gave 
herself  up  to  religious  austerities  for  a 
time  in  her  own  country,  until,  finding 
too  many  ties  to  the  world  among  her 
friends  and  acquaintances,  she  took  ship 
without  informing  them  of  her  design, 
and  arrived  in  France  during  the  reign 
of  Dagobert,  the  seventh  king  of  the 


ss.    AlKKLIA    AM)   NEOMISIA 


French.  When  she  found  that  she  had 
come  to  a  country  where  there  were 
many  houses  of  religious  retirement  and 
hundreds  of  holy  virgins  serving  God  in 
them,  she  was  filled  with  thankfulness. 
She  went  to  Paris,  where  many  holy  men, 
secular  as  well  as  ecclesiastic,  shed  lustre 
on  the  court  by  their  wisdom  and  virtue. 
Among  these  were  St.  Arnonl  or  Arnulf, 
mayor  of  the  palace  ;  St.  Rudo,  treasurer 
of  France  ;  St.  (  hven,  a  great  and  valiant 
commander  under  Dagobert ;  St.  Eloi 
(Eligius),  a  goldsmith  of  Limousin,  who 
was  called,  for  his  charity,  "  The  Father 
of  tho  Poor."  To  him  the  king  had 
given  a  fine  largo  house  in  Paris,  which 
he  transformed  into  a  Benedictine 
nunnery,  and  built  in  it  a  church  dedi 
cated  in  the  names  of  SS.  Martial  and 
VALERIA,  patrons  of  his  native  province. 
A<  tho  virtues  and  piety  of  St.  Aurea 
could  no  more  bo  hidden  than  the  light 
of  the  sun,  St.  Eloi  soon  found  her  out, 
and  made  her  abbess  of  his  new  convent, 
though  she  would  have  chosen  to  obey 
rather  than  to  command.  Here  she 
ruled  over  three  hundred  nuns.  One 
day,  in  the  chapel  of  the  nunnery,  a  cer 
tain  deacon  read  the  Gospel  so  badly 
that  tho  good  abbess  lost  all  patience, 
seized  tho  book  out  of  his  hand,  and  read 
it  herself.  Afterwards  she  acknowledged 
with  deep  regret  the  irreverence  of  her 
conduct,  and  imposed  upon  herself,  as 
a  penance,  to  recite  the  whole  of  the 
hundred  and  fifty  psalms  daily,  seated  in 
a  chiir  with  nails  in  it  specially  con 
structed  for  discomfort.  This  penance 
she  accomplished  with  great  devotion, 
having  resigned,  for  the  time,  her  office 
[>f  abbess.  A  nun  named  Deda,  who  had 
tho  whole  charge  of  the  revenue  and  ex 
penditure  of  the  community,  died  while 
Au ri -a  was  absent  at  a  farm  which  formed 
part  of  tho  possessions  of  tho  convent. 
Xo  one  else  understood  tho  business,  and 
great  trouble  and  loss  were  threatened 
to  the  nuns.  Three  days  after  Deda's 
death  A un-a  came  homo  and  raised  her 
to  life.  1  )eda  gave  a  satisfactory  account 
of  her  stewardship,  and  set  the  affairs  of 
the  house  in  onlrr.  Some  time  afterwards 
she  departed  in  peace.  During  tho  pes 
tilence  that  ravu^'-d  r'ranrr  in  '">'i,moro 
-han  half  of  tho  nuns  died.  St,  l'.l>i. 


Bishop  of  Noyon,  Tournay,  and  Yer- 
mandois,  who  had  died  tho  year  before,, 
appeared  robed  in  white,  to  a  young  many 
and  bade  him  go  and  tell  tho  abbess 
Aurea  to  come  to  him.  She  then  died, 
aged  sixty-eight,  having  been  abbess 
thirty-three  years.  E.M.  Lfyende  1) 
AA.SS.  Butler.  Life  of  St.  Eloi,  Dec. 
1,  on  tho  authority  of  St.  Owen. 

St.  Aurea  («),  July  19,  V.M.  850. 
Sister  of  Adolphus  and  John,  the  first 
martyrs  in  the  persecution  at  Cordova, 
under  Abderrahman.  Several  years  after 
their  glorious  death,  Aurea,  like  St. 
Peter,  denied  her  Lord  in  tho  moment  of 
danger,  but  repented,  and  publicly  pro 
fessed  her  regret.  She  was  slain  with  a 
sword  and  hung  on  a  gibbet  with  her 
head  down.  R.M.  AA.SS.,  from  St. 
Eulogius's  contemporary  account  of  this 
persecution.  Cahier,  Cnracteristiquea. 

St.  Aureca,  Jan.  2,  M. 

St.  Aurelia  (1),  Dec.  2,  V.  Towards 
the  end  of  the  Oth  century,  St.  Colum- 
banus,  St.  Gall,  and  some  other  Irish- 
Scots  went  on  a  mission  to  revive  Chris 
tianity  in  parts  of  tho  continent  where- 
tho  people  had  relapsed  into  paganism. 
Amongst  the  ruins  of  a  little  city  called 
Brigantium,  now  Bregentz,  about  i5h>, 
they  found  an  oratory  dedicated  to  St. 
Aurelia,  near  which  they  built  themselves 
cells.  St.  Gall  preached  to  the  people 
and  destroyed  their  idols,  and  St.  Colum- 
bauus,  to  tho  satisfaction  of  tho  people 
who  returned  to  the  true  Faith,  placed 
the  relics  of  St.  Aurelia  under  the  altar 
on  which  he  said  Mass.  R.M.  This 
Aurelia  is  probably  the  same  as  VALERIA 

(12). 

St.  Aurelia  (2),  Oct.  12  or  1:1,  M. 
with  St.  Lupus,  under  tho  Saracens,  at 
Cordova.  Tho  town  of  Soria,  or  San- 
toria,  is  named  after  this  saint,  or  Sr. 
AriiKA  (2),  or  ST.  AUKIA.  AAJ3S. 

SS.  Aurelia  (:>)  and  Neomisia, 
Sept.  2.\  VV.  at  Anagui,  in  Italy.  Suy~ 
sken  says  probably  in  tho  beginning  of 
the  llth  century.  Mas  Latrio  says  per 
haps  in  the  !>th  century.  They  were 
born  in  Asia.  On  tho  death  of  their 
parents,  contrary  to  tho  wishes  of  their 
n-Iations,  they  made  a  vow  of  virginity, 
and  gave  their  inheritance  to  tho  poor. 
They  visited  tho  holy  places  of  .Syria 


ST.   AURELIA 


and  Palestine,  went  to  the  tombs  of  the 
Apostles  at  Rome,  and  received  the 
Pope's  benediction.  In  the  neighbour 
hood  of  Capua  they  were  taken  prisoners 
by  the  Saracens,  who  demanded  that  they 
should  renounce  their  religion.  As  they 
refused,  they  were  beaten  with  great 
cruelty.  But  a  frightful  thunderstorm 
•caused  the  barbarians  to  flee  and  leave 
their  victims.  The  saints  then  went  to 
Macerata,  two  miles  from  Anagni,  where 
they  were  well  received  by  a  pious  man, 
and,  while  they  were  spending  the  night 
hours  in  prayer,  they  died.  The  bells  of 
Anagni  rang  and  other  miracles  ,  mani 
fested  the  sanctity  of  the  departed.  II. M. 
Suysken,  in  AA.S8. 

St.  Aurelia  (4),  Oct.  ir>,  Y.  f  1027. 
Princess  of  France.  Recluse.  Patron 
of  Ratisbon.  Specially  honoured  at 
Strasburg.  She  is  said,  but  not  with 
certainty,  to  have  been  daughter  to  Hugh 
Capet.  Bucelinus  says  she  was  probably 
daughter  of  Lothaire,  nephew  of  Louis 
d'Outremer.  She  was  very  beautiful  and 
was  promised  to  Elwein,  a  young  prince 
related  to  the  king.  Preferring  a  soli 
tary  religious  life,  she  fled  in  disguise  to 
Oermany,  and  betook  herself  to  St.  Wolf 
gang,  who  recognized  her.  He  built  her 
a  hermitage,  where  she  lived  unknown 
for  fifty- two  years.  Her  cell  was  after 
wards  converted  into  a  chapel,  and  dedi 
cated  in  the  name  of  St.  Andrew.  She 
has  been  supposed  to  be  sister  of  ST. 
EDIGNA,  who,  however,  is  generally 
thought  to  have  lived  in  the  next  century. 
Martin,  from  B.  Gonon's  Percn  (V Occident. 
Raderus,  Bavaria  Sancta.  Du  Saussaye. 
Mart.  Gallicanum. 

St.  Aurelia  (r>),  Oct.  i:>,  V.  (EM.). 
Tradition  says  she  was  a  native  of  Stras 
burg  and  companion  of  ST.  UIISULA.  She 
died  of  fever  outside  her  native  city.  A 
certain  King  Philip  tried  to  open  her 
sarcophagus,  was  seized  with  madness, 
ate  his  own  hands  and  feet,  and  so  died. 
AA.SS. 

B.  Auria,  or  OKIA,  March  11,  V. 
fabout  HOn.  Born  at  Villa  Villayo, 
near  Mansilla,  six  leagues  from  St.  Emi- 
liano.  Daughter  of  Garcia  Nunnio  and 
Amunna.  Auria  was  given  to  piety, 
charity,  and  asceticism  from  her  earliest 
years.  She  took  the  veil  when  young,  and 


went  to  live  with  some  women  of  kindred 
tastes,  in  a  retreat  adjoining  the  Bene 
dictine  monastery  of  St.  Emiliano  de  Suso, 
according  to  the  custom  of  the  time,  which 
permitted  a  community  of  consecrated 
virgins  to  live  near  a  house  for  monks. 
She  was  favoured  with  celestial  visions, 
and  the  fame  of  her  sanctity  spread  over 
all  the  country.  The  abbot  and  two 
monks  attended  her  death-bed  :  her 
mother  was  also  present,  and  died  a  few 
days  after  her.  A.  sepulchre  was  hewn 
for  her  in  the  rock,  and  there  she  and  her 
mother  were  buried.  Their  tomb,  some 
what  defaced  by  damp,  was  to  be  seen 
some  hundreds  of  years  afterwards,  in 
the  church  of  St.  Emiliano  de  Suso. 
Sandovellius  adds  that  the  town  of  Soria 
on  the  Douro  (Durium),  near  the  ruins 
of  Numantia,  is  a  contraction  of  Saint' 
Oria,  and  is  so  called  from  this  saint. 
Henschenius  and  Papebroch  believe  it  to 
be  older,  and  think  it  more  likely  that 
the  name  is  derived  from  ST.  AUKEA  (2), 
martyr  at  Cordova  under  Nero,  or  ST. 
AUKELIA  (2),  martyr  at  Cordova  under 
the  Saracens.  AA.SS.,  from  Sando 
vellius,  Ancient  Monument*. 

St.  Auriga,  Jan.  2,  M.  in  Ethiopia, 
with  SS.  CLAUDIA  and  RUTILA.  AA.SS., 
from  St.  Jerome's  Mtortyrology. 

St.  Ausonia,  one  of  the  martyrs  of 
Lyons,  who  died  in  prison.  See  BLAN- 

DINA. 

St.  Aussille,  AUXILIA. 

St.  Austell,  or  AWSTLE,  whose  feast 
is  on  Trinity  Sunday,  is  supposed  to  be 
the  same  as  HAWSTYL,  the  twenty-fifth 
daughter  of  Brychan.  Arnold  Forster. 
See  ST.  ALMHKDA. 

St.  Austreberta  (ANBTBEBEBT,  Eus- 
THEBEHGA),  Feb.  t»,  10,1<>,  Oct.  H>  (trans 
lation),  V.  Abbess.  "J"  7(»:>.  Patron  of 
Montreuil,  in  Picardy.  Represented  (  1  i 
plunging  her  arm  into  an  oven,  in  allu 
sion  to  the  legend  that  as  her  broom 
was  burnt  and  she  had  to  sweep  the  oven 
just  before  putting  in  the  bread,  she  went 
in  and  dusted  it  with  her  sleeves ;  (  2 
with  an  ass,  perhaps  to  denote  the 
humility  with  which,  though  of  high 
rank,  she  performed  the  meanest  offices 
of  the  convent. 

Daughter  of  Vaufroi,  mayor  of  the 
palace  under  Childeric,  or  Dagobert  II. 


ST.   AUSTRUDE 


Her  mother  was  ST.  FUA.MI:*  HII.HK,  or 
FKAMKIH:.  Austreberta  was  born  at 
Therouane,  iu  Belgium.  It  is  asserted 
that,  at  the  moment  of  her  birth,  a  super 
natural  light  shone  in  the  room,  a  sweet 
<>«!«  ur  filled  the  neighbourhood,  and  a 
white  dove,  which  had  been  seen  to  Hy 
all  about  the  town,  finally  settled  on  the 
head  of  the  new-born  child.  Her  vow 
of  celibacy  was  confirmed  by  the  appari 
tion  of  a  veil  descending  on  her  head  as 
she  looked  at  herself  in  a  well.  Her 
father  having  promised  her  in  marriage 
tit  a  young  nobleman,  she  fled  and  hid 
herself.  Finding  tho  roads  flooded  and 
bridges  washed  away  by  the  river  Cange, 
she  walked  on  tho  water.  She  received 
the  religious  veil  from  St.  Omer,  Bishop 
of  Therouane,  who  then  restored  her  to 
her  parents.  She  lived  the  life  of  a  nun 
in  their  house,  and  after  a  time  betook 
herself,  with  their  approval,  to  the  con 
vent  of  Port  on  the  Sommo,  where  Ber- 
goflede  was  abbess.  Austreborta  was 
almost  immediately  elected  prioress.  She 
was  afterwards  abbess  of  a  new  convent 
in  Normandy :  its  name  is  unknown  ;  it 
was  built  by  Amelbert  for  his  daughter. 
Some  of  the  nuns,  having  tried  and  failed 
to  poison  St..  Austroberta,  accused  her  of 
cruelty  to  the  said  daughter  of  Amel 
bert,  of  wasting  tho  goods  of  tho  com 
munity,  and  of  other  offences.  Ho  came 
and  reproached  Austreberta  bitterly.  In 
his  ungovernable  rage  he  drew  his  sword. 
She  presented  her  neck,  and  thus  caused 
Arnelbert  to  recover  from  his  fury  and 
honour  her  saintly  courage  and  humility. 
She  is  said  to  have  restored  to  life  a 
nun  who  had]  been  killed  through  her 
own  disobedience.  J icing  unable  to 
manage  these  refractory  nuns,  she  com- 
pli«-d  with  tho  request  of  St.  Filibert, 
Al.hot  oi'.himiegcs,  to  undertake  tho  care 
of  the  new  convent  he  had  built  at 
Tiivilly,  in  the  district  of  Oaux,  in  Xor- 
inandy.  It  was  afterwards  destroyed  in 

invasion  of  the  Normuns,  and  a  h<»- 
for  Benedictine  monks  was  built  on  tho 
spot  in  later  times.      /,'..!/.     Baillot 
her    LI/-,    by    a    writer    almost   contem 
porary,  is  fairly  reliable.     Martin,  from 
Surius.      I  hitler.    Bollandus. 

St.  Austregild,  A<;i.\,  mother 
Loup. 


St.  Austrude,  Oct.   17 

AV-TKUSK,  ASTKI-J.I:,  Aruur.  Q0TIU  .  V. 
Abbessof  Laon.  "f  M'SS  or  7<>7.  l)aught«-r 
of  B.  Blaudin  or  Bason  and  ST.  S  \i..\- 
HKUGA.  Born  in  tho  diocese  of  Toul,  in 
Lorraine,  about  <>:54.  She  was  c«> 
crated  to  God  before  her  birth  by  her 
mother.  When  Austrude  was  three 
years  old,  St.  Salaberga,  with  her  hus 
band's  consent,  left  her  home  and  became 
a  nun.  At  tho  age  of  twelve  St.  Aus- 
trudo  was  asked  in  marriage  by  Landrail, 
a  rich  young  nobleman.  Her  father  left 
the  decision  of  the  matter  to  her,  and 
she  said  she  had  already  chosen  an  im 
mortal  Husband.  Accordingly,  she  at 
once  took  the  veil  in  the  double  monas 
tery  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  at  Laoii. 
It  was  built  and  governed  by  her  mother. 
She  gave  such  proofs  of  piety  and  capa 
bility,  that  on  Salaberga's  death  she  was 
chosen  to  succeed  her  as  abbess,  at  the 
early  age  of  twenty.  She  declined  the 
office  on  the  plea  of  her  youth  and  inex 
perience,  but  as  the  whole  community 
demanded  her  appointment,  she  was 
obliged  to  accept  tho  post  in  obedience 
to  tho  King  of  France  and  tho  Bishop 
of  Laon.  The  murder  of  her  brother, 
B.  Baldwin,  was  a  great  grief  to  her. 
The  same  enemies  who  had  plotted  his 
assassination  accused  St.  Austrude  ,tO 
King  Thierry  III.,  of  favouring  tho  party 
of  tho  unfortunate  Dagobert  II.,  son  of 
St.  Sigebert,  who  had  been  killed  in 
in  the  war  against  Thierry.  Ebroin, 
mayor  of  the  palace,  was  much  incensed 
against  her,  and  was  only  convinced  of 
her  innocence  by  tho  apparition  of  a 
globe  of  fire  above  the  abbey,  where 
upon  ho  became  her  friend  and  protector. 
Soon  afterwards  she  had  a  narrow  escape 
from  assassination.  Her  intended  mur 
derer,  being  touched  by  finding  her 
engaged  in  prayer,  confessed  his  sin,  and 
obtained  her  forgiveness.  In  a  civil 
br.iil,  h.-r  abbey  was  in  great  danger  of 
In -ing  pillaged,  for  Ebrohard  burned  a 
great  part  of  the  town  of  Laon,  and  for 
cibly  possessed  himself  of  the  keys  of 
tho  abbey;  but  in  the  moment  of  greatest 
l-«  ril,  its  inhabitants  learned  that  they 
were  saved  by  the  death  of  Kbrohard. 
Aiistnt'le's  troubles  were,  however,  not 
ended,  for  her  own  bishop.  Madelgar  or 


90 


ST.  AUTORICIA 


Mauger,  wanted  to  appropriate  to  himself 
her  abbey,  although  it  had  been  built 
by  her  family  entirely  at  their  own 
expense.  She  had  recourse  to  Pepin,  the 
new  mayor  of  the  palace,  who  took  her 
part.  Baillet.  Butler.  AA.SS. 

St.  Autoricia,  Dec.  1<>,  V.  M.  Ho 
noured  with  ST.  TEUTULLA  at  Algiers. 
Guerin,  from  the  French  Mart. 

St.  Auxilia,  or  AUSSILLE,  Sept.  4,  V. 
M.  Worshipped  at  Thil  and  Precy,  in 
Burgundy.  AA.SS.,  from  Castellanus. 
Petin,  Diet.  Hay.  Chatelain,  Martyrologie 
Universe!. 

Auxiliary  Saints.  Represented  as  a 
group  of  fourteen,  each  with  an  emblem. 
Among  the  fourteen  are  three  women, 
BARBARA  (1),  CATHERINE  (1),  and 
MARGARET  (1).  I  have  seen  a  print 
in  which  ST.  AGNES  (2)  also  figured. 
There  is  no  authority  for  supposing  the 
Auxiliary  Saints  to  be  more  powerful  or 
more  benevolent  than  other  saints.  The 
custom  of  resorting  specially  to  their 
patronage  is  supposed  to  have  begun  in 
Germany,  where  they  are  called  Hul- 
freichende.  The  men's  names  are  :  Bla- 
sius,  bishop  of  Sebaste,  M.  George,  the 
great  Martyr.  Giles,  abbot.  Denis,  M. 
Erasmus,  bishop,  M.  Vitus,  M.  Cyri- 
acus,  deacon,  M.  Pantaleon,  physician, 
M.  Eustace,  M.  Acacius,  or  Agath- 
angelos,  bishop  of  Antioch.  Christopher, 
giant,  M.  To  these,  Magnus,  abbot,  is 
sometimes  added.  Wetzer  and  Welte, 
Diet.  TJtc'vloyiquCj  article  by  Stemmer. 

B.  Ava,'or  AVIA,  April  20,  V.  9th 
century.  She  was  blind,  and  gave  large 
gifts  to  many  churches  and  shrines  where 
she  prayed  to  receive  her  sight.  She 
was  told  by  an  angel  that  it  should  be 
given  to  her  if  she  would  pray  at  the 
sepulchre  and  relics  of  ST.  RAINFREDE, 
at  Dennain,  or  Dinant  sur  1'Escant,  in 
Hainault.  She  therefore  bestowed  all 
her  property  on  the  church  there,  and 
took  the  veil  in  the  convent  where  that 
saint  had  been  first  abbess.  Ava  is 
sometimes  said  to  be  one  of  the  nine 
sisters  of  St.  Rainfrede.  Bucelin  says 
she  was  second  abbess  of  Dinan,  near 
Valenciennes  ;  daughter  of  Adelbert, 
Count  of  Austrofandia,  and  Regina,  niece 
of  King  Pepin.  AA.SS. 

St.  Avace,  AVATIA. 


St.  Avangour,  Feb.  25.  ST.  WAL- 
BURGA  is  worshipped  under  this  name  in 
Touraine. 

St.  Avatia,  or  AVAC-E,  June  20.  She 
lived  in  the  valley  of  Agordia,  or  Agor- 
dino,  where  she  is  worshipped  in  a 
church  dedicated  in  her  honour ;  it  is 
between  Belluno  and  Feltri,  in  Venetia. 
She  received  St.  Luxan,  bishop  of  Brixen, 
and  ministered  to  him  when  he  was 
driven  out  of  his  see.  This  is  men 
tioned  in  Ferrarius'  Catalogue  of  Italian 
Saints.  Papebroch,  in  AA.SS. 

St.  Avaugourg,  or  AVONGOURG.  ST. 
WALBURGA  is  so  called  in  some  parts  of 
Poitou  and  Touraine. 

St.  Ave.    French  for  AVIA. 

St.  Avellia,  AVETTIA. 

St.  Avenia,  Oct.  22.  i»th  century. 
Sister  or  wife  of  St.  Benedict,  abbot. 
They  were  natives  of  Patras,  in  the 
Morea,  and  left  their  country  with  nine 
other  religious  persons  bound  by  a  com 
mon  vow.  In  the  time  of  Charlemagne 
they  settled  at  Macerac,  in  Bretagne. 
Benedict  lived  to  a  great  age,  and  was 
buried  in  his  own  oratory,  before  the 
middle  of  the  (Jth  century.  Victor  de 
Buck,  in  AA.SS. 

St.  Aventiana,  VALENTIANA. 

St.  Avetria,  AVETTIA. 

St.  Avettia,  May  28,  M.  at  Rome, 
Her  name,  sometimes  written  AVELLIA 
and  AVETRIA,  appears  in  a  list  of  martyrs 
this  day  in  the  Aartyrology  of  St.  Jerome.. 
Henschenius,  in  AA.SS. 

St.  Aveze,  AVIA  (2;. 

St.  Avia  (1  ),  March  i>.  The  holy 
grandmother.  M.  by  the  sword,  with 
her  husband,  their  son  and  daughter-in- 
law,  or  daughter  and  son-in-law,  and 
two  grandchildren.  Commemorated  by 
the  Greek  Church.  AA.SS. 

St.  Avia  (2),  Oct.  21  (ADVISA,  AUREA, 
AVE,  AVEZE,  AVOIE,  EVE),  M.  of  vir 
ginity.  Date  uncertain.  She  was  killed1 
by  barbarians.  Local  tradition  said  that 
one  of  the  ships  containing  the  com 
panions  of  ST.  URSULA  was  wrecked  at 
Boulogne,  in  Picardy ;  St.  Avia  survived 
the  wreck,  and  lived  as  a  recluse  in  a 
wood  near  Diverna,  four  leagues  from 
Boulogne.  Other  accounts  say  she  was 
a  hermit  there  at  a  rather  later  date. 
Perhaps  the  same  as  AUKEA  (6).  AA.SS-. 


ST.    I5AIHTA 


B.  Avia  -  3  .  A\\. 

St.  Avis,  Hi:i'wiG. 

St.  Avida,  May  7,  M.  in  Africa. 
Studler. 

St.  Avina,  May  2,  V.  M.     Stadler. 

St.  Avita  i  1  ),  Aug.  L'l,  M.  in  Italy. 
AAJ38. 

St.  Avita  i  -  i,  consin  and  disciple  of 
Si.  MI.I.AMA  (2).  Palladius  (cap.  L36) 
testifies  that  ho  saw  the  Blessed  Avita, 
wife  (»f  Aprinianus,  and  their  daughter 
Eunomia,  and  tliat  they  were  converted 
from  a  life  of  luxury  and  pleasure,  and 
became  worthy  to  sleep  in  Christ  free 
from  sin. 

St.  Avoie  i  1  ),  May  2.  Honour*  d 
in  P.retagne  and  at  Paris.  Chastelain 
says  she  is,  perhaps,  same  as  ADVISA. 
Compare  AIKKA  <  (}). 

St.  Avoie  (  -  i.  HEDWIG. 

St.  Avrince,  AI-HINCIA. 

Awegnente  Ubaldini,  CLARA 
UBALDINL 

St.  Awstle,  AUSTELL. 

St.  Axiosa.  See  FAITH,  HOPE,  and 
CHARITY, 

St.  Axitiana,  June  2<i.  Penitent. 
Wife  of  Altalius,  a  Koman.  She  was 
converted  from  a  sinful  life  by  the 
preaching  -of  St.  Peter  the  Apostle,  and 
honoured  in  the  Abyssinian  Church. 
Papebroch,  in  AA.SS.,  Prsetcr. 

St.  Aya,  April  18  (AiA,  AIE,  AYE). 

T'".i.  Invoked  in  law-suits.  Wife 
^t.  Kidulph.  She  has  been  styled 
Duchess  of  Lorraine,  Countess  of  Hai- 
nault,  of  Lobbes,  of  Cambrai,  and  of 
Ardennes  ;  but  these  principalities  did 
not  exist  in  her  time.  In  G<>5  St. 
Hidulph  became  a  monk  at  Lobbes,  and 
Aya,  a  nun  under  ST.  WALTHUDE,  at 
rilocus,  afterwards  Mons.  She  pre 
sented  to  this  monastery  her  lands  of 


Ximy,  Braim-le-Willotte  (now 
I  Iraine-le-Cointe  ),  and  Maisieres.  About 
eighty  years  after  her  deatli  some  of 
her  relations  applied  to  the  authorities 
of  the  land  for  a  restitution  of  the  family 
estates.  The  title-deeds  had  been  lost. 
By  desire  of  the  nuns,  the  litigants  and 
other  persons  assembled  with  the  court 
at  the  tomb  of  the  saint.  One  of  the 
nuns  said,  in  a  loud  voice,  "  Great  Saint, 
they  wish  to  take  from  us  Guesmes, 
Nimy,  Maisii-res,  and  Braine,  which  you 
gave  to  us.  Speak  in  favour  of  your 
daughters,  and  confirm  the  gifts  you 
made  in  your  life."  A  clear  and  dis 
tinct  voice  came  from  the  tomb,  and  was 
heard  by  everybody  present,  saying,  "  I 
ratify  all  these  gifts  which  I  made  to 
the  Church."  Coret,  Le  TriompJie  de 
',  Mous,  1G74.  Biofjrapkic  Beige. 


St.  Ayesia,  AESIA. 

St.  Aza  (  1  ),  Dec.  13.  Honoured  with 
St.  AN  ASTASIA.  Grseco-Slav.  Calendar. 

St.  Aza  (2  ),  April  1!>.  Daughter  of 
St.  Lazarus,  a  king  in  that  commodious 
region  "  the  East."  They  came  from 
their  own  country  to  Rome  to  venerate 
the  tombs  of  the  Apostles.  Then, 
having  visited  some  of  the  most  famous 
places  of  religious  resort  in  France,  they 
settled  down  as  hermits  near  the  mon 
astery  of  Moyen-Moutier,  in  Lorraine, 
where  they  died.  Their  relics  worked 
miracles,  and  were  brought  to  light  in 
the  llth  century.  Guerin.  P.B. 

St.  Azarie,  patron  of  a  church  at 
(ilaiic.  Mas  Latrie,  Trhor. 

St.  Azelie,  ADA. 

St.  Azelie,  ASELLA. 

St.  Azenor,  Dec.  7.  Princess  of  Leon, 
in  Brotagne.  Gth  or  7th  century.  Mas 
Latrie,  Tw 


B 


St.    Babet,     ELI/AHETH    or    ISAJ:I:I.. 


St.    Babila,  <-r    MMUI.IA,  «>r  r>M'.Yi.i,\, 

daughter  of  ST.  GKBASDIB.     >'«   CI.MI.A. 

St.  Babilla.     Sometimes  means  BAL- 
r.is  A. 


St.  Badechild,  RATHILDB. 

Bagan  and  Eugenia  <  -i  i,  Jan.  22, 
W.     Neale,  from  the  Anmnio-Gioryian 

St.   Bahuta,  Nov.  2<»,   Widow,  M. 
r.  843,     A   great  number  of  Christians 


St.    Babion,  patron  of  a  church  in  1     martyrdom    with     St.    Narscs, 


31;is 


,  Triwr. 


r.i^h-ip  of  Sciaharcadat,  in  lleth-< '« -riaa, 

Ji 


98 


ST.   BAICHE 


in  Persia.  Among  them  wer6  Baliuta, 
widow,  THECLA,  DANACHA,  TATONA, 
MAMA,  MAZACHIA,  and  ANNA,  virgins  of 
Beth-Seleucia ;  ABIATA,  HATES,  and 
MAMLACHA,  virgins  of  Beth-Geriua. 
Pctits  BoU«)idi*icx. 

St.  Baiche,  Nov.  20.  A  Persian 
nun.  Neale,  quoting  the  Annotio- 
G  con  /in  a  Calendar. 

St.  Balbina  (i ),  March  ;n,  V.  M. 
Patron  against  scrofula.  ~\"  !;><>.  Bepre- 
sented  holding  chains.  Daughter  of  St. 
Quirinus,  M.,  a  Roman  tribune,  who  was 
persuaded  by  St.  Hermes,  prefect  of  the 
city,  and  at  that  time  a  prisoner  for  the 
sake  of  his  Christian  faith,  to  visit  St. 
Alexander,  the  Pope,  who  was  also  in 
prison.  Quirinus  said  to  Alexander,  "  I 
have  a  grown-up  daughter,  and  I  wish 
to  have  her  married.  She  is  very  pretty, 
but  she  is  disfigured  by  lumps  and  sores 
on  her  neck.  If  you  can  cure  her,  I 
and  all  my  household  will  believe  in 
your  God  and  be  baptized."  Alexander 
said,  "  If  you  will  take  the  fetters  off  my 
neck  and  put  them  on  hers,  she  will  be 
cured."  Quirinus  did  so,  and  Alexander 
blessed  them  both.  A  boy  then  appeared 
to  Balbina,  bearing  a  torch  and  telling 
her  she  was  cured,  and  she  was  to  have 
no  earthly  husband,  but  to  be  the  bride 
of  Christ.  When  he  had  said  this,  he 
disappeared,  and  Balbina  was  healed  of 
her  sores  and  was  baptized  with  Quiri 
nus,  Exuperia  her  mother,  and  all  their 
household.  As  Balbina  often  kissed  the 
fetters  that  had  cured  her,  Alexander 
said,  "  Do  not  kiss  these  bonds,  but  seek 
for  the  chains  of  my  master,  St.  Peter, 
and  kiss  them."  Then  Balbina  sought 
them  with  great  diligence,  and  at  last 
found  them.  ST.  THKODOKA,  sister  of 
the  Prefect  Hermes,  entreated  Balbina 
to  give  her  the  chains,  which  she  did. 
At  that  time  Aurelian,  being  enraged 
against  the  Christians,  sent  soldiers  to 
take  all  the  prisoners  who  had  been 
baptized,  and  put  them  in  an  old  ship,  in 
which  they  were  sent  out  to  sea,  tied 
together  by  their  hands,  with  stones 
round  their  necks,  and  the  ship  was 
sunk.  St.  Balbina  was  among  them. 
Other  accounts  do  not  mention  her 
martyrdom,  but  say  she  was  buried  with 
her  father  in  the  Via  Appia,  in  the 


cemetery  of  Pretextatus,  which  is  some 
times  called  by  her  name  on  account  of 
the  church  built  there  in  her  honour  by 
St.  Mark,  Pope  ( :\'M).  EM.  AA.SS. 

B.  Balbina  (  2  ),  March  J  J .  O.S.F. 
Kith  century.  Niece  of  ST.  CLAKA  (2). 
Sister  of  B.  AMATA,  who  was  one  of  St. 
Clara's  first  nuns.  Their  father  was 
Martini  de  Corano.  Balbina  joined  the 
ne\v  community  in  its  second  year,  and 
was  eventually  first  abbess  of  the  second 
convent  of  the  Order  of  St.  Clara  at 
Spello.  Balbina  and  Aniata  are  men 
tioned  in  the  Franciscan  Marti/roloyy. 
Jacobilli,  DC  Sanctis  Utnbrise.  AA.SS., 
Prsetcr.  Mrs.  Oliphant,  Francis  of 
Axsisi. 

St.  Balda,  Dec.  9,  Y.  Third  Abbess 
of  Jouarre,  in  the  diocese  of  Meaux. 
After  having  been  a  nun  for  some  years 
under  her  nieces,  ST.  THEODECHILD  and 
ST.  AILBERT,  who  were  successively 
Abbesses  of  Jouarre,  she  succeeded  Ail- 
bert  in  that  office  about  »>H<>,  and  died  at 
a  great  age  in  the  odour  of  sanctity. 
Ferrarius,  Cdtaloyus  Sanctorum.  Buce- 
liuus.  Lechner. 

St.  Baldechild,  BATHILDE. 

St.  Baldegund,  Feb.  10  (BAUDE- 
(JONDE,  WALDEGUND).  Between  the 
middle  of  (5th  and  middle  of  8th  cen 
turies.  A  Benedictine  abbess  in  France, 
mentioned  in  several  old  martyrologies. 
AA.SS.  Boll.  Bucelinus,  Men.  Ben. 

St.  Balsamia,  Oct.  25,  Nov.  i<; 
(BALZAMIE,  BAUSAME,  BAT'/ANNK,  Nou- 
i;i< •]•:).  5th  century.  Balsamia  was  the 
mother  of  St.  Celsinus,  or  Soussiu,  whose 
festival  is  held  on  Oct.  25  at  Kheims, 
Nov.  It)  at  Laon.  She  was  the  nurse  of 
St.  licmigius,  or  llemi,  and  is  therefore 
generally  called  Sainte  Norrice,  and  by 
this  name  the  collegiate  church  at 
Iiheims  was  dedicated  in  her  honour. 
In  the  Breviary  of  Iiheims  her  worship 
is  prescribed  for  Nov.  10.  AA.SS. 
Chastelain,  Yoc.  H<i</.  Petit*  Bollcmdisb  t. 

St.  Baltilda,  BATHILDB. 

B.  Baptista  Varani,  or  CAMILLA 
(  1  i,  May  31.  O.S.F.  f  1527.  Her 
family  were  princes  of  Cameriuo,  in 
Umbria.  Her  father,  Julius  Cajsar 
Yarano,  or  Yerano,  served  with  distinc 
tion,  first  in  the  wars  of  Yenicc,  and 
afterwards  under  Matthias  Corvinus, 


ST.    1JA1MJAHA 


99 


King  <>f  Hungary,  and  was  at  one  time 
Viceroy  of  Naplee  f«>r  King  Ferdinand. 
Her  mother  was  Joanna  Malatesta  of 
Kiiuini.  They  had  four  sons  and  one 
daughter,  called  at  first  Camilla.  She 
was  born  in  troubled  times.  Two  of  In  r 
father's  brothers,  with  their  sons,  had 
been  put  to  death  for  being  implicated 
in  a  conspiracy.  In  14S1  Camilla  took 
the  veil  at  Urbino,  and  with  it  the  name 
of  Baptista.  After  a  few  years  she 
returned  to  Camerino,  and  was  made 
abbess  of  the  nuns  of  the  Order  of  ST. 
CLAIIA  there.  She  wrought  miracles, 
and  was  revered  as  a  saint  by  the  people 
of  Camerino  during  her  life.  She  was 
a  mystic,  and  received  many  marks  of 
divine  favour.  She  was  carried  in  the 
spirit  by  two  angels  to  the  foot  of  the 
cross,  and  remained  there  two  months. 
Christ  placed  three  lilies  on  her  breast. 
She  had  revelations  of  the  mental  suffer 
ings  of  Christ,  and  wrote  an  account  of 
them. 

In  1  :>< '_'  the  Camerentines  gave  them 
selves  up  to  Pope  Alexander  VI.  His 
son,  Crcsar  Borgia,  cruelly  slaughtered 
IJaptista's  father,  who  had  ruled  virtu 
ously  for  nearly  half  a  century,  and 
three  of  his'sons  ;  the  youngest  survived. 
his  father  having  sent  him  with  the 
treasure  to  Venice  at  the  beginning  of 
the  war.  He  was  eventually  reinstated 
is  his  possessions,  and,  after  the  death  of 
Alexander,  the  two  following  Popes  con 
firmed  him  in  the  principality  or  duke 
dom  of  Camerino.  In  1  .M'7,  on  the  death 
<•!'  Baptista,  this  brother,  John  Mary, 
made  a  magnificent  funeral  in  her 
honour,  and  the  people  began  at  once 
utrate  her  as  a  great  saint. 

Papebroch,  in  AA.SS.,  from  her  auto 
biography,  written  by  order  of  her  con- 
H<r  life  lias  been  written  in 
Italian  by  ( 'inmrella,  and  also  by  Passino. 

St.  Barbada,  P.\n.\  I'.AKHATA. 

St.   Barbalaba.  or  BAKBALADI  \.  .A I. 

at  Antioch.      .1.1. NX. 

St.  Barbara  (  I  »,  Dec.  -i,  Hi,  V.  M. 
(BAHBE,  BAKMU ..    HASIA,  or  VAHVAKA  i. 

•J:;.">  or  306.      Call.  .1  by  .I«>hn  Knox  "the 
^imnaris  g«,ddr.<s."     She  is  one  of  tin- 
ioui-iiM  n  .\r\ii.i  LBI    SAINTS.      Supj. 
to  1..  tl;.   ( 'lu-istian  adaptation  of  the  god 
dess  of  war.       Hi-presented   i  I  i    with    a 


miniature  tower  in  her  hand  ;  (  J  )  with  a 
tower  behind  her,  a  crown  on  her  head, 
and  holding  a  palm  or  a  sword ;  at  her 
left  side  a  chalice,  with  the  sun  in  it  as 
the  sacred  wafer,  as  if  she  were  credited 
with  giving  the  last  sacraments  to  those 
who  die  suddenly  in  piety.  In  German 
and  Flemish  pictures  she  holds  an 
ostrich's  or  a  peacock's  feather,  in  allu 
sion  to  the  phoonix  at  Heliopolis,  where 
she  was  born.  The  flesh  of  the  phoenix 
was  said  by  the  ancients  to  be  incor 
ruptible,  so  the  bird  became  the  symbol 
of  apotheosis  and  of  a  happy  immortality 
or  long  life. 

BARBARA,  CATHERINE,  EUPHEMIA,  and 
MARGARET  are  the  four  great  patrons  of 
the  Eastern  Church.  Barbara  was  patron 
of  armourers,  gunsmiths,  artillery-men, 
brewers,  tilers,  thatchers,  carpenters, 
masons,  architects,  sappers  and  miners, 
bell-ringers,  hatters;  of  all  dangerous 
trades  involving  liability  to  sudden 
death  ;  also  of  the  goldsmiths  at  Rome ; 
of  firearms  and  fortifications;  against 
storms,  thunderbolts,  sudden  death,  and 
final  impenitence  ;  of  Hungary  ;  of  the 
cities  of  Mantua,  Ferrara,  and  Guastalla  ; 
of  Culemburg  and  Pedena  in  Istria. 

The  legend  of  St.  Barbara  is  that  she 
was  the  daughter  of  Dioscurus,  a  rich 
nobleman,  who,  fearing  she  should  be 
taken  from  him  by  marriage  on  account 
of  her  great  beauty,  built  a  tower  in 
which  to  keep  her.  Here  she  lived  and 
watched  the  stars  until  she  became  con 
vinced  that  they  could  not  have  been 
made  by  her  father's  gods.  Having 
heard  of  a  new  and  purer  religion,  she 
contrived  to  receive  instruction  and  bap 
tism  from  a  Christian  priest  disguised  as 
a  physician.  Her  father  began  to  build 
her  a  bathing-place  in  the  garden,  but 
before  it  was  finished,  ho  had  to  go  on  a 
long  journey.  During  his  absence,  she 
went  to  look  at  the  building,  and  finding 
that  Dioscurus  had  ordered  two  windows 
to  bo  made  in  it,  she  persuaded  the  work 
men,  notwithstanding  their  fear  of  dis 
obeying  their  master,  to  make  three 
windows  in  honour  of  the  Trinity.  See 
ing  a  marble  pillar  beside  the  fountain, 
she  made  the  sign  of  the  cross  on  it, 
which  remained  there  as  if  engravd 
upon  the  marble.  After  her  martyrdom 


100 


B.   BARBARA 


many  came  to  pray  at  the  spot,  and,  look 
ing  on  the  cross,  were  healed  of  their 
infirmities.  On  the  return  of  Dioscurus 
from  his  journey,  he  asked  why  there 
were  three  windows  in  the  chamber. 
Barbara  explained  to  him  the  mystic 
significance  of  the  number  three,  and 
avowed  herself  a  Christian.  He  was  so 
enraged  as  to  be  on  the  point  of  stabbing 
her ;  but  bethinking  him  that  he  might 
thereby  get  himself  into  trouble,  he 
denounced  her  to  the  governor  of  the 
place,  who  tried  in  vain  to  persuade  her 
to  abjure  her  religion,  and  then  ordered 
her  to  be  tortured.  Her  wounds  were 
miraculously  healed.  Whereupon  the 
governor  said  that  as  the  gods  showed 
her  such  compassion,  she  must  not  be 
ungrateful,  but  sacrifice  to  them.  As 
she  remained  firm,  notwithstanding  re 
peated  and  varied  tortures,  she  was  con 
demned  to  be  led  through  the  city  without 
any  clothing.  She  prayed  that  she  might 
be  hidden  from  the  eyes  of  unbelievers, 
and  she  was  covered  from  head  to  foot 
with  a  brightness  like  a  vesture.  The 
governor  then  ordered  her  to  be  be 
headed.  She  was  taken  to  a  hill  where 
malefactors  were  put  to  death.  Her 
father,  being  at  his  own  request  her 
executioner,  cut  off  her  head.  He  re 
turned  immediately  to  the  city,  boasting 
of  the  service  he  had  done  to  the  gods, 
and  saying  that  he  deserved  to  be 
honoured  by  the  Emperor,  and  to  have 
Ids  name  perpetuated.  While  he  was 
speaking,  a  thunderbolt  fell  from  heaven 
and  destroyed  him  utterly,  so  that  nothing 
remained  of  his  body  ;  as  Barbara's  soul 
went  up,  his  went  down ;  and  while  she 
was  glorified  among  the  martyrs,  he  was 
torn  by  demons. 

St.  Barbara  has  long  been  honoured 
in  the  Latin,  Greek,  Kussian,  and  Syriac 
Churches,  but  her  history  is  obscured  by 
a  variety  of  false  Acts.  Baronius  follows 
those  that  say  she  was  a  disciple  of 
Origen,  and  was  martyred  at  Nicomedia 
in  the  time  of  Maximinus  I.,  who  raised 
the  sixth  general  persecution  after  the 
murder  of  Alexander  Severus,  -M.~>. 
Assemani,  however,  on  the  authority  of 
other  Aft*,  says  that  she  was  martyred 
at  Heliopolis,  in  Egypt,  in  the  reign  of 
Galerius,  about  the  year  ;><><;.  The 


Greek  Synaxary  and  the  Emperor  Basil's 
MeiuJn'jy  support  this  opinion.  A  very 
old  monastery  at  Edessa  was  dedicated 
in  her  name.  R.M.,  Dec.  4.  Usuard 
and  Molanus,  Dec.  1<¥>.  Ado  of  Treves. 
Yillegas.  Metaphrastes.  Butler.  Mrs. 
Jameson.  (,'ahier,  CaracMrutique*. 

Among  the  objects  furnished  for  the 
processions  of  Corpus  Christi  by  and  in 
the  borough  of  Dundee,  were  "  Sane 
Barlill  caatel,  a  crcdil  an<l  litre  lmrni# 
maid  of  claith,  Abraamis  luit,  and  tJire 
licdia  of  hayr."  Scottish  Review,  No.  12, 
quoting  Maxwell's  IL'ntnry  of  Old  Dun- 
dee. 

B.  Barbara  (2),  Sept.  i.  -f  U72. 
Daughter  of  Albert  the  Pious,  Duke  of 
Bavaria,  and  Duchess  Anna,  daughter  of 
Duke  Erick  of  Brunswick.  Duke  Albert 
refused  the  crown  of  Bohemia,  lest,  be 
coming  engrossed  with  its  cares  and 
pomps,  he  should  lose  the  heavenly 
crown.  In  the  same  spirit  his  daughter 
despised  all  worldly  state,  and  refused 
the  crown  of  France.  From  the  age  of 
five  she  was  brought  up  in  the  nunnery 
of  St.  Clara  am  Antjer,  at  Munich.  After 
her  parents'  death,  and  before  she  had 
taken  any  vows,  ambassadors  arrived 
from  the  young  King  of  France,  to  ask 
her  to  be  his  wife.  Her  brother,  Albert 
II.,  the  Wise,  told  her  of  the  offer,  and 
asked  for  her  decision.  She  said  she 
would  take  three  days  to  consider.  At 
the  end  of  that  time  she  gave  her  answer, 
namely,  that  where  her  parents  had 
placed  her,  there  she  would  serve  God 
lor  the  rest  of  her  life.  Albert  agreed, 
and  had  the  gate  of  the  convent  guarded, 
lest  the  French  should  attempt  to  carry 
her  off.  Barbara  had  in  her  possession 
three  presents  from  her  parents,  which 
she  valued  very  much :  a  plant  of  rose 
mary  ;  a  cage  containing  a  great  number 
of  birds  of  various  kinds,  which  sang 
with  her  when  she  sang  hymns  and 
psalms;  and  a  gold  chain,  which,  with 
permission  of  her  superiors,  she  always 
wore.  She  was  just  seventeen  when  all 
at  once  the  bush  died,  the  birds  died,  and 
the  chain  broke.  She  saw  in  this  coinci 
dence  a  warning  of  approaching  death, 
for  which  sho  devoutly  prepared,  and 
gave  up  her  innocent  soul.  She  had 
twenty  companions  about  her  own  age, 


B.    HASH. A 


101 


all  of  whom  used  to  join  in  singing 
prayers  an  1  praises  in  the  choir.  Four- 
'teen  days  after  Barbara's  death  one  of 
these  maidens  died ;  in  fourteen  days 
more  another  died  ;  and  so  on,  at  regular 
intervals,  until  all  the  twenty  were  gone 
to  sing  with  her  in  heaven.  Stadler  tind 
lleim,  from  Kader. 

B.  Barbara  i  •'> ),  or  BARBK,  April  is. 
Carmelite.  ( 'tilled  in  religion  MAHY  OP 
THE  INCARNATION.  156.5— 10 IS.  She  was 
born  in  Paris,  and  was  daughter  of 
Nicholas  Avrillot,  seigneur  de  Champlu- 
tronx,  maitre  des  comptes.  She  married 
Pierre  Acarie,  and  had  six  children.  He 
died  1  •>!.'>,  and  she  became  a  lay  sister 
in  the  Order  of  Reformed  or  Barefooted 
Carmelites  at  Amiens.  Her  daughter, 
Margaret  Acarie,  was  a  very  devout 
Carmelite  nun.  (Sec  THERESA  (7).)  In 
I-'IMUCO  Barbara  was  regarded  as  founder 
of  the  order,  because  it  was  through  her 
exertions  and  representations  that  it  was 
introduced  into  that  country.  The  nuns 
at  Amiens  pressed  her  in  vain  to  become 
tin  ir  abbess.  She  died  a  nun,  at  Pon- 
toise,  in  a  community  of  Reformed 
Carmelites,  of  which  the  VEX.  ANNA  OP 
.ST.  BARTHOLOMEW  was  the  first  prioress. 
Miracles  were  ascribed  to  Barbara.  The 
queen-mother,  Marie  de'  Medici,  erected 
a  magnificent  tomb  in  her  honour,  and 
headed  the  efforts  made  to  procure  her 
canonization.  In  17i>2  she  was  declared 
"  Blessed  "  by  Pius  VI.  In  the  Martyro- 
/./•///  ,,/'  //„•  0,-l-r  of  Barefooted  Car- 
/'  -v,  she  appears  as  "  Blessed  Mary  of 
the  Incarnation."  She  seems,  however, 
to  be  generally  remembered  as  Barbo 
Avrillot,  probably  because  many  nuns 
have  taken  the  name  of  Mary  of  the 
Incarnation,  amongst  them  two  saintly 
French  women,  contemporary  with  Bar- 
lura;  they  were  Amaurie  Trochet  and 
Murie  (hiyard.  Neither  of  them  is 
honoured  with  worship  or  with  a  place 
in  the  calendars.  A.E.M.  Midland, 
Biographit  I  rnit*  r+>  II, .  Jinxjrafia  Err!*  M- 
iisticti.  i;.irb;ir.i's  Li/.-  has  been  written 
l>y  Duval.  M;mri(v,  jmd  others. 

St.  Barbata  i  I  i,  \VH...I:KHITIS. 

St.  Barbata  «  2  >,  P.M-I.A  HARBATA. 

St.  Barbe,  HAKHARA. 

St.  Barbea,  .Ian.  21',  s,-:,t.  :»  (Bran, 
BKVEA,  I-'I\KA,  THIBEA).  1st  or  2nd 


century.  M.  at  Edessa  in  Syria,  with 
her  brother  St.  Sarbelius  or  Sabbellu<, 
a  heathen  priest  in  the  time  of  Tnijun 
(!'7-l  17)  or  that  of  Hadrian  (117-1  . 
They  were  converted  by  St.  Barsimteus, 
Bishop  of  Edessa,  and  afterwards 
brought  many  Greeks  to  Christianity. 
Sarbelius  was  sawn  asunder.  Barbea, 
after  having  the.  ilesh  scourged  off  her 
bones,  was  despatched  by  a  spear-wound 
in  the  back  of  her  head.  11. M.,  Jan.  29. 
AA.SS;  Jan.  29,  Sept.  4.  In  the 
Afatoloyy  of  Basil,  Sept.  «">,  they  are 
called  Thuthael  and  Bebea  ;  in  Slavo 
nian  calendars,  Sept.  .">,  Thiphael  and 
Thibea,  or  Fifael  and  Fivea. 

St.  Barbill,  BARBARA  (1). 

St.  Baripsabe,  Sept.  in.  In  some 
Eastern  calendars  Baripsabe's  name  is 
added  to  those  of  SS.  MENODORA,  METRO- 
DIM:  A,  and  XYMPHODORA.  Greeco-Slavonic 
C'lb'itiliir. 

Baris,  PARIS,  or  BARKA,  March  20, 
M.  with  ANNA  (7). 

St.  Baromia,  BEATA  (1). 

St.  Barran,  Aug.  J»,  an  Irish  V. 
Kelly's  Calendar,  from  "  Martyrology  of 
Tallagh." 

B.  Bartolommea  (1),  May  I1.',  V. 
of  Siena,  "f  i;34S.  She  changed  her 
name  to  ELIZABETH  on  entering  the 
Third  Order  of  Servites  or  Servants  of 
Mary,  founded  by  ST.  JULIANA  FALCONIERI. 
Bartolommea  was  a  beloved  disciple  of 
the  Blessed  Francis  of  Sienna,  of  the 
same  order.  Her  relics  were  kept  in 
the  church  of  the  Servants  of  Mary  at 
Siena,  and  worked  miracles,  her  head 
being  particularly  beneficial  to  de 
moniacs.  Papebroch,  in  AA.SS.  Mas 
Latric,  Tirsor. 

St.  Baruaba.  See  FAITH,  HOPE,  and 
CHARITY. 

St.  Basa  (1),  Sept.  21,  M.  at  Tyre. 
Greek  Symtxary,  quoted  by  the  AA.SS. 

SS.  Basa  (2),  BAKHA  (i),  Aug.  21. 

St.  Basia  (l),or  II  XMI.IA,  May  19,  M. 
at  (retulia,  in  Africa.  AA.SS. 

St.  Basia  (2),  UAKT-AKA. 

St.  Basila,  or  HAHUSSA,  Sept.  22,  M. 
with  SS.  Arur.A  (10)  and  XUSCA.  They 
are  worshipped  at  Ostia  and  in  Via 
Salaria.  Basila's  body  is  kept  in  the 
church  of  St.  Paul  at  Rome.  Perhaps 
the  same  as  ST.  BASSILLA,  M.  o<>4,  who 


102 


ST.  BASILIA 


is  honoured  tbc  same  day.     Papebroch, 
in  AA.SS. 

St.  Basilia,  BASIA,  etc.  Seven 
martyrs  who  suffered  at  different  times 
and  places  occur  on  different  days  in  the 
calendars  ;  one  of  them  was  put  to  death 
at  Alexandria  with  Leonides,  the  father 
of  Origen,  April  22,  c.  204.  AA.SS. 

St.  Basilica  (1),  or  BASILISSA  (7), 
Nov.  1 8,  M.  Sister  of  OHICULA. 

St.  Basilica  (2),  PLACIDIA  (1). 

St.  Basilica  (;i),  same  as  BASILISSA 
(8),  Abbess  of  Horres. 

St.  Basilissa  (1),  April  15.  Mar 
tyred  with  ST.  ANASTASIA  at  Rome,  in 
the  time  of  Nero.  Eepresented  burying 
the  martyrs.  They  were  women  of  rank, 
and  disciples  of  the  Apostles.  Their 
tongues  were  cut  out,  and  their  feet  cut 
off,  and  they  were  slain  by  the  sword. 
EM.  Callot.  Husenbeth. 

St.  Basilissa  (2),  BASILLA,  or  BAS- 
SILA,  March  22,  26,  M.  under  Decius.  c. 
252.  A  rich  woman,  who  gave  money, 
for  the  Christians,  to  St.  Callinica  ;  both 
were  put  to  death  when  discovered. 
RJL,  March  22. 

St.  Basilissa  («),  Sept.  ;-J,  V.  Mar 
tyred  at  Nicomedia,  under  Diocletian. 
When  she  was  nine  years  old  she  was 
denounced  as  a  Christian  to  Alexander 
the  governor,  and  was  by  his  order 
scourged,  then  her  ankles  were  pierced 
and  she  was  hung  up  with  her  head 
down,  and  tormented  with  the  smoke  of 
pitch  and  sulphur,  next  she  was  cast 
into  the  fire,  and  being  taken  out  unhurt, 
two  lions  were  let  loose  against  her, 
but  they  would  not  touch  her.  When 
Alexander  saw  those  miracles  and  the 
courage  and  determination  of  the  child, 
he  believed  in  Christ,  and  begged  her  to 
pray  for  him.  He  reformed  his  life,  and 
died  in  peace.  Set  at  liberty,  Basilissa 
went  out  of  the  city,  and  being  thirsty 
she  prayed  and  a  fountain  of  water 
sprang  up  from  the  earth ;  she  drank, 
and  gave  thanks ;  then  standing  on  a 
stone  and  praying,  she  gave  up  her  soul 
to  God,  and  the  faithful  are  cured  of 
all  diseases  at  the  fountain  to  this  day. 

AA.SS.      Mi-noloijy  af  ]>«sil. 

St.  Basilissa  (4),  or  BASSILA,  April 
10,  V.  Martyr  of  Corinth,  drowned. 
See  CHARIESSA. 


St.  Basilissa  (:>),  March  12,  M. 
Daughter  of  Cone  or  Clone,  wife,  either 
of  Eustasius,  a  priest,  or  of  Felicon.  Put 
to  death  with  them  and  several  others  in 
Asia.  AA.SS. 

St.  Basilissa  ((>),  Jan.  <>,  M.  3rd 
century.  Also  called  ST.  CASTELLAXA, 
and  in  Mart.  Salisbury  ST.  CASTELL. 
Wife  of  St.  Julian  the  Hospitaller,  and 
commemorated  with  him  in  the  llnnum 
Martyr ology. 

Basilissa  and  Julian  are  represented 
(1)  with  lilies,  roses,  and  crowns;  (2) 
holding  one  lily  between  them  ;  (JJ)  look 
ing  together  into  the  book  of  life,  where 
their  names  are  written. 

He  is  a  patron  of  travellers,  ferrymen, 
boatmen,  and  travelling  minstrels  who 
wander  from  door  to  door. 

The  legend  of  SS.  Julian  and  Basilissa 
is  as  follows  : — 

He  was  a  noble  count,  fond  of  the 
pleasures  of  the  world,  of  the  chase  in 
the  green  wood  by  day,  and  the  revel  in 
his  castle  by  night.  One  day  when  he 
was  hunting  a  deer,  it  turned  round  and 
spoke,  foretelling  that  he  should  cause 
the  death  of  his  father  and  mother.  The 
horrified  count  resolved  never  to  return 
to  his  home  where  so  terrible  a  fate 
awaited  him,  so  he  turned  his  horse 
and  fled  from  the  country.  He  travelled 
through  many  lands,  and  at  last  entered 
the  service  of  a  certain  king,  found  favour 
with  him,  was  promoted  to  great  honour, 
and  married  a  rich,  noble,  and  beautiful 
widow  named  Basilissa,  with  whom  he 
lived  very  happily  for  some  years,  and 
almost  forgot  the  doom  that  had  driven 
him  into  exile.  Meantime  his  father  and 
mother,  having  sought  and  sent  messengers 
in  vain  in  search  of  their  only  son,  set- 
out  themselves  to  look  for  him.  When 
they  had  travelled  a  long  time — some 
times  finding  traces  of  him,  and  some 
times  nearly  losing  hope — they  came 
one  night  to  a  castle  and  asked  for  a, 
night's  shelter  there.  The  lady  of  the 
house  received  the  pilgrims  hospitably 
for  Christ's  sake.  When  she  had  heard 
who  they  were  and  whom  they  sought, 
she  was  very  glad,  and  said,  "  Blessed 
be  God,  who  has  brought  you  to  your 
son's  house!  Julian  is  with  the  king 
to-night,  but  he  will  return  to-morrow. 


ST.   BASILISSA 


108 


I  am  IJasilissa,  liis  wife.  Rest  with  us, 
and  all  that  we  have  is  yours."  Then 
she  waited  upon  them  dutifully,  gave 
them  supper,  and  put  them  to  sleep  in 
her  own  bed.  Xext  morning,  before 
daylight,  she  went  to  church,  to  give 
thanks  for  the  arrival  of  her  husband's 
nts.  During  her  absence  Julian 
returned,  and  went  straightway  to  Basi- 
li.-sa's  room.  In  the  twilight  he  saw 
two  persons  asleep  there.  Without  a 
moment's  consideration,  he  drew  his 
sword  and  killed  them  both.  As  he 
rushed  madly  from  the  house,  he  met 
Basilissa  returning  from  church,  radiant 
with  happiness,  and  eager  to  tell  him 
of  the  arrival  of  his  father  and  mother. 
Then  Julian  knew  what  he  had  done, 
and  understood  that  the  fate  from  which 
he  had  fled  had  overtaken  him.  Ho 
told  Basilissa  he  must  leave  her,  for 
he  could  not  stay  in  his  home  nor  rest 
in  peace  until  he  had  done  penance 
and  obtained  pardon  for  this  dreadful 
crime.  liasilissa  said  she  would  go 
with  him.  They  left  their  castle,  and 
wandered  on  loot  until  they  came  to 
the  hank  of  a  river  where  persons  were 
often  drowned  in  attempting  to  cross 
the  water.  There  Julian  built  a  cell 
tor  himself,  and  a  hospital  for  the  poor. 
II'  ferried  travellers  across  the  stream 
by  day  or  night,  in  summer  or  winter, 
while  Basilissa  tended  the  poor  and  the 
sick  in  the  hospital.  One  night  in 
winter,  when  the  river  was  swollen  with 
rain  and  torrents  from  the  mountains, 
and  was  raging  past  his  door,  he  heard 
a  voice  calling  him  from  the  opposite 
bank.  He  went  across,  and  found  a 
young  leper,  who  appeared  to  be  dying 
"f  mid  and  fatigue.  He  brought  him 
over  the  ferry,  placed  him  in  his  own 
bed,  and  watched  by  him  with  Basilissa 
until  morning.  At  daybreak  the  lep«-r 
arose ;  his  face  shone  like  that  of  an 
angel,  and  saying  to  Julian,  "  Thy 
penance  is  accepted,  and  thy  rest  is 
near,"  he  vanished  out  of  their  sight. 
Shortly  afterwards  they  both  died. 

Then;  an-  thirty-six  Saints  Julian  in 
the  litinimi  -1  fiti-fifi  •«/«;/  if;  seven  of  tin  in 
ure  commemorated  in.lunuury.  Thereare 
also  many  Saints  I'.asilissa,  and  some  who 
are  called  indifferently  BASIUI.I»A,  BA- 


.  BASSILLA,  BASSA,  etc. ;  hence  there 
is  some  confusion,  and  it  is  not  always 
easy  to  disentangle  them.  St.  Julian 
and  his  wife  are  believed  to  have  lived 
at  Antinoe,  in  Egypt.  They  spent  their 
lives  and  substance  in  charity,  and  made 
their  house  a  hospital,  serving  Jesus 
Christ  in  His  poor  and  sick,  someti 
entertaining  as  many  as  a  thousand. 
Julian  attended  to  the  men  in  one  part 
of  the  house,  while  Basilissa  took  care 
of  the  women  in  another.  On  account  of 
the  trials  she  endured  for  the  love  of 
God,  and  because  she  sustained  the 
courage  of  so  many  who  were  persecuted 
under  Diocletian,  Basilissa  has  a  place 
among  the  martyrs,  although  she  died  a 
natural  death.  Julian  survived  her  about 
a  year,  and  was  put  to  death  in  the  same 
persecution.  On  his  way  to  martyrdom, 
as  ho  passed  a  school,  the  boys  came  out 
into  the  street  to  see  the  martyr  go  by. 
Celsus,  the  son  of  the  governor,  was  one 
of  them.  Ho  called  out  that  he  saw  the 
angels  accompanying  Julian,  and  giving 
him  a  crown ;  then,  throwing  away  his 
books  and  exclaiming,  "  I  believe  in  the 
God  of  the  Christians,"  he  fell  at  the 
feet  of  Julian.  The  governor  ordered 
the  boy  to  be  kept  all  night  in  a  horrible 
dungeon  with  Julian.  During  the  night 
Antony,  a  priest  who  had  the  care  of 
seven  little  orphan  boys,  summoned  by 
an  angel,  went  with  his  boys  to  the 
prison,  and  baptized  Celsus  and  some  of 
the  guards,  who  were  converted.  The 
governor,  supposing  his  little  son  must 
have  had  quite  enough  of  Christianity 
in  one  night  in  prison,  sent  him  now  to 
his  mother.  Ho  told  her  all  that  had 
happened,  and  she  also  believed,  and  was 
baptized  by  Antony.  They  were  all  put 
to  death,  the  seven  boys  by  fire.  A. !.>'>'. 
Mrs.  Jameson,  Sacred  and  L''</>'n<l«ii/ 
Art,  ii.  Mnrtij,-n,n  A>-t<t.  Butler.  Mar 
tin.  Baillet  says  they  are  commemorated 
on  several  different  days  in  different 
places,  which  partly  accounts  for  tho 
great  number  of  I J  \MI.I.\S  and  BASI 
LICAS. 

St.  Basilissa  <  7 ),  or  BASILICA  (2), 
M.  0,  400  or  LQ8.  Sister  of  ST.  Oui- 
<  ri. \. 

St.  Basilissa  (8),  or  BASH .1, 
Dec.  .\May  '2".     t  '""•  ( )-S-1 


104 


ST.   BASILLA 


and  successor  of  ST.  ANASTASI^,  Abbess  of 
Horres,nearTreves.  Bucelinus,  3/<'H. Ben, 

St.  Basilla  (M,  May  L'n,  Sept.  22 
('BASILIA,  BASILISSA,  BASSILLA,  etc.),  V. 
M.  c.  804.  Of  royal  lineage,  and  be 
trothed  to  a  man  of  equal  rank,  to  whom 
the  Golden  Legend  gives  the  name  of 
Pompey.  As  he  was  a  heathen,  she 
would  not  be  married  to  him.  He  ap 
pealed  to  the  Emperor  Gallienus,  who 
said  she  must  be  married  forthwith  or 
she  should  be  pierced  with  a  sword. 
She  said  she  already  had  the  King  of 
kings  for  her  husband,  and  could  not 
have  another.  She  was  put  to  death,  and 
was  buried  in  the  ancient  Via  Salaria, 
in  a  cemetery  that  belonged  to  her,  and 
which  has  sometimes  been  called  by  her 
name,  and  sometimes  by  the  names  of 
other  martyrs  buried  there.  Her  body 
was  removed  to  the  church  of  ST.  PRAS- 
SEDE,  in  the  9th  century.  She  is  com 
memorated  in  the  ancient  Roman  Calendar, 
compiled  in  the  middle  of  the  4th  cen 
tury,  and  that  of  St.  Jerome  shows  that 
she  was  worshipped  at  her  own  cemetery 
on  Sept.  22.  She  is  also  honoured  on 
Sept.  1 1 ,  with  ST.  EUGENIA  and  SS.  Protus 
and  Hyacinthus.  R.M.,  May  20.  Pape- 
broch,  in  AA.SS.,  Sept.  22.  Baillet,  Vies. 
Le'f/ende  Dore'e.  Canisius. 

St.  Basilla  (2),  or  BASILISSA,  May 
17,  M.  at  Alexandria  with  SS.  Adrion 
and  Victor.  R.M. 

St.  Basilla  (3),  Aug.  29  (BASILA, 
BASILISSA),  M.  at  Smyrna,  or  Syrmium, 
or  Sirmich.  EM.  AA.SS. 

St.  Basilla  (4),  Dec.  24  or  25.  Fer- 
rarius  calls  her  mother  of  ST.  EUGENIA, 
but  the  legend  gives  Claudia  as  the  name 
of  Eugenia's  mother. 

St.  Basiola,  or  BASJELA,  June  K-J, 
M.  Wife  of  St.  George,  tortured  and 
martyred  with  many  others  in  Abyssinia, 
encouraging  her  husband  and  the  rest 
to  the  last.  AA.SS. 

St.  Basjela,  BASIOLA. 

Bassa,  Basia,  BASILA,  BASILLA, 
BASILIA,  BASILICA,  BASILCA,  BASSILA, 
BASSILICA,  BASSILIA,  BASSILLA,  BASILISSA, 
BASSILISSA,  are  sometimes  written  one 
for  the  other.  Many  saints  and  martyrs 
bore  these  names.  Three  Bassas  appear 
in  the  R.M.,  March  0,  Aug.  1<>,  and 
Aug.  21. 


Bassa,  or  Bassila,  or  Bassilla  was  a 
Latin  name  derived  from  Bassus.  Basilia 
Mid  Basilissa  are  feminine  forms  of  the 
Greek  name  Basil,  a  king,  and  were  very 
popular  in  the  Koman  empire  at  the  time 
when  the  great  persecutions  occurred. 
Basilica  and  Basilca  appear  to  be  variants 
of  Basilia  or  Basil issa ;  the  «  and  the  / 
seem  to  have  been  doubled  or  loft  single 
in  the  calendars,  at  the  discretion  of  the 
copyist.  Basa  may  have  been  a  separate 
name,  but  the  SS.  BASA,  Sept.  21  and 
Aug.  21,  are  identified  with  the  SS. 
BASSA  of  those  dates.  Basta  is  perhaps 
a  clerical  error  for  Bassa. 

St.  Bassa  (l),  or  BASA,  Aug.  21, 
M.  at  Edessa,  in  Syria,  in  the  tenth 
persecution,  end  of  ttrd  or  beginning  of 
4th  century,  under  Maximian. 

The  Roman  Martyrology  says  that  she 
encouraged  her  three  sons  in  their  Chris 
tian  profession  and  martyrdom,  and, 
having  sent  them  before  her  to  receive 
the  palm,  she  was  beheaded  and  followed 
them  joyfully. 

The  Menoloyy  of  Baxil,  and  the  account 
given  by  Pinius  the  Bollandist,  say 
further  that  she  was  the  wife  of  a  heathen 
priest  named  Valerius,  who  accused  her 
and  her  sons  before  the  prefect  as  Chris 
tians.  The  sons,  whose  names  were 
Theognes  or  Theogonius,  Agapius,  and 
Fidelis  or  Pistis,  one  by  one  underwent 
the  most  horrible  tortures,  one  being 
flayed,  another  torn  to  pieces,  while  their 
mother  stood  by  and  encouraged  them 
to  endure  to  the  end.  Having  seen  them 
all  die  triumphantly  rather  than  give  up 
their  religion,  Bassa  endured  indescrib 
able  torments,  but  was  miraculously  pre 
served  from  injury.  At  last  the  baffled 
prefect  had  her  thrown  into  the  sea, 
whereupon  angels  took  her  in  a  boat  to 
the  island  of  Halo,  in  the  Hellespont. 
Her  wonderful  escapes  were  related  to 
Philip,  an  officer  of  the  government  in 
Greece,  with  the  representation  that  a 
woman  who  had  practised  so  many  sor 
ceries  should  not  be  suffered  to  live.  So 
he  sent  and  had  her  beheaded.  Her 
sous  are  honoured  with  her.  Pinius  says 
their  martyrdom  may  have  taken  place 
at  Larissa,  instead  of  Edessa.  R.M. 
AA.SS.  Men.  Uasil. 

St.  Bassa  (2;,  March  <>,  M.     Wife  of 


ST.    HATI!IU>K 


105 


St.  Cluiulian.  They  were  tortured  and 
imprisoned  with  SS.  \  ictor  and  A  ic- 
turiuus,  and  all  died  in  prison  in  the 
course  of  three  years,  either  at  Apamea 
n  Nicomedia,  cities  of  Bithynia.  R.M. 
SS. 

St.  Bassa  (:J),  Aug.  K>,  with  SS. 
PAI'I.A  ami  Ac ATHONICA,  VV.  MM.  at 
Carthage.  KM.  AA.SS. 

St.  Bassa  ( 4),  BASA  (1). 

SS.  Bassa  <  5-9  >.  Besides  the  above, 
five  appear  as  martyrs. 

St.  Bassenes.    Sec  FAITH,  HOPE,  and 

<  'll  \l;l  IV. 

St.  Bassila,  or  BASILISSA,  or  BAS- 
SILLA,  Fob.  17,  M.  at  Home,  with  many 
others.  AA.SS. 

St.  Bassilia,  Feb.  2S,  M.  with  many 
others.  AA.SS. 

St.  Basta,  Aug.  in,  V.  M.  at  Car 
thage.  Perhaps  the  same  as  BASSA,  com 
memorated  on  this  day  with  PAULA  and 
AGATHOMCA. 

St.  Bathilde  ( 1  ),  Jan.  20,  3o. 
•f  ''••"».  i  BADECHILD,  BALDECHILD,  BALD- 
HII.I),  B A  i. TILDA,  BAUDOUK,  BAUDURIA, 
HIKULT,  BAUTOUR,  BETILDA,  VAR- 
I'.rm.is.  i  Queen  of  France.  Patron  and 
founder  of  the  abbeys  of  Chelles  and 
Corbie. 

Represented  as  queen  and  nun,  with  a 
ladder,  in  allusion  to  a  vision,  or  as  a  pun 
upon  the  word  Chelles  (echette,  a  ladder ). 

Wife  of  Clovis  II.  (G.'J8-05(j),  and 
mother  of  Clothaire  III.,  Childeric  II., 
and  Thierry  III. 

<  >t  ( 'lovis  II.  the  Chronicle  of  St.  Denis 
says,  "  Jji  crxtui  roy  Loys  puet  />«  plux 
ilin-  <!>•  inn!  <ine  de  mal  quc  de  bien"  He 
was  tolerably  devout,  but  had  so  many 
vices  that  they  eclipsed  his  virtues:  ho 
waH  drunken,  gluttonous,  and  dissolute. 
His  wife  was  '•</•  H-jmnje  Saisoigne,  Bau- 
tlii'iit  limit  non,  sainte  dame  ct  reliyicuse 
>t  ji/niiH  <l,  \,\  y,  mar  nostre  Sell/Hour;  et 
/••it  «n</,'  tin  an'  ft  de  grant  biaute,  *i  fu 
cellc  qn  I'm  <lif  *  i!,,te  Jtautlricutde  Chelle." 
»Sho  was  a  slave  in  the  house  of  Erkon- 
w:ild  or  Archibald,  mayor  of  the  palace, 
who  married  her  to  Clovis  as  soon  as  he 
was  grown  up.  According  to  Sismondi, 
she  had  refused  to  become  the  mistress 
"1  Erkonwald.  Sim  is  claimed  by  the 
-lish  hagiographers  as  an  Anglo- 
•11  lady  of  rank,  carried  oft'  by  pirates, 


and  sold  in  France  to  Krkonwald's  first 
\\iic,  on  whose  death  Krkonwald  pro- 
post -d  to  marry  Bathilde,  but  she  fled, 
and  only  returned  to  his  service  when  ho 
hud  married  again.  Others  say  she  was 
daughter  of  a  king  in  Germany,  and  was 
carried  captive  in  war  by  Clovis.  As  a 
fact,  her  origin  is  unknown.  Mezeray 
observes  on  this  point  that  when  one  has 
risen  to  high  rank,  "  on  n'a  qu'a  chfnsir  lit 
race  dont  on  veut  etre  dencendu." 

Slaves  were  publicly  sold  in  the  market 
at  St.  Denis  near  the  abbey.  The  traffic 
was  protected  by  the  abbot.  When  Ba 
thilde  became  queen  she  enacted  laws  to 
mitigate  the  condition  of  slaves,  and  to 
prevent  Christians  being  sold  as  such. 

One  day  Clovis  II.  went  to  the  abbey 
of  St.  Denis  to  see  the  holy  relics.  Not 
content  with  looking  at  them,  he  wished 
to  have  one  to  wear,  and  therefore  broko 
off  a  bone  of  the  arm  of  St.  Denis.  The 
same  hour  the  king  was  struck  with  mad 
ness.  To  appease  the  offended  saint,  he 
gave  him  several  towns,  and  had  the  bone 
covered  with  pure  gold  and  gems,  and 
put  back.  He  recovered  his  memory, 
and  lived  two  years  more,  but  was  never 
the  same  man  again. 

After  his  death,  in  bV>»>,  Bathilde  was 
Regent  for  some  years.  She  was  uni 
versally  respected,  but  she  seems  to  have 
confined  her  attention  to  matters  ecclesi 
astical  and  religious,  leaving  secular 
affairs  mainly  in  the  hands  of  the  mayors 
of  the  palace.  She  succeeded,  however, 
in  relieving  the  poor  people  from  some 
of  their  grievances,  especially  a  capitation 
tax,  which  caused  great  misery.  She  is 
a  remarkable  instance  of  a  woman  raised 
from  the  lowest  to  the  highest  station, 
acting  invariably  with  conscientious  dis 
cretion,  sympathizing  with  those  whose 
sufferings  she  had  once  known,  generous 
and  kind  to  all,  the  friend  of  the  best  and 
greatest  men  of  her  time. 

liathildc's  great  devotion  to  St.  Eloy, 
goldsmith,  prime  minister,  and  bishop, 
was  probably  inspired  by  his  kindness 
to  Saxon  slaves,  as  well  as  by  his  other 
saintly  qualities.  In  tJ.V.i  she  heard  he 
was  dying.  She  hastened  to  Noyon, 
with  the  little  kings,  the  court,  and  a 
crowd  of  nobles,  who  had  a  great  affection 
for  the  venerable  prelate.  They  hoped 


100 


ST.   BATHILDE 


to  receive  his  blessing,  but  to«  their  great 
grief  he  was  already  dead  when  they 
arrived.  The  queen,  in  the  depth  of  her 
sorrow,  had  only  the  consolation  of  un 
covering  and  reverently  kissing  the  dead 
face.  She  wished  to  bury  him  in  her 
monastery  of  Choi  les.  The  nobles  wanted 
to  have  him  laid  in  their  capital.  The 
clergy  and  people  of  Noyon  considered 
him  their  own  saint,  and  refused  to  give 
up  the  sacred  remains.  The  departed 
bishop  declared  for  his  own  flock,  for 
when  the  coffin  was  to  be  taken  away,  it 
was  found  impossible  to  move  it.  As  he 
was  to  be  buried  in  the  monastery  of  St. 
Loup  (afterwards  called  St.  Eloi),  Ba- 
thildo  insisted  on  accompanying  the 
funeral  cnrte.ye  on  foot,  and  would  not 
mount  the  horse  provided  for  her. 

Her  three  sons,  like  the  rest  of  the 
faineant  kings,  were  puppets  in  the  hands 
of  the  mayors  of  the  palace,  who  divided 
the  three  kingdoms  among  their  nominal 
masters,  dethroning  or  reinstating  them 
at  will,  and  quarrelling  and  fighting  for 
their  own  interests  all  the  time.  The 
most  distinct  account  I  have  met  with  of 
these  faineant  reigns  is  in  Mezeray's 
History  of  France. 

To  quote  again  the  Chronicle  of  St. 
Denis — 

"Des  lors  commenga  li  roianmc  de 
France  a  abeisser  et  a  decheoir  et  li  Roi 
a  fourlignier  du  sens  et  de  la  puissance 
de  leur  anccssours.  Si  estoit  le  roiaumes 
gouvernez  par  Chambellenz  et  par  Con- 
nestables  qui  estoient  apele  Maistre  du 
palais  ne  li  lloi  n'avoient  tant  seulement 
quo  le  non,  ne  de  riens  ne  servoient  fors 
de  boire  et  de  mengier.  En  un  chastel 
ou  en  un  manon  demouroient  toute  1'anee 
jusques  aus  Kal  de  May.  Lors  issoient 
hors  en  un  chaarz  pour  saluer  le  pueple, 
et  pour  estre  salue  d'eulz,  dons  et  presens 
prenoient,  et  aucuns  en  rendoient,  puiz 
retournoient  a  Fostel  et  estoient  einssi 
jusqu'  aus  autres  Kal  de  May." 

It  was  during  Bathilde's  regency  that 
Corbie,  a  great  estate  in  Picardy,  reverted 
to  the  Crown.  It  had  been  given  to 
Gontland,  a  Frank,  but  feudal  grants 
were  not  yet  hereditary,  and  on  his  death 
it  became  the  property  of  the  three  little 
imbecile  kings.  For  their  souls,  the  soul 
of  their  mad  father,  her  own  soul,  and 


the  good  of  the  people,  Bathilde  built  at 
Corbie  the  famous  monastery  of  St.  Peter, 
for  monks  under  the  rule  of  St.  Colum- 
banus. 

During  her  husband's  life  she  had 
magnificently  refounded  the  abbey  of 
St.  George  at  Chellcs  on  the  Marne, 
about  ten  miles  from  Paris.  It  was  first 
founded  by  ST.  CLOTILDA  ( 1  ).  After 
some  years  of  regency,  Bathilde  retired 
from  the  cares  of  government,  and  placed 
herself  under  ST.  BERTILLA,  whom  she 
had  appointed  Abbess  of  Chelles.  Sho 
declined  any  distinction  as  queen  or 
foundress,  but  swept  the  cloisters  and 
worked  in  the  kitchen  like  the  humblest 
nun.  On  her  death-be;!  she  was  cheered 
with  a  vision  of  a  luminous  ladder,  which 
angels  were  calling  her  to  ascend. 

Her  name  is  in  the  .R.Jf.,  Jan.  2<> ;  in 
the  French  Mart.,  Jan.  MO.  Sismondi, 
Histoirc  dcs  Francai*.  Le  Glay,  La  Gaulv 
Belyique.  Chronicle  of  St.  Denix.  Meze- 
ray,  Life  of  St.  Bertlta,  and  other  saints 
of  the  period,  given  by  Bouquet,  Butler, 
Baillet,  and  the  other  collectors  of  Lives 
of  Saint*. 

St.  Bathilde  ('2),  or  RADEGUXD  (2  ),  of 
Chelles.  -f  <.-.  <>?!>. 

SS.  Bathusa  and  Verca,  MM. 
c.  :-J70,  in  Gothia,  now  Roumania.  Mas 
Latrie,  Tre'sor. 

St.  Battona.  A  name  erroneously 
given  to  ST.  DOMINICA  of  Tropea. 

St.  Baudegonde,  BALDEGUND. 

St.  Baudour,  BATHILDE  (1). 

St.  Bauduria,  BATHILDE  (1). 

St.  Baula,  Sept.  27.  Coptic  Calendar. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Bausame,  BALSAMIA.     AA.SS. 

St.  Bauterina,  Jan.  1  s,  M.  at  Avitina. 
AA.88. 

St.  Bauthieult,  BATHILDE  (1). 

St.  Bautour,  BATHILDE  (1). 

St.  Bauzanne,  BALSAMIA. 

St.  Baya,  VEY. 

St.  Bazalota,  Juno  <l.  4th  century. 
Nun  in  Abyssinia.  Sister  of  St.  Michael, 
a  venerable  old  priest.  Commemorated 
with  him  and  ST.  EUPHEMIA  in  the  Abys 
sinian  Hagiology.  Papebroch,  in  AA.SS. 

St.  Bazilia.    .SV<-  SILA. 

St.  Beata  <  1 ),  March  8  (BAKOMIA, 
BEUA,  BKHKMA,  BKKOMA,  BIRONA,  or 
BOKKMA  »,  M.  in  Africa  with  St.  Cyril, 


B.   BEATRICE   D'ESTE 


107 


bishop,  the  holy  women  HKKKMA  and 
FKLKMTAS,  and  other  martyrs.  P.M. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Beata  <  -),  BKNKDK  TA. 

St.   Beatrice  (1),  Jan.  2'.',  July  L".' 

(1JKATIMX,    VlATBIX  i,   V.   M.       303. 

Kepresented  holding  a  rope  in  her  left 
hand  and  a  candle  in  her  right.  (Husen- 
beth,  from  MS.  "Hours.") 

A  Roman  maiden.  Sister  of  the 
martyrs  Simplicius  and  Fauslinus,  whom 
she  buried  in  the  Via  Portuensi.  She 
was  strangled  by  the  servants  in  her 
own  house,  by  order  of  Lucretius,  to 
whom  she  was  betrothed,  and  who  had 
denounced  her  as  a  Christian,  that  he 
might  seize  on  her  wealth.  She  was 
buried  by  ST.  LUCINA,  with  whom  she 
had  lived  for  seven  months.  While 
Lucretius  was  feasting  with  his  friends 
and  speaking  in  an  insulting  manner  of 
the  Christian  martyrs,  ho  heard  a  voice 
say,  "  Hear,  O  Lucretius,  thou  hast 
killed  and  taken  possession,  therefore 
th«  u  art  «:iveii  into  the  hands  of  the 
enemy."  He  turned  pale  and  trembled, 
the  devil  entered  into  him  and  vexed 
him  for  three  hours,  and  then  he  died. 
All  the  guests  were  so  terrified  that  they 
became  ( 'hi  istians,  and  told  every  one 
how  St.  Beatrice  had  been  avenged. 
The  ].«!>/<  it>l<ir<<>  says  the  mysterious 
voice  was  that  of  an  infant  whom  a 
woman  was  nursing  as  she  stood  among 
the  crowd.  The  church  of  Bethersdeu, 
in  Kent,  is  the  only  one  in  England 
dedicated  in  honour  of  St.  Beatrice.  P.M., 
July  2'.'.  Ma  lit/mm  Art,/.  Villegas. 

St.  Beatrice  (2),  or  BOZENA,  Nov. 
1 .:.  1  2th  or  early  1  :>th  century.  Bozena 
was  probably  her  Bohemian  name,  that 
of  Beatrice  she  most  likely  adopted  on 
taking  the  veil.  Her  father,  Sezima, 
belonged  to  one  of  the  most  noble  and 
powerful  families  of  Bohemia,  the  Counts 
of  (Juttcnstein  and  the  (  Wilts  of  Wrtby. 
Her  mother  was  I  Jobroslava,  of  the  family 
of  the  Cernine.  Her  brother  Hrosnata 
is  one  of  the  famous  saints  and  patrons 
of  Bohemia;  he  built,  in  11SMI,  a 
monastery  of  the  Promionstrateusian 
Order.  These  saints  are  supposed  to 
have  1,,  .n  born  at  Tepl.  Beatrice  had  a 
sister  WOYSI.AVA,  a  holy  widow,  and  two 
unmarried  sisters,  Bohuslawa  and  Judith, 


who  became  nuns  with  her  in  the 
monastery  of  Chotiessow.  The  dates  of 
her  birth  and  death  are  not  known. 
Hrosnata  died  at  an  advanced  age  in 
1217.  The  Bollandists  promise  a  J 
of  Beatrice  on  her  day.  The  above  is 
from  their  Lift-  of  St.  HroBnatn,  July  4, 
and  H.  J.  Karlik's  Hroznata  und  die 
Pn'iiuoiixti'iift  //x-  /•  Al'f'-I  Tf'pl. 

B.  Beatrice  (:i;  d'Este,  May  in,  V. 
l_'i  Mi- 124»5.  Three  women  of  this  name 
and  family  are  honoured  for  their 
sanctity;  they  all  lived  in  the  i::th 
century.  This  one  was  daughter  of  Azo, 
first  Marquis  of  Este,  Lord  of  Ancona, 
Ferrara,  Verona,  etc.  Her  mother  was 
the  Princess  Leonora,  daughter  of 
Thomas  III.,  of  Savoy.  Beatrice  was 
born  in  the  Castle  of  Este.  At  the  ago 
of  fourteen  she  became  a  nun  in  the- 
convent  of  St.  Margaret,  at  Solarola,  near 
Este.  When  she  had  been  there  a  year 
and  a  half,  finding  the  place  liable  to  be 
disturbed  by  soldiers,  she  removed,  with 
the  approbation  of  the  Bishop  of  Padua, 
to  the  monastery  of  St.  John  the  Baptist 
at  Gemmola,  or  Demola,  in  his  diocese. 
It  had  been  deserted  by  monks.  She 
restored  it  for  herself  and  her  com 
panions,  with  the  help  of  her  brother 
Azo.  B.  JULIANA  OF  Cm.i.Ai/ro  was  one 
of  ten  nuns  who  settled  with  her  at 
Gemmola.  Some  money  was  found  on 
the  altar,  and  although  there  was  nono 
but  that  in  the  house,  Beatrice  gave  it 
away  in  alms,  lest  it  should  bo  a  begin 
ning  of  avarice  in  the  community.  Six 
years  after  her  death  her  body  and  the 
epitaph  were  translated  to  the  church  of 
St.  Sophia  at  Padua.  For  many  years 
afterwards  it  was  observed  that  when 
ever  anything  important  was  about  to- 
happen  in  the  family  of  Este,  she  turned 
round  in  her  place,  and  a  great  noise 
was  heard  in  the  chapel.  Bucelinus, 
Men.  />»//.,  May  In,  and  Lifr  of  B. 
Juli'iiKi  <>f  Cnllalto,  Sept.  1.  Bucolinus. 
gives  122<»  as  her  date,  but  I  think  it  is 
the  date  of  her  taking  the  veil.  Her 
name  does  not  appear  in  the  Roman. 
Miii-tyralo'jii,  but  her  nieeo  ami  namesake 
i-  <all«l  "Blessed  Beatrice  Estcw 
S>  «•////»/./,"  implying  that  the  aunt  is  tho 
first.  Muratori,  /I ////>//////  />•/.  »«<'.  Pape- 
i.  in  I  I  s  v 


108 


B.   BEATRICE   D'ESTE 


B.  Beatrice  (4)  d'Este,  Jan.  18, 
Feb.  28.  f  12<>2  or  127<».  Niece  of 
BEATRICE  (3).  Daughter  of  Azo,  second 
Marquis  of  Ferrara,  Mantua,  Verona, 
and  Ancona.  Her  mother  was  Joanna, 
sister  of  Robert,  King  of  Apulia.  He 
must  have  been  one  of  the  Norman  dukes 
of  Apulia,  probably  the  last  before  the 
absorption  of  the  dukedom  into  the 
kingdom  of  Naples  in  1265.  Beatrice 
walked  from  her  childhood  in  the  steps 
of  her  blessed  aunt  of  the  same  name. 
She  had  many  suitors,  among  whom  her 
father  chose  Galeazzo  Manfredi,  Lord  of 
Vicenza  and  Verardino.  Preparations 
were  made  for  a  grand  and  gay  wedding. 
Beatrice  was  sent  off  with  a  train  of 
noble  ladies  and  gentlemen  to  meet  her 
bridegroom.  When  they  arrived  at 
Milan,  a  messenger  met  them  with  the 
sad  news  that  Galeazzo  had  just  died  of 
wounds  received  in  battle.  The  wedding 
party  sadly  took  their  way  back  to 
Ferrara,  but  the  bride  would  not  re-enter 
the  city  or  return  to  the  life  she  had  left. 
She  stopped  at  St.  Lazarus,  near  Ferrara. 
She  changed  her  gay  attire  for  the  dress 
of  the  poor  people,  and  said  she  would 
now  choose  a  husband  of  whom  no 
earthly  accident  could  deprive  her. 
Seven  noble  maidens,  who  had  been  the 
companions  of  her  brilliant  wedding 
journey,  and  four  of  her  serving-women, 
volunteered  to  remain  with  her.  They 
were  joined  by  so  many  others  that  the 
place  was  too  small,  and  Azo  built  and 
endowed  a  new  Benedictine  monastery 
for  her,  with  the  approbation  of  the  Pope. 
It  was  at  first  dedicated  in  the  name  of 
St.  Stephen  de  Rupta,  but  was  afterwards 
called  St.  Anthony's.  Beatrice  took  the 
veil  in  1254,  and  lived  there  fifteen  years 
with  great  austerity,  piety,  and  charity. 
She  died  Jan.  18,  1270,  and  was  imme 
diately  honoured  as  a  saint.  Her 
worship  was  approved  by  Clement  XIV. 
(17IJK-1775).  Pius  VI.  (1775-1800) 
conceded  a  festival,  Jan.  1 1),  with  office 
und  Mass.  Her  name  is  in  the  Bene- 
(lictuif  Appendix  to  the  Roman  Nartyro- 
loyy  as  "The  second  Blessed  Beatrice 
of  Este,  Virgin,"  Jan.  18  and  Feb.  28. 
AA.SS.  Boll.,  Jan.,  vol.  ii.,  Add<'n<l«, 
and  Jan.  18.  Officia  Propria  Sanctorum 
Etrurise,  etc.,  prayers  and  lessons  for 


Jan.    1!>.      Bucelinus,    Men.    Ben..,  Jan. 

18. 

B.  Beatrice  (5)  d'Este,  July  ll. 
13th  century.  Queen  of  Hungary.  The 
third  B.  Beatrice  of  Este  was  daughter 
of  Aldobrandino,  Marquis  of  Este,  who 
died  when  she  was  a  child,  and  she  w;is 
adopted  by  his  brother,  Azo  VII.  She 
was  about  sixteen  when,  in  1234,  she 
became  the  third  wife  of  her  cousin 
Andrew  II.,  King  of  Hungary,  an  old 
man  and  the  father  of  ST.  ELIZABETH  of 
Thuringia.  His  family  were  much  dis 
pleased,  as  they  did  not  wish  him  to  have 
a  son  by  his  young  wife.  Before  long 
he  died.  His  posthumous  son  Stephen 
was  brought  up  at  Este,  and  married 
successively  two  Italian  ladies,  by  one 
of  whom  he  had  a  son,  Andrew  III., 
King  of  Hungary,  father  of  another  ST. 
ELIZABETH  (17).  Beatrice  became  a  nun 
at  Gemmola.  The  Bollandists  say  there 
is  no  authority  for  the  worship  of  this 
one.  She  is  called  "  Blessed  "  by  Wion 
and  a  few  other  writers.  AA.SS. 
Muratori,  Antichita  Estensi,  I.  41!»,  ft 
seq. ;  Mailath,  Hist,  of  Hunyary,  i.  171. 

B.  Beatrice  (6),  March  12, 13.  Pra- 
monstratensian  nun  at  Porto,  Angelica, 
on  the  Moselle,  in  the  diocese  of  Treves. 
The  Bollandists  could  not  discover  her 
history.  They  found  she  was  mentioned 
by  Galenius  and  in  the  records  of  the 
order.  Saussaye,  Murtyrologiuw  Gfdli- 
canum,  March  12.  Natolibus.  Lo 
Paige,  Billiothcca  Prsemonstratensii  Or- 
dinis,  and  Annotations  to  Baronius. 

B.  Beatrice  (7),  Feb.  28,  July  2<>. 
•f  1203  or  12»)8.  First  Prioress  of  the 
Cistercian  monastery  of  Nazareth,  near 
Lira,  in  Brabant.  She  was  horn  at 
Tillemont,  on  the  Geta,  in  Brabant. 
Her  parents,  Bartholomew  and  Gertrude, 
were  rich  and  devout.  At  the  age  of 
seven  she  joined  the  Beguines  for  a 
year.  Her  father  afterwards  placed  her 
in  the  monastery  of  Vallis  Florida.  Shu 
kept  her  spirit  pure  by  torturing  her 
body :  she  tied  ropes  tightly  round  her, 
wore  a  girdle  of  thorns,  and  otherwise 
shone  in  self-torture.  She  was  sorely 
tried  by  the  fear  of  death,  which  she 
strove  in  vain  to  overcome.  Christ 
pierced  her  heart  with  a  fiery  dart,  and 
told  her  that  He  loved  her  especially 


B.   BEATRICE   DE   SILV  \ 


KM) 


among  all  hnman  creatures.  Long  after 
lu T  death,  in  a  time  of  disturbance,  the 
nuns  fled  from  Nazareth  to  Lira. 
11 -atriet:'s  lnulv  was  left  walled  up  at 
N:i /a re th,  but  was  carried  by  angels  to 
Lira,  in  1  ''I*;,  for  safety, — as  was  proved 
by  the  fact  that  several  persons  heard 
music  and  saw  a  light  in  the  middle  of 
tin  night.  Gertrude  do  Greve  was 
abbess  at  the  time.  AA.SS.  Boll., 
lulv  _"•',  Prteter.  Bucelinus,  Jl/r/i.  //»•//., 
Feb.  2S.  Henriquez,  Lilia,  July  29. 
Hii'_f<>  M'Mrird,  Mart.  Ben.,  gives  her  day 
as  July  27,  and  places  her  death  in  l'J''>^. 
Her  /.//'  is  said  to  be  in  Mirasus's  Chron. 
/•••//. 

B.  Beatrice  (s),  HAVYDIS. 

B.  Beatrice  (9)  d'Ornacieux, 
Feb.  1.5.  "\  i;Ji>5.  Carthusian  nun  at 
I'armenie,  in  the  diocese  of  Grenoble. 
It  -presented  hammering  a  nail  into  her 
left  hand,  in  order  t )  share  the  sufferings 
>t  Christ.  Her  immemorial  worship 
was  confirmed  by  Pius  IX.  in  1809. 
Aaudecta  Juris  Pontificii,  series  xi.  204. 
(Sillier,  CaracMrisliques. 

B.  Beatrice  (!<>)»  Nov-  <>•  Nun  in 
tin.:  Cistercian  monastery  of  the  Blessed 
Viririn  Mary  of  Olivet,  near  Mari- 
nnmtiura,  in  'Hainault.  She  was  ex 
tremely  beautiful.  Her  beauty  was  a 
snare-  to  herself  and  to  an  unworthy 
\>ri- -*t  who  ministered  at  the  house. 
Sin-  w.is  keeper  of  the  oratory,  and  had 
a  considerable  devotion  to  the  B.  V. 
Mary.  When  she  determined  to  elope 
with  the  priest,  she  laid  the  keys  on 
tin:  altar,  saying,  "I  have  served  you 
faithfully.  Here  I  give  up  my  charge 
and  give  you  back  your  keys.  I  am 
going  where  my  inclinations  call  me." 
.She  went  oil'  with  the  priest,  who  soon 
deserted  her.  She  had  nothing  to  live 
on,  and  was  ashamed  to  return  to  her 
eonvent,  so  she  led  a  sinful  life  for 
fifteen  years.  At  last,  hankering  after 
tin  b.-tter  life  she  had  loft,  she  wont  to 
•()  of  her  old  home  and  asked  the 
portcivss  if  sho  remembered  Sister 
•,  th«  keeper  of  the  oratory. 
was  the  reply,  "I  knew  her  and 
know  ln-r  very  well  ;  she  is  a  holy 
woman  IH-IYJ  t>  this  day."  Beatrice  did 
not  undiTstand,  and  was  going  away, 
but  th:  IJ.  V.  Mary,  to  whom  she  had 


commended  herself  and  given  up  tho 
keys,  said  to  her,  "I  have  done  your 
work  and  saved  your  character  all  these 
years.  Now  come  back  and  do  pen 
ance."  Sho  did  so,  and  lived  several 
years  in  holy  penitence  and  died  in 
tho  odour  of  sanctity.  Henriquez,  Li  I  in 
Cistercii.  Bucelinus,  Men.  Ben.,  Nov. 
o.  The  Bollandists  promise  her  Life 
when  their  calendar  comes  down  to  her 
day. 

B.  Beatrice  ( 1 1 )  Casata,  March  20. 
"(•  141"  i.  The  Casati  were  an  old  family 
of  Milan.  Beatrice  married  Franchino, 
Count  of  Rusca,  or  Rasconia.  In  her 
widowhood  she  was  distinguished  for 
piety  and  unworldliness.  She  died. 
March  20,  1490.  Her  bones  were 
honourably  translated  from  an  old  to  a 
new  convent  at  Milan,  in  1351.  Hen- 
schouius  could  not  ascertain  whether  this 
was  on  the  ground  of  her  sanctity  or 
only  of  her  rank.  Sho  was  said  to  have 
wrought  several  miracles  both  before 
and  after  her  death.  Sho  is  com 
memorated  in  the  Franciscan  Martyroloyy. 
AA.SS.  Boll.,  July  17,  Prseter.  Gcbet- 
Bucli,  O.S.F.,  Dec.  19.  Mentioned  in 
the  Life  of  B.  Pnulnntia,  May  0,  AA.SS. 
Boll. 

B.  Beatrice  (12)  de  Silva,  Sept.  1, 
Oct.  S.  •{•  1490.  In  Portuguese  she  is 
called  BHITKS.  Founder  of  tho  Franciscan 
Order  of  tho  Conception  of  our  Lady* 
Daughter  of  Gomez  do  Silva,  governor  of 
Carnpo  Mayor  and  Onguela,  and  of  Isabel 
Menez.  Sister  of  James,  first  Count  of 
Portalegre,  and  of  B.  Amadeo,  founder  of 
the  Amadeists.  She  was  related  to  tho 
royal  family  of  Portugal.  When  Isabel, 
daughter  of  Edward,  King  of  Portugal 
(14:j:;-l-l:5S),  married  John  II.,  King  of 
Castile  (1400-1454),  Beatrice  accom 
panied  her  to  that  kingdom.  This  was 
about  1442.  Her  beauty  procured  her 
a  great  deal  of  attention  at  tho  Spanish 
court.  Numerous  duels  wore  fought  on 
account  of  her.  She  had  many  offers 
of  marriage,  and  the  king  admired  her 
too  much.  Tho  queen,  being  jealous, 
imprisoned  her  in  her  own  room,  and 
left  her  three  days  without  food.  While 
praying  for  life  and  iunoceucy,  sho 
received  a  promise  of  protection  from, 
the  1).  V.  MAKV,  whom  she  saw  in  ft 


110 


B.   BEATRICE 


blue  cloak  and  white  gown,  as  she  is 
represented  in  the  pictures  of  the 
Immaculate  Conception.  As  soon  as 
she  was  released,  she  fled  to  Toledo. 
On  the  way  thither  she  was  surprised  to 
hear  herself  addressed  in  her  native 
language  by  two  Franciscan  monks.  At 
first  she  supposed  the  queen  had  sent 
them  to  bring  her  back,  but  she  found 
that  one  of  them  was  St.  Anthony  of 
Padua.  When  they  had  promised  that 
she  should  be  the  spiritual  mother  of 
many  holy  women,  they  disappeared. 
She  shilt  herself  up  in  a  Dominican  con 
vent  at  Toledo  for  forty  years,  seeing  no 
one  but  Queen  Isabel  the  Catholic,  wife 
of  Ferdinand  of  Aragon,  and  daughter 
of  the  king  and  queen  from  whom 
Beatrice  had  fled  in  her  youth.  She 
designed  a  new  order  in  honour  of  the 
'Conception.  The  queen  used  her  in 
fluence  to  have  it  approved  by  the  Pope, 
and  gave  her,  in  1484,  the  palace  of 
Galliana  for  a  convent.  It  took  its 
name  from  the  chapel  of  St.  Faith,  that 
belonged  to  the  palace.  Although  the 
rule  was  Franciscan,  the  first  sisters 
were  twelve  of  her  fellow-nuns  in  the 
Dominican  house  where  she  had  lived 
so  long.  The  institute  was  approved  by 
Innocent  VIII.  in  1 489.  Cardinal  Xime- 
nes,  O.S.F.,  had  this  order  united  to  the 
Clares,  whose  rule  they  adopted  with 
certain  mitigations.  In  1511  Pope 
Julius  II.  gave  the  Conceptionists  a  par 
ticular  rule,  leaving  them  still  incor 
porated  with  the  Clares.  Beatrice  died 
Sept.  1,  149o,  ten  days  before  the  time 
appointed  for  the  solemn  inauguration 
of  her  order.  She  is  much  honoured  in 
Spain,  and  her  Life  has  been  written  by 
Bivar  and  others.  One  of  the  peculiar 
austerities  of  this  branch  of  the  Order  of 
St.  Francis  was  that  after  their  profession, 
the  nuns  were  never  again  allowed  to 
speak  to  any  secular  person,  even  their 
nearest  relations.  There  was  a  house 
of  the  order  at  Rome  in  1525,  and  one 
at  Milan  in  1,5!>9.  Bucelinus,  Men.  Ben., 
Oct.  8,  claims  her  as  a  Benedictine. 
Henriquez  places  her  among  the  Cister 
cians,  but  she  was  for  more  than  half 
<her  life  a  Dominican  nun,  and  her  own 
order  was  Franciscan. 

Heylot, Ilistoi  redes  Ordres  Monastiyues, 


vii.    40.     Analecta   Juris   Pontificii,    iii. 
.549.     Butler,  "  St.  Francis,"  note. 

B.  Beatrice  (13),  Nov.  26.  t  i:'(>:'- 
One  of  the  first  nuns  of  the  Dominican 
convent  of  ST.  CATHKKIM:  <>r  SIKNA,  at 
Ferrara.  When  the  cemetery  was  being 
made,  she  got  into  a  grave  and  lay  down 
straight  and  still  as  if  she  were  dead. 
The  other  nuns  asked  her  why  she  did  so. 
She  said  because  she  was  destined  to  be 
the  first  person  buried  in  the  new  ceme- 
try,  which  proved  to  be  true.  Pio  says 
she  took  the  habit  at  an  early  age,  led  an 
angelic  life,  and  was  very  young  when 
she  died.  Eazzi,  Predicatpri.  Pio, 
Hist.  Doin.  Manoel  de  Lima,  A<ji»L 
Dom. 

B.  Beatrice  (14')  of  St.  Francis, 
Nov.  15,  Sept.  2.  16th  century.  During 
the  life  of  her  husband  she  belonged  to 
the  Third  Order  of  Minorites.  She  re 
fused  a  good  offer  of  a  second  marriage. 
She  built  the  Franciscan  convent  of  Villa 
Longa,  near  Lisbon,  giving  it  the  name 
of  Our  Lady  of  the  Powers.  She  was 
consecrated  a  nun  by  Mark  of  Lisbon, 
Bishop  of  Porto.  She  was  still  living  in 
1566.  The  Bollandists  promise  her  Life,' 
Nov.  15.  She  is  mentioned  in  the  Fran 
ciscan  Prayer-book,  Sept.  2. 

Beatrice  (M5 )  of  the  Incarnation, 
May  5.  •)•  157.'>  or  1574.  Carmelite 
nun  under  ST.  THEHESA.  Her  name  was 
BEATKIZ  OXES,  spelt  and  called  in  French 
OGNEZ.  She  was  of  noble  birth,  a  native 
of  Arroyo,  near  Santa  Gadea,  and  made 
her  profession  in  the  monastery  of  Our 
Lady  of  Mount  Carmel  at  Valladolid, 
on  Sept.  17,  157n.  The  prioress  and  all 
the  nuns  declared  that  during  the  three 
years  she  lived  with  them  they  never 
saw  in  her  anything  with  which  fault 
could  be  found.  Great  outward  and 
inward  tranquillity  arose  from  her  being 
constantly  in  prayer  and  thanksgiving. 
Once  when  two  men  were  condemned  to 
be  burnt  for  atrocious  crimes,  she  was 
filled  with  compassion  for  their  souls, 
and  prayed  that  she  might  suffer  their 
bodily  penalty,  and  that  their  souls 
might  bo  saved.  The  same  night  she 
was  seized  with  agonizing  pain,  that 
continued  as  long  as  she  lived.  "  The 
criminals  made  a  good  death,  which 
seems  to  prove,"  says  Theresa,  "  that 


ST.  BEGGA 


111 


God  had  heard  her  prayer."  Beatrice 
showed  great  sweetness,  patience,  and 
rfect  obedience  during  her  illness. 
•  It  is  very  common,"  says  St.  Theresa, 
for  souls  given  to  prayer  to  wish  for 
sufferings  when  they  have  none,  but  it  is 
not  common  for  those  who  have  them  to 
bear  them  and  be  glad."  About  a 
quarter  of  an  hour  before  Beatrice  died 
her  face  shone  and  was  so  full  of  joy 
that  all  present  thought  they  were  in 
beaven.  A  very  sweet  scent  nrose  from 
her  body  as  it  was  laid  in  the  tomb. 
The  candles  that  were  used  during  the 
funeral  rites  and  burial  suffered  not  the 
least  diminution  of  wax.  Theresa, 
Foundations,  xii. 

B.  Beatrice  <  16)  of  Cantona.     iGth 
century.      Abbess   of  the   nuns  of  the 
Order   of   Christian    Doctrine,    founded 
-.  by  St.  Charles  Borromeo.     Gueiie- 
bault,  Diet,  d'lam. 

St.  Beatte,  BEXEDICTA  (4)  of  Sons. 
St.  Bebea,  BAKBEA. 
St.  Bee  of  Kgremont,  BEGA  (I). 
SS.    Beenan   and   Sara,   Dec.    in, 
MM.  in    Persia.     Their  history  is  pro- 
raised   in    the   coming   volumes   of   the 
AA.SS. 

St.  Bega  (  i  i,  Oct.  ;;i,  Sept.  0  (BEE, 
BI:I>.  Ui.i:/.  BEZ,  BEGAGH, BEGGA,  BEGHA, 
L,  BHEGA,  VAYA,  VKK,  YI:<;A,  VEYA), 
V.  7th  century.  Patron  of  the  north 
west  of  England,  where  she  first  landed  ; 
and  of  Norway.  Probable  patron  of 
places  called  Kilbucho,  Kilbees,  Kilbegie, 
Kilbagie,  etc.,  and  founder  of  a  nunnery 
near  ( 'arlislo,  where  the  priory  of  Cope- 
land  was  afterwards  built. 

legend  is  that  St.  Bega,  commonly 
all-d    ST.    Ui:i:    or   ECJKEMONT,   was   the 
liter  of  an  Irish  king,  and  was  the 
;    beautiful   woman   in   her  country. 
!«•  married  to  the  King  of 
.ay,  but  sin-  had  from  her  infancy 
•1  herself  to  a  religious,  ascetic  life, 
and  in  tok.-n  «,f  her  betrothal  to  Christ 
had  reerivrl   from   an  angel  a  brand* -t 
marked  with  the  sign  of  the  cross.     The 
i.i'_rht  I'lTnn;  her   wedding-day,  while  the 
:ds  and  attendants   were  revelling  or 
lied,    taking    the    bracelet 
i   her.     Finding   i\<>  ship,   she  cut  a 
4»rf,   and   on    it   cn.ssed    tlie  sea   to   the 
'.site  coast.   She  lauded  on  a  pronion- 


tory  in  Cumberland,  then  part  of  the 
kingdom  of  Northumbria.  Here  she 
lived  in  prayer  and  charity  for  a  long 
time,  and  finally  moved  further  inland 
for  fear  of  pirates.  In  the  Middle  Ages 
she  was  especially  appealed  to  against 
oppressors  of  the  poor  and  against 
Scottish  ricvt'i-8.  In  the  12th  century 
her  bracelet  was  kept  as  a  holy  relic, 
on  which  persons  were  called  upon  to 
swear,  as  it  was  believed  that  a  false 
oath  made  on  that  relic  would  be  imme 
diately  exposed  and  incur  a  dreadful 
vengeance.  It  is  not  impossible  that, 
having  moved  inland  for  fear  of  ma 
rauders,  she  went  further  and  further, 
and  finally  settled  on  the  eastern  coast 
of  Northumbria,  where  Christianity  was 
established  and  protected.  On  this  sup 
position  she  is  identified  by  some 
authorities,  among  them  the  Aberdeen 
Breviary,  with  ST.  BEGU  and  ST.  HEIU. 
She  way  be  Begu,  but  I  cannot  see  that 
she  can  be  Heiu  also. 

AA.SS.  Boll.  Brit.  Sancta.  Forbes, 
Scot.  Cal.  Montalembert,  Monks.  Laui- 
gan,  Ecch'8.  Hist.  Butler,  Licm.  Chute- 
lain,  Voc.  1I<"/. 

St.  Bega'c-M,  BEGU. 

St.  Bega  ( :J ),  VEY. 

St.  Begea,  or  Begeus,  Dec.  2:i. 
Abbess  in  Kgypt.  Giry,  Diet.  Hay. 

St.  Begga  ( 1 ),  Dec.  17.  7th  century. 
Patron  of  Auden. 

Represented  ( 1 )  with  a  bear  or  boar, 
to  show  that  she  built  her  church  in  a 
place  previously  the  resort  of  wild  beasts, 
or  in  memory  of  a  tradition  that  her 
grandson,  Charles  Martel,  killed  a  bear 
at  Andeu ;  (2)  with  a  hen  and  seven 
chickens,  or  a  flock  of  ducks  in  a  little 
pool.  (The  site  of  her  churches  is  said 
to  have  been  indicated  to  her  by  seven 
little  animals  grouped  round  their 
mother. )  She  holds  in  her  hand  a  com 
plicated  building  to  represent  the  seven 
churches  that  she  built. 

I'M •urga  was  daughter  of  Pepin  of  Laii- 
don,  mayor  of  the  palace  under  Clothairo 
II.  (<>!:>)  and  Dagobort  I.  <  Kings 

of  France,  and  Sigebert  II.  (ii:is),  King 
of  . \nslrasia.  Her  mother  was  B.  IDA. 
Jl« T  sister  was  the  famous  ST.  CJEltTUUDE 
<>r  \i\  i:  1.1.1 :.  Begga  married  Ansigisilus, 
or  Anchisus,  souoi  SS.  Ar:iulf  aiid  D"i>A. 


112 


ST.  BEGGA 


Arnulf,  or  Arnoul,  was  of  noble' Frankish 
birth.  Ansigisilus  and  Begga  had  a  son, 
Pepin  of  Herstal,  the  second  of  the  three 
great  Pepins,  and  the  father  of  Charles 
Martel.  Ansigisilus  met  his  death  while 
hunting.  Begga  then  made  a  pilgrimage 
to  Rome,  and  on  her  return  built  seven 
chapels  at  Anden  on  the  Mouse  between 
Huy  and  Namur,  in  imitation  of  the 
seven  principal  churches  in  Rome.  She 
also  built  a  nuDiiery  at  Anden  like  that 
of  her  sister  at  Nivelle.  Gertrude  had 
long  been  dead.  St.  Wulfetrude,  the 
second  abbess,  was  dead  too.  AGNES, 
the  third  abbess,  took  care  to  give  Begga 
the  benefit  of  all  that  she  had  learned 
under  the  holy  Gertrude,  and  sent  nuns  to 
train  the  new  community.  They  took  with 
them  a  piece  of  St.  Gertrude's  bed,  and 
placed  it  near  the  altar  of  ST.  GENOVEFA, 
in  Begga's  church,  where  it  worked 
miraculous  cures,  and  was  adorned  with 
votive  oiferings  of  gold  and  precious 
stones.  The  monastery  of  Anden  was 
afterwards  converted  into  a  collegiate 
church  of  thirty-two  canonesses  of  noble 
families,  with  ten  canons  to  officiate  at 
the  altar.  Begga  is  said  by  some  autho 
rities  to  have  founded  the  Beguines,  who 
devoted  themselves  to  religion  under 
simple  vows  not  taken  for  life.  The 
general  opinion  is  that  they  were  founded 
in  the  12th  century,  by  Lambert  le 
Begue,  a  priest  of  Liege.  R.M.  Cahier. 
Butler,  Lives.  Bouquet,  Rccueil,  iii.  304, 
"Chronique  de  St.  Denis."  Pertz, 
Hausinder,  p.  52.  Mabillon,  Contem 
porary  Life  of  St.  Gertrude. 

St.  Begga  (2),  BEGA. 

St.  Begghe,  BEGA. 

St.  Begha,  BEGA. 

St.  Begll,  having  dedicated  her  vir 
ginity  to  the  Lord  for  thirty  years  and 
more,  served  Him  in  monastic  conversa 
tion  in  the  nunnery  of  Hackness,  built 
by  ST.  HILDA  shortly  before  her  death. 
On  Nov.  17,  OH<),  Begu  was  sleeping  in 
the  dormitory  with  the  other  sisters. 
She  suddenly  heard  the  bell  that  called 
them  to  prayer  when  a  soul  was  passing 
away.  Immediately  she  saw  the  roof 
of  the  house  open  :  a  bright  light  filled 
the  sky,  and  in  that  light  the  maid  of 
Gocl,  Hilda,  was  borne  to  heaven  by 
angels.  Begu  arose,  found  the  sisters  all 


asleep,  and  knew  that  she  had  seen  a 
vision.  Running  to  Frigyd,  who  ruled 
in  the  absence  of  the  Abbess  Hilda,  she 
told  her  that  their  dear  mother  had  that 
moment  departed  from  the  earth.  They 
all  arose  and  prayed  for  the  soul  of  the 
blessed  abbess  until,  at  dawn,  some  monks 
arrived  to  tell  them  of  her  death.  (Bede, 
Eccl.  Hist.,  book  iv.  chap.  2:>.)  Some 
modern  writers  identify  her  with  HEIU, 
who  is  mentioned  by  Bcde  in  the  same 
narrative.  They  seem  to  me  to  be  two 
distinct  persons.  Some  think  she  is  ST. 
BEE  OF  EGREMONT  (BEGA  (1)),  but  this  is 
mere  conjecture  and  rests  on  no  authority. 
Smith  and  Wace,  Diet.  "  Heiu "  and 
"  Begu." 

St.  Bela,  Oct.  2S,  M.  with  her  fathc 
and  mother,  SS.  Terence  and  NEONILLA 
her  sister  ST.  EUNICE,  and  four  brother 
They  were  delivered  by  angels  from 
bonds  and  torments  of  various  kinds 
They  were  thrown  into  boiling  pitch 
which  turned  into  water  and  did  no 
hurt  them.  Then  they  were  all  beheaded 
Their  worship  is  extensive,  particularly 
in  the  Eastern  Church.  Their  date  anc 
history  are  unknown.  AA.SS. 

Beli,  German- Swiss  for  BARBARA. 

St.  Belina,  Sept.  S.  Date  unknown 
V.  M.  of  chastity,  it  is  supposed,  at  Lan 
gres,  in  Champagne.  Her  head  is  pre 
served  in  the  convent  of  Mores  or  Maures 
near  Troyes,  and  is  said  to  have  been  cu 
off  by  her  persecutor,  the  Lord  of  Lan 
dreville,  a  place  near  Maures.  AA.SS 
Martin,  French  Mart. 

Baring-Gould  says  she  died  at  Lan 
dreville,  in  1 1  ~>3,  was  canonized  in  1 203 
and  her  relics  were  dispersed  at  th 
Revolution.  He  also  relates  that  hei 
murder  caused  an  vfm-ute  of  the  vassals 
who  burned  the  castle  and  would  have 
killed  the  seigneur  of  Pradines  am 
dArcy.  He  escaped,  but  was  excom 
municated  and  exiled. 

St.  Bellande,  BERLENDIS. 

St.  Belleride,  BERLENDIS. 

St.  Bemba,  V.  M.  at  Rome.  Hei 
festival  is  held  March  2S,  in  the  monas 
tery  of  Einsiedeln,  in  Switzerland. 

St.  Beneacta,  June  2(,»,  Chastelain, 
Voc.  Il'ii. 

St.  Benecutia,  or  DKXECUTIA,  Maj 
14,  M.  in  Africa.  AA.SS. 


ST.   BEXEDICTA 


113 


Benedetta.  i  A. 

St.  Benedicta  (1),  July  s.  1st  cen 
tury.  Wife  of  Count  Sigebcrt  of  Bor- 
.b-aY.x,  who  was  paralyzed  for  years. 
When  ho  heard  of  the  miracles  of  St. 
Martial,  he  sent  Benedicta,  with  offerings 
of  Ljold  and  silver,  to  ask  that  saint  to 
restore  her  husband  to  health.  Seeing 
her  faith,  he  promised  what  she  asked, 
her  his  staff,  and  bade  her  lay  it  on 
her  husband  ;  he  would  not  receive  the 
gold  and  silver,  but  baptized  her  and  all 
her  companions.  Meantime  the  people 
of  Bordeaux  were  worshipping  their 
idols,  and  while  the  priest  was  burning 
incense,  the  devil  declared  he  would  de 
part  from  there  at  the  command  of  a 
Hebrew  named  Martial.  As  Benedicta 
•iteml  the  town,  the  old  men  of  the 
place  met  her  and  told  her  all  that  was 
going  on.  She  sent  for  the  high  priest 
and  told  him  to  destroy  every  temple  in 
the  place,  except  that  to  the  unknown 
<iod.  Then,  assisted  by  the  prayers  of 
her  Christian  brethren  and  companions, 
she  went  to  her  husband's  bed,  and  laid 
the  holy  bishop's  staff  upon  him.  Sige- 
bert  was  instantaneously  cured.  His  first 
act  was  to  go  to  St.  Martial,  and  ask  for 
ism.  The  town  of  Bordeaux  was 
on  the  point  of  l>eiug  destroyed  by 
lire  ;  but  the  pious  Beuedicta  took  the 
staff  of  St.  Martial  to  meet  the  flames, 
and  they  immediately  disappeared. 

When   St.   Martial  was  preaching  at 

Mortagne,  Sigebcrt  and  his  soldiers  went 

ike  provisions  to  him  and  his  people. 

ent  a  number  of  men  to  procure  a 

quantity  of  fish.    While  they  were  at  sea, 

a  great  storm  came  on.     Benedicta  saw 

that  they   were  about   to    perish.      She 

I    her    hands  towards  heaven  and 

prayed,  and  they  all  came  safe  to  land, 

with  their   boats,   their  nets,  and   their 

tisli.     This  story  is  told  by    Urdericus 

Vitalis,  in  his  ///*/»>/•//  of  the  Normam,  i. 

S  m     lye  and  1  «  rrarius  merely  say 

Benedicta  was  baptix'-d  by  St.  Martial. 

St.  Benedicta  < 2  i,  July  n,  V.  M. 

in  tin-  time  of  Nero.     Slit- 
was  carried  naked  through  the  city,  but 

•  ne    e<>nld    s-  e    ht-r.      At't«  r    various 
tortures,  she  was  put  to  death.      ^L-1.>N  . 
/'.,  from  Tamayo  Salaxar. 

St.  Benedicta  (8),  Nov.  12,  V.  M. 


at  Rome.  She  endured  many  tortures 
and  insults,  was  miraculously  encouraged 
and  healed  by  an  angel,  and  finally  be 
headed.  Viola  Sanctorum. 

St.  Benedicta  (4),  April  17,  M.  236. 
Mother  of  SS.  Alphius,  Philadelphia, 
and  Cyrinus.  AA.S8.,  May  In. 

St.  Benedicta  <  •">),  June  2<>,  Sept.  G, 
7  (  BKATA,  locally  BKATTE,  BEXOITE  DE 
SENS),  V.  M.  c.  273.  She  went  from 
Spain,  with  her  brother  St.  Sauctian  and 
St.  Augustine,  to  Sens,  in  France,  whore 
the  Emperor  Aurelian  tried,  by  threats 
and  promises,  to  make  them  renounce  the 
Christian  faith,  offering  them  the  highest 
honours  in  his  court  as  the  reward  of 
apostasy,  and  the  death  of  criminals  in 
case  they  remained  firm.  They,  on  the 
other  hand,  told  him  how  much  greater 
were  the  honours  and  pleasures  their 
Master  prepared  for  them  in  the  other 
world,  and  warned  the  Emperor  where 
he  would  go,  and  whom  he  would  associ 
ate  with  eventually,  unless  ho  were  con 
verted.  Finally  they  were  beheaded. 
/,'..!/.,  June  21 ».  AA.SS.,  June  2(3  and 
Sept.  0.  Martin,  French  Mart.,  Sept.  7. 

St.  Benedicta  (6),  Jan.  4,  V.  M. 
at  Kome,  .'{»J2,  with  SS.  Priscus  and  Pre- 
scillian,  in  the  persecution  under  Julian 
the  Apostate.  jRJJ.  AA.SS. 

St.  Benedicta  (7),  Oct.  8,  more 
commonly  called  SAIMI:  BI-XOITE,  V. 
M.  :>«i2,  under  Julian  the  Apostate. 
Patron  of  Origuy  ( Auriiiiacum).  The 
li'iiinni  Mdttiiroloijij  mentions  four  holy 
virgins  of  this  name,  on  Jan.  4,  May  0, 
Juno  2! i,  Oct.  S.  The  one  best  known 
in  France  was  the  daughter  of  a  llomaii 
senator.  Despising  the  pleasures  of  the 
world,  she  took  twelve  young  girls  to 
lead  a  religious  life  in  her  house.  Hoar- 
ing  of  the  martyrdom  of  St.  Queiitiii  and 
his  companions  in  Picardy,  she  set  off 
with  her  twelve  friends  to  seek  martyr 
dom  in  Gaul.  They  stayed  some  time 
ut  the  capital  of  Vermandois,  now  called 
St.  (^ueutiu;  then  they  dispersed,  to  ex 
tend  the  knowledge  of  Christianity  in 
different  directions.  Benedicts  and  her 
fofternrister,  LBOBEBIA,  went  to  Origny- 
sur-Oise,  in  the  diocese  of  Laon,  and 
made  many  converts.  Their  cell  is  be 
lieved  to  have  been  at  Mont  d'<  )rigny, 
a  village  near  the  town  of  <  )rigny. 

I 


114 


ST.   BEXEDICTA 


Matroclns,  the  prefect,  a  Jew,  After  trying 
in  vain  to  turn  Beneclicta  from  her 
religion,  had  her  beaten  until  she  was  a 
mass  of  wounds;  she  was  then  thrown 
into  a  dark  dungeon :  her  wounds  were 
healed  by  an  angol.  This  miraculous 
cure  caused  the  conversion  of  fifty-five 
persons.  Matroclus,  exasperated,  cut  off 
her  head  with  his  own  hand.  Local 
tradition  fixes  the  site  of  her  martyrdom 
at  a  place  called  Les  Arlrcs  <lu  TliiJ,  an 
enclosure  of  about  twenty-two  acres, 
surrounded  by  trees  and  hedges,  where 
many  devotees  resort  every  Sunday. 

Of  the  twelve  companions  of  St.  Bene- 
dicta,  Father  Giry  only  mentions  SS. 
LEOBERIA,  YOLAINE  or  YOLAND,  CAMIONA, 
and  KOMANA.  St.  Yolaine  is  honoured 
at  Pleines  Selves,  about  three  miles  from 
Origny;  and  St.  Camiona,  near  Le- 
Mesnil-Saint-Laurent,  about  five  miles 
from  Origny,  in  the  territory  of  Lugdu- 
num  Clavatum,  which  is  Laon,  not 
Lyons;  the  double  meaning  of  Lugdu- 
num  has  given  rise  to  a  fictitious  ST. 
BENEDICTA  OF  LYONS  (Chastelain,  Foe. 
Hay.).  A  monastery  was  built  over  her 
tomb  in  the  Oth  or  7th  century.  After 
wards  a  nunnery  of  the  Order  of  St. 
Benedict,  dedicated  in  the  names  of  SS. 
Mary  and  Benedicta,  was  built  at  Origny 
(Diet,  dcs  Abbaycs). 

Constantino  Suysken,  in  AA.SS.,  Oct. 
8,  gives  her  fabulous  Ads  and  a  discussion 
as  to  the  place  and  date  of  her  life  and 
death.  Baillet  considers  her  story  to  be 
a  copy  of  that  of  St.  Romana,  and  that 
a  copy  of  the  history  of  ST.  SATURNINA. 
There  are  numerous  instances  in  which 
the  history  of  one  saint  has  been  adapted 
to  another.  The  history  of  St.  Romana 
can  only  be  traced  to  within  eight  hun 
dred  years  of  the  date  ascribed  to  that 
martyr. 

St.  Benedicta  (8)  of  Lyons.  (See 
BKNKDICTA  or  OIIIONY.) 

St.  Benedicta  0'),  June  27,  M.  A 
venerable  Christian,  who  was  martyred 
with  SS.  Crispus  and  Crispinian  in  :>»52. 
Benedicta  is  sometimes  called  Virgin, 
sometimes  Matron.  Boll.,  AA.SS.,  June 
27. 

St.  Benedicta  ( 1  <  > ).  Mentioned  in  a 
Litanyused  in  England  in  the  7th  century. 
This  is  probably  one  of  the  early  martyrs 


already  mentioned.    English  Mart.    Ma- 
billon,  Vetcm  An«l«i<t,  pp.  r>(j<),  ct  srq. 

St.  Benedicta  (11),  May  o.  Friend 
and  fellow-nun  of  ST.  GALLA  (\  < » ),  at 
Rome,  in  the  Oth  century.  Her  head  is 
said  to  be  still  preserved  at  Rome.  11. ^T. 
Henschenius.  AA.SS. 

St.  Benedicta  (12),  Aug.  17.  7th 
century.  A  Spanish  abbess,  disciple  of 
St.  Fructuosus.  He  was  a  martyr  in  the 
Mrd  century.  Espaha  Sagmdaj  xxv. 
168.  Bucelinus.  Guenebault. 

St.  Benedicta  (i:-M,  Aug.  17.  mth 
century.  Abbess  of  Susteren.  Daughter 
of  St.  Zuentibold,  king  of  Lotharingia, 
who  died  in  000,  and  was  the  son  of  the 
Emperor  Arnulf  (887-81W  ).  She  became 
a  nun  at  Susteren  with  her  sisters,  SS. 
CECILIA  and  BELINDA,  under  the  direction 
of  a  holy  virgin  named  Amelberga,  after 
whose  death  Benedicta  became  abbess, 
and  was,  in  her  turn,  succeeded  by  Cecilia. 
The  three  sisters  are  commemorated  to 
gether,  Nov.  10.  AA.SS.  Bucelinus, 
Men.  l$en.  Lechner,  J3en.  Ordcus. 

B.  Benedicta  (U),  June  28.  A  lay- 
sister  in  the  nunnery  of  Petra,  near 
Subiaco.  Her  real  name  has  not  come 
down  to  us,  so  she  is  called  after  the 
founder  of  her  order.  One  day  the 
abbess  sent  her  some  distance,  with  an 
ass,  to  fetch  flour  from  a  mill.  She  said 
her  prayers  while  the  corn  was  being 
ground,  and  went  on  with  more  prayers, 
although  the  miller  warned  her  that  it 
was  going  to  rain,  and  that  she  would 
not  get  home  at  the  time  required  by 
the  rule.  When  her  prayers  were  ended, 
it  was  quite  dark  and  pouring  wet,  but 
she  arrived  safely  at  the  monastery,  with 
the  new  supply  of  flour,  the  donkey,  and 
her  own  clothes  perfectly  dry.  The 
abbess  said  to  her,  "  You  must  be  tired 
after  your  long  walk.  Go  to  bed." 
Benedicta  said,  "Let  me  first  say  my 
usual  prayers  in  the  chapel."  AVhile 
she  was  there,  the  other  nuns  made 
supper  ready  for  her,  and  as  she  did  not 
come  for  some  time,  they  went  to  fetch 
her.  They  found  her  kneeling  with  her 
hands  clasped,  and  her  head  up — quite 
dead.  They  buried  her  in  that  attitude. 
Long  afterwards,  in  140:*,  her  body  was 
found  in  perfect  preservation,  and  after 
the  nunnery  was  destroyed,  her  story  was 


B.   BKNVKNfTA   BO  JAM 


115 


remembered,  and  a  chapel  was  built  in 
her  honour.      Bucelinus.  M>  //.  1>>  n. 

St.  Benedicta  i  L5),  nth  century. 
Daughter  of  St.  Anfroy,  count  of  Huy 
and  Louvjiin,  afterwards  Bishop  of 
I'trecht.  She  succeeded  her  mother, 
ST.  Hr.i:s  \vi\n,  as  Abbess  of  Torenno  or 
Thora.  They  aro  numbered  among  tlio 
saints  of  Liege.  Stadler,  from  Bartho 
lomew  Lesen,  Florcs  Ecclexise  L<  "<H<  //s/.s-. 

B.  Benedicta  (!»'•),  March  16,  Oct. 
19,  V.  fl2t>M.  Succeeded  ST.  CI.AKA 
as  Abbess  of  St.  Damian's,  at  Assisi,  in 
Umbria,  12."»:>.  Held  in  great  veneration 
at  Assisi,  but  has  not  been  inserted  in 
the  martyrologies.  AA.SS. 

B.  Benedicta  (17).  f  1:'H'-  Suc- 
led  II.  CATHKKIXK  MOKIGIA,  in  147s, 
as  second  Abbess  of  Monte  Varasio. 
Benedicta  enriched  the  community  and 
enlarged  the  convent.  By  the  desire  of 
the  sisters  and  permission  of  the  Pope, 
she  continued  abbess  until  her  death, 
notwithstanding  the  rule  that  each 
superior  should  hold  office  for  three 
years  only.  She  was  succeeded  by  the 
"  Illumined  Sister,"  Lucretia  Alciati, 
who  brought  a  large  fortune  to  the 
sisterhood.  Helyot,  Hist.  Ord.  MOH.,  iv. 
ch.  9. 

St.  Benigna,  Jnne  2o,  V.  M.  124  J. 
Cistercian  nun  at  Wratislaw,  in  Poland. 
Taken  captive  and  slain  for  her  adhe 
rence  to  her  innocence  and  Christian 
faith,  by  the  Tartars  who  overran  Poland 
in  the  time  of  Henry  the  Pious,  son  of 
Ih.i'wu;.  Bucelinus,  Men.  lien. 
-1  -I .SS.t  Prseter.  Henriquez,  Liliit  Cist., 
June  I'.'. 

St.  Benilda,  June  i:>.  f  s:>:j.  A 
old  woman.  One  of  the  martyrs 
"i  Cordova.  Beheaded  the  day  after 
ST.  DION  A.  It.M.  Henschenius,  in  Boll., 
AA.SS.  St.  Mule-gins,  Nnn.  Stmct. 
Baillet,  Vies. 

St.  Benonia,  or  Boxosrs,  April  29. 
Tt  is  uncertain  whether  this  is  the  name 
of  man.  woman,  or  place.  AA.SS. 

St.  Benu,  Jan.  i;»,  is  honoured  by 
tin-  (  'upts  as  a  martyr. 

B.  Benvenuta  <  i  )  Bojani,  <  ><-t.  2'.' 
"i-  30.  I2.YI-I2'.»2.  O.S.I).  When 
she  was  born  at  Cividale  of  Austria,  in 
Friuli,  no  one  dared  to  tell  her  father 
that  lie  had  a  seventh  daughter,  as  lie 


was  very  anxious  for  a  son.     When  at 
last    he    heard    it,    ho    said.    "  Sho    is 
welcome;  lot  her  be  named  Benvenuta" 
•  \Velcomej.     Sho  and  her  sister  Mary 
made  a  vow  of  celibacy  at  a  very  early 
age.     Benvenuta  had  a  special  devotion 
to    St.    Dominic,    saw    diabolical    and 
celestial      apparitions,     and      practised 
wonderful  austerities    from    her   child 
hood.     She    suffered     so     much     from 
numbness,    tremor,    and    breathlessneis 
that  she  could  not  lie  down,  and  had  for 
some  years  to  take  all  her  rest  sitting  in 
a  chair.     She  was  carried  to  church  once 
a    week.     At    last    she    was    cured    by 
St.   Dominic,  and,  accompanied   by  her 
brother  and  sister,  made  a  pilgrimage  to 
his  shrine  at  Bologna,  in  fulfilment  of  a 
vow.     They  passed  through  Venice  and 
Padua,  and  returned  home  to  Cividale, 
where  she  lived    in    perfect  health  for 
some  years.     The  Dominican  nuns  there 
were  much    edified    by  her    piety,  and 
invited  her  to  stay  with  them  in  their 
convent   of  Cella  whenever   she   chose. 
By  her  prayers  she  cured  one  of    the 
sisters  of  a  mysterious  and  painful  dis 
order  to  which    she  was  subject  every 
winter.     She  cured  another  of  blindness. 
Sho  delivered  the  souls  of  several  of  her 
friends   and  relations   from  purgatory ; 
had  the  gift  of  prophecy  ;  took  the  form 
of  absent  persons,  and  performed  their 
duties ;     had     frequent      raptures     and 
ecstasies.     She  died  in  her  own  house, 
12'.'2.     Many  people  of  rank,  as  well  as 
many  of  the  lower  class,  came  from  the 
surrounding  towns  to  make  a  visit  of 
devotion  to  her  body,  touching  it  with 
rings,     beads,     etc.,     that    they    might 
thereby  receive  the  virtue  of  holy  charms. 
The  abbess  and  nuns  of  the  great  Bene 
dictine  convent  were  among  those  who 
visited  her  before  her  burial.     Sin-  was 
carried  to  the  Dominican  church  by  the 
friars,  and  a  short  sermon  was  preached 
by    her    confessor,    Conrad,     prior    of 
Verona,  in  which  lie  related  two  of  her 
miracles — that  of  her  cure  by  St.  Dominic 
already  mentioned,  and  that  of  the  rope. 
While  yet  very  young  she  girt  herself  so- 
tightly  with  a  rope  that  as  she  grow  it 
became  cmbedd-  <1  in  her  flesh,  and  caused 
her  great   suffering.     It  could  only   bo 
removed  by  a  surgical  operation.      As 


lift 


B.   BEXVEXrTA 


this  idea  was  painful  to  her  delicacy, 
she  had  recourse  to  prayer.  Falling 
into  a  rapture,  she  found,  on  her  return 
to  a  sense  of  earthly  things,  that  the  rope 
was  lying  beside  her  on  the  floor.  The 
people  begged  to  hear  more  about  her. 
Conrad  preached  another  sermon  the 
following  Sunday,  in  which  he  related 
several  miraculous  circumstances  con 
cerning  the  departed  saint.  He  said 
that  for  five  years  the  angel  Gabriel  fed 
her  daily  with  food  from  heaven. 
During  that  time  she  never  ate  any 
earthly  food  without  its  producing  in 
stant  sickness,  the  sacramental  bread 
excepted.  She  was  buried  in  the  tomb 
of  her  family  outside  the  church.  Some 
time  afterwards  her  body  was  diligently 
sought,  in  order  to  lay  it  with  greater 
honour  in  the  church.  It  could  not  be 
found,  and  was  supposed  to  have  been 
carried  off  by  Dominican  friars  to 
Bologna  or  Kavenna.  Her  Life  in 
Modern  Saints,  edited  by  the  Fathers  of 
the  Oratory.  Mart.  O.F.P.,  Oct.  2(,». 
A.B.M.  Pio. 

B.  Benvenuta  (2).  i:3th  century. 
O.S.F.  One  of  the  first  nuns  under 
ST.  CLARA.  (See  AGNES  OF  ASSISI.) 

St.  Bera,  BE  ATA  (1). 

St.  Berathgit,  BEUGIT,  or  BEKTHGITH. 
8th  century.  Daughter  of  ST.  BILHILD  (2), 
or  GUXTIIILD.  They  were  taken  by  St. 
Boniface  from  Wimborne  to  Thuringia, 
and  set  over  his  convent  schools  there. 
Tlturinijia  Sacra  (Frankfort,  1787).  Two 
letters  from  Berthgith  to  her  brother 
Balthard  are  among  the  letters  of  St. 
Boniface  and  St.  Lullus.  Smith  and 
Wace,  Diet,  of  Christian  Bioyrnpliy,  re 
ferring  to  Jaffe's  Monumrnta  Moyuntice. 

St.  Beredina.    (#'•<•  VICTORIA  (2).) 

St.  Berelendis,  BKKLKXDIS. 

St.  Berema,  BKATA  (l). 

B.  Berengaria,  March  s.  f  c.  1 250. 
Daughter  of  Ferdinand  III.,  king  of 
Leon  and  Castile.  Sister  of  Alfonso, 
king  of  the  llomans.  In  1 240  she  took 
the  Cistercian  habit  at  Holga,  near 
Burgos.  Mentioned  by  Henriquez  and 
Bucelinus.  AA.SS.,  Prset<  r. 

St.  Berenice  ( l ),  VKKOMCA  <  l  >. 
:   St.      Berenice     (2),     or      BKKINNA. 
Daughter  of  DOMXIXA  (8). 

St.  Bergit,  UKKATIKMT,  not  Birgit. 


St.  Berinna,  or  BKKKXICK,  M.  at 
Antioch  with  her  mother  and  sister, 
DOMMNA  (:>)  and  Puosixx'i:. 

St.  Beriona,  BIMMAXA. 

St.  Berlendis,  Fob.  :i  (BELLANDE, 
BKLI.KKIDK,  BKUUXDA).  7th  century. 
Commemorated  with  NONA  and  CELSK  at 
Meerbeck,  in  Brabant.  Represented 
with  a  cow  beside  her.  Patron  of 
peasants.  Invoke!  against  contagious 
diseases  of  animals.  She  also  protects 
trees,  particularly  those  transplanted  on 
her  day.  Berlendis  is  specially  honoured 
at  Tin-le-Moutiers,  in  Ketelois.  Accord 
ing  to  Bucelinus,  her  mother  was  Nona, 
sister  of  St.  Amandus.  Her  father  was  a 
wealthy  noble,  who  served  under  Dago- 
bert  I.,  king  of  France.  His  name  was 
Odelardus.  He  suffered  from  leprosy, 
produced  by  his  pious  austerities.  Ber 
lendis  offended  him  beyond  forgiveness, 
because  she  rinsed  his  cup  before  drink 
ing  out  of  it  herself.  For  this  act  he 
disinherited  her,  and  left  everything  to 
ST.  GEKTKUDE.  His  daughter  realized 
that  she  had  erred :  she  became  a  nun 
at  Morsella,  and  manifested  her  repent 
ance  by  giving  up  all  luxuries  and  rest 
ing  content  with  poor  food  and  plain 
raiment.  One  day  she  heard  angels 
singing  as  they  carried  her  father's  soul 
to  heaven.  Knowing  by  this  sign  that 
he  was  dead,  she  went  to  .Meerbeck  and 
buried  him.  On  her  death  she  was 
buried  in  a  wooden  tomb,  on  account  of 
the  scarcity  of  stone.  The  wood,  how 
ever,  was,  by  supernatural  agency,  turned 
into  stone.  Her  body  was  afterwards 
removed  from  its  original  resting-place, 
upon  which  occasion  many  miracles  were 
performed.  Those  who  assisted  at  the 
translation  had  their  food  wonderfully 
increased.  At  Meerbeck  there  is  a 
representation  of  St.  Berlendis  with  her 
cow,  rudely  cut  in  wood.  The  peasants 
come  and  reverently  touch  the  udder,  for 
the  good  of  their  own  cows  and  dairies. 
At  one  time  the  proceedings  at  her  fes 
tival  were  so  riotous  that  it  came  to  be 
called  the  Drunken  Vespers,  and  in  the 
1 6th  century  the  clergy  were  forbidden 
to  take  part  in  it.  St.  Celse  was,  per 
haps,  her  disciple  or  her  sister.  Boll., 
AA.SS.  Bio'j.  Univ.,  "  Odelard."  Ecken- 
stein.  Cahier.  Chastelain,  Voc.  Hay. 


ST.    UKKTIIA 


117 


She  is  mentioned  by  Saussaye,  Molanus, 
Labierius,  and  Ferrarius. 
St.  Berlinda,  BERLMNDI& 
St.  Beroma,  BKMA  i  i  i. 
St.  Beronica,  YI:K»M«  A  (_i). 
St.    Bertana,    EHEMBEUTA,  HKUKM- 
ri  i; in  v,  or  IREMBEKTANA,  Oct.  1  ">.     End 
of    7tb    or    beginning   of    8th    century. 
Abbess.     Niece  of  St.  Vuliner,  Abbot  of 
Silviac,    near    Boulogne.     Silviac    was 
afterwards  called  Samer-  (i.e.  St.  VulmerJ 
in-the-Wood,    to     distinguish     it    from 
another  monastery  of  St.  Vuliner   built 
by   P>.  IDA,   widow,  within   the  walls  of 
Boulogne.       Bertana    was    a     nun     in 
authority,  under  Vuliner,  at  Wiere,  near 
Sunier.     When  she  and  her  fellow-nuns 
could  get  no  food,  he   refreshed    them 
with  a  mellifluous  sermon.     AA.SS. 

St.  Bertha  (l).  fG1--  Queen  of 
Kent,  first  Christian  queen  in  England. 
She  was  tin  daughter  of  Charibert,  one 
of  the  lour  brothers  who  became  kings 
of  France  in  ,">G1.  Her  mother  was  the 
pious  Ingoberga.  She  married  Ethel- 
bert,  king  of  Kent,  who  promised  her 
free  exercise  of  her  own  religion.  She 
took  as  her  chaplain  to  England,  Liud- 
hard,  a  bishop.  Ethelbert  gave  him  a 
little  church  at  ( 'anterbury,  built  during 
the  Roman  occupation  of  Britain,  and 
still  standing.  Liudhard  restored  it, 
and  dedicated  it  in  the  name  of  St. 
Martin.  It  is  the  oldest  church  in 

land,  and  has  been  used  continuously 
since  that  time.  The  additions  of  dif- 

;t    periods    are    distinctly    visible. 

ha's  character  and  conduct  predis 
posed  the  king  in  favour  of  Christianity, 
ami  when,  in  .".'.Mi,  St.  Gregory,  the  Pope, 
sent  a  band  of  missionary  monks  to 
Mn.L'land,  under  Augustine,  they  were 
received  with  respect.  The  king  and 
many  others  listened  to  their  teaching. 
On  Whitsunday.  .V.'T,  Kthelbert  declared 
himself  a  Christian,  and  was  baptized; 
and  his  example  was  quickly  followed  by 
many  of  his  people.  He  gave  his  own 
house  at  Canterbury  to  Augustine,  who 
there  founded  a  church,  now  the  cathe 
dral.  Kthelbert  and  Bertha,  standing 
between  Augustine  and  Li ud hard,  appear 
in  the  windows  of  tin-  nave  of  ( 'anterbury 
Cathedral,  among  the  early  English 
saints.  St.  Bertha  figures  in  the  windows 


of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  of  Rams- 
.  She  is  spoken  of  at  Canterbury 
as  *•  St.  Bertha,"  but  it  is  not  clear  that 
she  has  ever  been  worshipped,  and  she 
has  no  dedications.  Dean  Stanley. 
Moiitalembert.  SS.  ETHELBUUGA  (1)  and 
EDBUUGA  ( 1 )  were  her  daughters. 

St.  Bertha  <  '2 ),  May  i,  Aug.  :ii,  Oct. 
12,  V.  M.  \Vife  of  St.  Gombert,  lord 
of  Champenois,  who  was  of  the  royal 
family  of  France.  He  built  her  a  nun 
nery  at  Avenay,  near  Rlieims.  He  then 
retired  to  a  monastery  which  he  had 
built  on  the  seashore.  Hero  he  was 
killed  by  idolaters,  towards  the  end  of 
the  7th  century.  After  his  death,  St. 
Bertha,  in  obedience  to  a  vision,  re 
moved  with  her  nuns  to  Val  d'Or,  near 
Avenay.  The  nuns  and  the  people  of 
Avenay  being  in  great  want  of  water, 
St.  Peter  appeared  to  Bertha,  and  guided 
her  to  a  garden  where  there  was  a  good 
spring.  She  bought  it  for  a  pound  of 
silver  (according  to  Martin,  about  sixty 
francsj,  and  traced  with  her  distaff  a 
little  furrow  from  the  spring  to  her 
convent ;  the  water  ran  along  the  line, 
deepening  its  channel  as  it  flowed.  She 
called  the  stream  Libra,  because  it  was 
bought  for  a  pound ;  and  there  it  flows 
to  this  day,  an  abundant  supply  of  beauti 
ful,  clear  water,  curing  many  infirmities, 
and  witnessing  the  truth  of  the  legend 
of  the  distaff.  The  Privigni,  Gombert's 
i»latious,  were  very  angry  because 
Bertha  gave  to  the  poor  a  great  deal 
that  they  hoped  to  get  for  themselves. 
S.i  they  murdered  her,  and  wore  imme 
diately  seized  by  the  devil,  and  tore 
themselves  to  pieces,  all  but  one — a 
woman  named  Xuncia,  who  had  some 
pangs  of  repentance.  Many  years  after 
wards,  Bertha  appeared  to  her  and  said, 
"  If  thou  wouldst  bo  forgiven,  bring  the 
body  of  my  blessed  husband  and  lay  it 
beside  mine."  Nuucia  said,  "  But  how 
shall  I  know  that  I  am  forgiven  for  so 
great  a  crime  ? "  Bertha  answered, 
"  As  soon  as  you  have  fulfilled  my  com 
mand,  blood  will  gush  from  your  noso 
and  mouth.  By  that  sign  you  will 
know  that  you  are  forgiven."  Without 
delay,  Xuneia  set  about  her  pious  task, 
and  had  (it Hubert's  l>ody  brought  to  the 
convent  church  of  Val  d'Or.  She  then 


118 


ST.   BERTHA 


addressed  the  body  of  Bertha*  asking  if 
she  was  forgiven.  Immediately  the 
blood  spouted  out  of  her  nose  and  mouth. 
A  hundred  years  afterwards  Bertha's 
body  was  found  fresh  and  life-like,  and 
when  the  two  bodies  were  taken  to  the 
place  where  she  had  been  killed,  her 
wounds  bled  afresh.  Papebroch,  in 
AAJSS.j  May  1,  from  her  Acts  in  the 
ancient  office  of  the  church  of  Avenay. 
Martin's  edition  of  Surius  d'Apres 
Lipoman. 

St.  Bertha  (:-'>),  July  4.  -f-  c.  725  or 
7:  {.">.  Abbess  and  founder  of  Blangy,  in 
Artois. 

Represented  with  her  two  daughters 
dressed  as  nuns.  They  are  drawn  on  a 
very  small  scale,  to  indicate  their  minor 
importance. 

Daughter  of  Rigobert,  count  of  the 
Palace,  under  Clovis  IL  (038-05 0),  and 
Ursana,  his  wife,  who  was  of  English 
descent  and  related  to  the  wife  of  Clovis. 
Bertha  married  a  relation  of  the  king, 
Count  Sigfried,  son  of  Prince  Rigomar 
and  ST.  GERTRUDE  OP  HAMAY.  They 
had  five  daughters,  GERTRUDE,  DEOTILA, 
Emma,  Gesa,  and  Gesta,  all  of  whom 
did  credit  to  the  training  of  their  pious 
parents.  When  they  had  been  married 
twenty  years,  Sigfried  died  and  was 
buried  in  his  own  ground  at  Blangy. 
Then  Bertha  left  off  silk  and  jewels, 
took  the  habit  of  a  nun,  and  resolved  to 
build  a  church  on  her  husband's  estate. 
As  soon,  however,  as  the  building  had 
made  a  little  progress,  it  fell  down.  She 
built  again,  on  another  spot.  When  tho 
church  was  finished  and  ready  to  be 
consecrated,  and  while  Bertha  was  on  a 
visit  to  ST.  RICTRUDE,  abbess  of  Mar- 
chiennes,  about  thirty  miles  from  Blangy, 
the  church  fell  with  such  a  noise  that 
Bertha  and  Rictrudo  heard  it  as  they 
sat  talking.  Rictrude  tried  to  comfort 
Bertha  by  saying  that  it  was  the  will  of 
God  she  should  build  on  another  site. 
At  Bertha's  request  a  fast  of  three  days 
was  strictly  observed  at  Marchiennes, 
and  during  that  time  fervent  prayers 
were  offered  for  the  success  of  her 
scheme,  and  for  Divine  direction  as  to 
the  situation  of  the  church.  At  the  end 
of  the  third  day  an  angel  showed  in  a 
dream,  to  one  of  the  workmen,  a  fitting 


spot  at  Terouanne,  beside  the  river 
Thena,  where  the  foundations  were 
already  lined  out.  There  she  built  her 
famous  church  and  monastery.  Germain 
of  Paris,  Eligius,  bishop  of  Noyon,  and 
several  bishops  who  were  afterwards 
honoured  as  saints,  assisted  at  the  con 
secration.  When  they  were  all  assembled 
for  the  consecration,  there  was  no  hyssop. 
Consequently,  Ravengarius,  bishop  of 
Terouanne,  refused  to  proceed  with  the 
ceremony.  Bertha  was  in  great  distress 
that  she  had  gathered  together  so  many 
holy  and  worthy  men,  and  still  it  seemed 
that  the  consecration  of  her  church  must 
be  deferred.  However,  while  she  was 
in  her  oratory  engaged  in  fervent  prayer, 
a  man  came  to  the  door  with  hyssop. 
Bertha  thanked  God,  and  thought  that 
at  last  all  would  now  be  well,  but 
another  of  her  people  came  to  tell  her 
that  the  bishops,  finding  there  was  to  be 
no  ceremony,  had  gone  away.  She, 
however,  sent  after  them  in  all  haste, 
and  they  prophesied  that  great  blessings 
would  rest  on  her  undertaking,  as  she 
had  persevered  and  had  at  length  been 
assisted  by  a  miracle.  The  church  and 
convent  were  consecrated,  and  Bertha 
and  her  two  eldest  daughters  received 
the  veil,  A.D.  <>S2.  The  three  younger 
daughters  continued  with  her.  Roger, 
one  of  the  king's  great  nobles,  a  proud 
man,  seeking  mundane  and  transitory 
gratification,  earnestly  entreated  Bertha 
to  grant  him  the  hand  of  Gertrude,  her 
eldest  daughter.  Bertha  replied  that 
her  daughter  was  already  the  bride  of 
Christ,  and  that  she  could  enter  into  no 
negotiation  for  her.  He  went  to  the 
king,  one  of  ST.  BATHILDE'S  sons,  and  told 
him  that  Count  Sigfried  had  promised 
him  the  hand  of  his  eldest  daughter, 
and  the  greater  part  of  his  estates  as 
her  dowry.  He  then  returned  to  Blangy 
with  a  strong  band  of  followers,  armed 
with  the  king's  authority  to  marry 
Gertrude.  Again  failing  to  extort  the 
consent  of  the  mother,  Roger  swore 
he  would  not  go  away  without  seeing 
Gertrude.  Bertha  agreed  to  this.  She 
kept  the  soldiers  waiting  until  the  hour 
of  evening  prayer,  and  while  the  nuns 
began  to  sing  the  service,  the  doors 
of  the  church  were  thrown  open,  and 


ST.   BERTHA 


tig 


"the  rebel  to  God,"  saw  ami 
heard  tin-in  all  singing  the  prayers 
ami  psalms.  Before  the  altar,  in  a  free 
space  within  ten  paces  of  him,  stood  the 
girl  all  these  soldiers  had  come  to  carry 
ofl*.  Bertha  said,  "  Behold,  the  servant 
and  spouse  of  Christ  is  present,  veiled  by 
the  holy  bishops,  and  solemnly  devoted 
at  the  altar  where  she  stands !  If  you 
<lare  to  take  her  away  from  the  Lord,  take 
h« T:  wo  women  can  offer  no  resistance, 
but  God  will  avenge  us ! "  Roger  did 
not  dare  to  take  Gertrude,  but  went 
uway  in  a  rage,  and  vowed  vengeance  oil 
Bertha.  Ho  immediately  went  to  the 
king,  and  accused  the  Countess  Bertha 
of  treasonable  correspondence  with  the 
English.  King  Thierry  summoned 
Bertha  to  answer  the  charge.  She  went 
without  fear,  trusting  in  her  integrity. 
Roger  came  to  meet  her,  under  pretence 
of  doing  her  honour,  but  really  to  cast 
a  slight  upon  her  by  contriving  that  she 
should  ride  to  the  palace  on  a  miserable 
horse,  without  the  usual  trappings. 
Radulph,  however,  of  pious  memory,  met 
the  venerable  abbess  thus  unworthily 
mounted,  and  at  once  exchanged  horses 
with  her,  at  the  same  time  reproaching 
Roger  for  his  disrespect.  The  king  was 
soon  convinced  of  the  innocence  of  Bertha, 
and  sent  her  home  in  peace  with  a  guard 
of  honour.  On  her  return  she  enlarged 
and  beautified  her  convent  and  built  ten 
churches,  eight  in  honour  of  St.  Martin, the 
other  two  in  honour  of  St.  Audomar  and  St. 
V'  hist  respectively.  Then  wishing  to 
retire  from  the  government  of  the  house 
and  to  devote  the  remainder  of  her  life 
to  prayer,  she  promoted  Deotila  to  the 
office  of  abbess  instead  of  Gertrude, 
i use  of  the  trouble  and  scandal  Roger 
had  caused  on  her  ace. mnt,  and  had  a 
cell  built  in  the  church,  where  she 
passed  all  her  time;  she  had  a  little 
window  near  the  altar.  Her  two 
daughters  and  the  sixty  nuns  came  to 
her  every  day  to  bo  refreshed  with 
spiritual  advice  and  instruction.  Her 
two  youngest  daughters,  Gesa  and  Gesta, 
<li"l  young.  Kmina,  her  third  daughter, 
was  given  in  marriage  by  Thierry,  king 
<'t'  I-' ranee,  to  \V;ini<-linus,  :i  kinjj;  of  tho 
Anglo-Saxons.  St.  Bertha,  hearing  of  his 
cruelty  and  infidelity  to  her  daughter, 


invited  her  to  visit  her  at  Blangy.  Emma 
set  off  with  her  husbaud'scoiisent.  During 
the  voyage,  she  was  seized  with  fever 
and  died.  When  Bertha  heard  of  it,  she 
ordered  every  thing  to  be  prepared  for 
a  funeral  befitting  her  daughter's  rank, 
and  went  to  meet  tho  corpse.  "Alas, 
my  beloved  daughter,"  she  said,  "  I  see 
your  face,  bnt  you  are  not  able  to  see 
me."  Hereupon  Emma  opened  her  eyes 
and  looked  at  her  mother.  Bertha  had 
her  taken  into  the  convent  and  buried 
with  all  honour. 

St.  Bertha  died  at  the  age  of  sixty- 
nine,  about  the  year  725  or  735.  At 
the  moment  of  her  death  three  men,  in 
shining  raiment,  were  seen  standing  by 
to  take  her  soul  to  heaven.  Deotila 
ruled  tho  convent  with  her  mother  for 
twenty-nine  years,  and  was  solo  abbess 
for  some  time.  Gertrude  succeeded  her. 

In  805,  during  an  invasion  of  tho 
Normans,  the  nuns  fled  from  Blangy  to 
tho  monastery  of  Estrues  at  Strasburg. 
They  took  with  them,  as  their  most 
sacred  treasures,  the  bodies  of  tho 
sainted  founder  and  her  two  daughters, 
Gertrude  and  Deotila.  They  brought 
them  back  on  their  return  to  Blaugy, 
many  years  afterwards. 

Seller  says  tho  Life  of  St.  Bertha  is 
by  an  anonymous  author  of  :the  loth 
or  1  1  th  century,  and  that  it  is  well 
established  that  she  was  worshipped 
directly  after  her  death.  Her  marriage 
and  her  foundations  are  facts,  but  the 
story  of  Roger  cannot  be  traced  to  any 
contemporary  source,  and  is  attributed 
by  Haillet  to  an  author  "  de  mauvaise  foi 
ct  fort  i/norant" 

Bouquet,  ifrcueiV,  iii.  021.  J.  B. 
Soller,  in  AA.SS.,  from  MS.  Ada  pre 
served  in  her  monastery.  Baillet,  1  "/»•*. 
Butler,  Liv<8.  Mabillon,  AA.SS.,  O.S.B., 
sice,  ii.  Duchesne,  Script.  Franc.,  i. 
<'»•'».").  Her  name  occurs  in  the  Auctaria 
to  Usuard,  July  4. 

St.  Bertha  (4)  of  Bingen,  May  15. 
•J"  c.  s<  »s.  She  was  tho  daughter  of  a 
Christian  prince  of  Lothariugia,  and 
married  Robold,  a  heathen  duke  of 
Bingen.  She  was  soon  left  a  widow 
with  a  son  Rupert,  three  years  old,  from 
whom  tho  Rupcrtsbcrg  took  its  name. 
Bertha  retired  from  her  castle,  and 


120 


B.  BERTHA 


devoted  the  rest  of  her  life  to  ftie  service 
of  Christ.  Rupert  from  his  earliest 
infancy  exhibited  an  unusual  gentleness 
and  sweetness.  His  mother  had  him 
well  instructed,  and  resolved  that  he 
should  rule  in  his  father's  stead  and 
protect  the  Church.  He  was  good  to 
the  poor,  and  spent  lavishly  in  building 
churches  and  places  of  refuge  for  them. 
Resolved,  however,  to  become,  like  his 
blessed  Lord,  a  stranger  upon  earth,  he 
left  his  home  and  made  a  pilgrimage  to 
Rome,  where  he  won  all  hearts  by  his 
gentle  goodness.  Here  he  met  holy 
men,  who  warned  him  to  remember  the 
words  of  St.  Matthew's  Gospel,  "  Go, 
sell  that  thou  hast,  and  give  to  the  poor, 
and  then  come  and  follow  Me."  Rupert 
resolved  to  follow  their  advice,  and  re 
turned  at  length  to  his  mother.  He 
then  divided  all  his  possessions,  which 
were  very  great,  amongst  his  servants 
and  followers,  with  special  provision  for 
the  care  of  the  poor,  and  retired  from 
the  world.  He  soon  afterwards  died  of 
a  fever,  in  his  twentieth  year,  and  was 
buried  in  a  church  which  he  had  built. 
After  his  death  Bertha  gave  herself  up 
more  than  ever  to  good  works,  fasting, 
almsgiving,  and  prayer,  and  after  twenty- 
five  years  of  patient  waiting,  she  died, 
and  was  buried  in  the  same  grave  with 
her  son  on  the  Rupertsberg.  ST.  HILDE- 
GARD  calls  her  Beata.  Tritheim  speaks 
of  her  as  a  holy  woman.  Pictures  of 
the  1  Oth  century  represent  her  with  the 
nimbus.  Henschenius,  in  AA.SS. 

B.  Bertha  (r>;  of  Biburg,  O.S.B. 
1151.  Represented  with  St.  Everard, 
offering  to  a  bishop  and  an  abbot,  who 
appear  in  the  clouds,  documents  with 
seals  hanging  from  them  ;  in  the  back 
ground  is  a  church  in  process  of  building. 
She  wears  the  halo  of  a  saint.  Only 
sister  of  ten  brothers,  to  whom  Biburg 
belonged.  One  of  these  was  St.  Everard, 
first  abbot  of  Biburg,  and  afterwards 
bishop  of  Salzburg.  With  the  help 
and  advice  of  St.  Otho,  bishop  of  Bam- 
berg,  Bertha  built  a  church  of  the  Order 
of  St.  Benedict,  and  a  hospice  for  the 
poor,  at  Bibnrg.  Barefooted,  she  carried 
the  stones,  and  assisted  in  the  pious 
work,  not  only  with  her  wealth,  but  with 
the  labours  of  her  hands.  Other  women 


followed  her  example.  The  temple  was 
finished  in  eight  years,  and  was  opened 
by  St.  Otho  of  Bamberg,  and  Henry, 
bishop  of  Ratisbon.  Bertha  lies  buried 
at  Biburg.  Jinrarifi  Snncta. 

St.  Bertha  ( »', ),  March  24,  V.  Ab 
bess.  O.S.B.  f11(3:i-  Daughter  of 
Lothario  di  Ugo,  count  of  Vernio.  She 
is  called,  by  Bucelinus  and  others,  Bertha 
de'  Bardi.  It  seems  more  probable  that 
she  belonged  to  the  family  of  Alberti, 
who  were  counts  of  Yernio  in  the  12th 
century;  the  county  only  passed  into 
the  hands  of  the  Bardi  in  the  14th 
century.  She  was  born  at  Florence, 
and  was  very  pious  from  her  infancy. 
In  114o  she  took  the  veil  in  the  convent 
of  ST.  FELICITAS,  in  Florence,  whence 
she  was  sent  by  the  Blessed  Gnaldo 
Galli,  general  of  the  Order  of  Yallam- 
brosa  (a  branch  of  the  Benedictines),  to- 
reform  and  preside  over  the  monastery 
of  St.  Mary,  at  Capriola  or  Cavriglia, 
in  Yaldarno.  Bertha  was  distinguished 
by  miracles  and  regarded  as  a  saint. 
She  was  not  buried  among  the  other 
nuns,  but  laid  in  a  coffin  under  the  high 
altar  of  the  chapel.  Brocchi,  Suuti 
Toscani.  Bucelinus,  Men.  Ben.  Helyot, 
Ordrcs  Monastiqucs,\.  2l».  Boll.,  AA.SS- 
Bucelinus  says  she  was  descended  from 
counts  of  Ravenna. 

B.  Bertha  (7),  countess  of  Raven- 
stein.  Founder  or  restorer  of  the  abbey 
of  Elchingen.  12th  century.  Honoured 
by  the  people  of  Bavaria  for  having 
driven  away  the  wild  geese  from  the 
banks  of  the  Upper  Danube.  Her  day 
is  unknown  to  Cahier.  She  is  not  Berthe 
Pedauque,  nor  the  Queen  of  Sheba. 
Cahier,  C«racteristiqu<s,  voc.  "  Oie." 

St.  Bertha  (  S  )  de  Marbais,  July  IS. 
"f  1247.  Cistercian  nun  at  Aquiria,  and 
first  Abbess  of  Marquette,  or  Marchet, 
near  Lille,  which  was  founded  by  Jane, 
countess  of  Flanders,  in  1227.  Migne. 
.Diet,  dt'8  Abbayes.  Henriquez  and  Bol- 
landus. 

Ven.  Bertha  ( '-' )  Jacobi,  June  2:>. 
142  7- ir>  14.  A  professed  sister  of  the 
rule  of  Anchorites,  she  lived  at  Utrecht 
more  than  fifty-seven  years,  in  her  cell, 
barefooted,  without  fire,  tasting  neither 
flesh  nor  milk,  and  wearing  only  a  hair 
shirt  and  a  single  tunic  winter  and 


ST.  BESSIA 


121 


summer.  She  died  at  the  age  of  eighty- 
seven,  and  was  buried,  by  her  own 
desire,  in  the  spot  where  she  had  led 
this  penitential  life.  D.  Papebroch,  in 
tin-  Acta  Sanctorum.  Appended  to  his 
account  is  a  copy  of  the  rule  of  the 
Anchorites. 

St.  Bertheline,  or  BEUTILINE,  patron 
of  Senois,  in  Guicnnc.  Pctits  Bol- 
\andisti  *. 

St.  Berthgith,  BEUATHGIT. 

St.  Berthilla,  BERTILLA. 

St.  Bertilana,  BERTILLA  (3). 

St.  Bertilda,  BERTILLA  (1). 

St.  Bertilia,  BEUTILLA. 

St.  Bertiline,  BERTHELINE. 

St.  Bertilia  <  1  ),May  11  (BERTHILIA, 
BEIITILIAJ.  -f  c.  660.  Of  Curtissolra, 
or  Conrtsohrc,  in  Hainault.  Wife  of 
St.  Walbert,  duke  of  Louvaine,  under 
Clothairo  II.  Mother  of  the  holy  ab 
besses  SS.  WALTHUDE  and  ALDEGUND. 
She  had  also  a  son,  St.  Ablebert.  Pape 
broch,  in  AA.SS.  Martin. 

St.  Bertilia  ('2  >,  Jan.  :j  (BKRTHILIA, 
or  BEHTILIA).  •(•  687.  Patron  of  Mar- 
cenil.  Of  noble  and  wealthy  parents. 
Married  (luthland.  They  spent  their 
lives  and  fortune  in  works  of  mercy  and 
piety.  After  Guthland's  death,  Bertilia 
gave  her  property  to  the  Church,  only 
reserving  one  small  estate,  on  which  she 
built  a  church  in  honour  of  Amandus, 
and  a  monastery  at  Marceuil,  in  Artois, 
wl.«-ro  she  was  buried.  Gerard,  second 
bi>hop  of  Artois,  had  her  bones  taken 
ii]  i.  to  honour  her  as  a  saint.  They  are 
still  venerated  there.  Pilgrimages  for 
diseases  of  the  eyes  are  made  to  tho 
fountain  of  St.  Bertilla  at  Marceuil. 
AA.SS.  Saiissayc,  Mart.  Gall. 

St.  Bertilia  (3),  or  BERTILANA,  Nov. 
5,    and    Juno    27,    V.     "\  <>i»2    or    702. 
A  hi  .ess  of  < 'holies.     Patron  of  Chelles, 
•I'  uiirre,  and  perhaps  of  Marolles.      It 
is   more   likely   that   it  is   by  con 
founding    her    with    her    contemporary 
!'•      riLLA  (2)  that  she  has  been  called 
"ii   of   Marollcf*.       Invoked    against 
\ellings,  sore   throats,  diseases 
«>f   horses,   storms,   hernia   in   children. 
Sli.   was  a  member  of  a  noble  family  at 
Soissons,  in    the    reign    of  Dagobert   I. 
H«T  parents  at  first  opposed  her  voca 
tion,  but  afterwards  placed   her  in   tho 


monastery  of  Jouarre,  near  Meaux,  newly 
founded  by  St.  Ado,  brother  of  her  friend 
and  adviser  St.  Owen,  and  where  ST. 
TEUTEHILD  was  abbess.  Bertilla  ac 
quitted  herself  so  well  that  she  was 
chosen  prioress,  and  when  Queen  BA- 
THILDE  refounded  the  monastery  of 
Chelles  on  the  Marne,  she  bogged  St. 
Teutehild  to  send  Bertilla  and  a  few 
nuns  to  establish  tho  new  community. 
Bertilla  was  tho  first  Abbess  of  Chelles, 
and  ruled  for  forty-six  years,  during 
which  ST.  BATHILDE,  queen  of  France, 
took  the  veil  there.  The  English  queen, 
ST.  HKHESWITHA,  was  probably  a  nun 
there  when  Bertilla  arrived.  Under 
Bertilla,  Cholles  became  one  of  tho 
famous  schools  of  piety  to  which  English 
ladies  resorted  when  they  wanted  to  be 
trained  in  monastic  life ;  some  remained 
there,  and  some,  after  a  time,  returned 
to  teach  their  countrywomen,  and  to 
plant  in  England  new  gardens  of  living 
trees  bearing  the  fruit  o/  good  works. 
Bertilla  was  ambitious  of  martyrdom, 
but  as  no  persecutors  were  forthcoming, 
she  martyred  herself  with  austerities. 
It  is  related  that  a  nun  spoke  unkindly 
to  her  in  a  moment  of  ill  temper.  Ber 
tilla  did  not  answer,  but  prayed  that 
God  would  judge  between  them.  A  few 
days  afterwards  the  nun  died.  Bertilla, 
fearing  that  her  imprecation  might  have 
brought  this  judgment,  entreated  tho 
dead  woman's  forgiveness.  Thereupon 
tho  nun  came  to  life,  and  said  that  she 
forgave  Bertilla,  and  that  God  had  for 
given  them  both.  She  then  closed  her 
eyes  again  in  death.  Butler,  Lives. 
Baillet,  Vies.  Bucelinus,  Men.  Ben., 
June  27.  Menard,  Mnrt.  Ben.,  Nov.  4. 
Giry,  Diet.  Hag. 

St.  Bertoara,  or  BERTRADE,  Dec.  4. 
7th  century.  According  to  Martin's 
French  MnrtyroltHjy,  St.  Bertoara  is 
patron  of  tho  church  of  Sales,  in  Savoy, 
whr.ro  she  was  a  nun,  and  is  honoured 
at  Bourges. 

St.  Bertrade,  BERTOARA. 

St.  Bertrana,  July  20,  V.  Abbess. 
S.inssayc,  Appendix  to  Mart.  Gall. 

St.  Besia,  M. 

St.  Bessa,  Dec.  18,  M.     P.B. 

St.  Bessia  (  1 ;,  July  2S,  M.  at  Lao- 
dii-ra  in  Phrygia.  AA.SS. 


122 


ST.   BESSIA 


St.  Bessia  ('2 ),  YESTIXA.  A  martyr 
of  Scillita.  (See  JANUAHIA  (1).) 

B.  Bessela,  March  24.  12th  cen 
tury.  Abbess  and  founder  of  Wert. 
Wife  of  Folcold,  count  of  Bern,  near 
Bois  lo  Due,  and  Teisterband.  His 
lands  lay  between  the  Meuse  and  the 
Waal,  and  included  Hensdan,  Altena, 
and  the  island  of  Bomnelaua.  Once,  in 
a  battle,  being  hard  beset  by  his  enemies, 
lie  leaped  with  his  horse  into  the  Meuse, 
vowing  at  the  same  moment  that  if  he 
were  saved  he  would  build  a  monastery. 
His  safety  was  ensured  by  the  VIIKM.V 
MARY,  who  was  seen  sitting  behind  him 
on  his  horse.  He  fulfilled  his  vow  in 
1134,  with  the  consent  of  his  wife, 
Bessela,  and  the  bishop,  by  turning  his 
castle  of  Bern  into  a  monastery  of  the 
Premonstratensian  Order.  The  Blessed 
Eobert,  abbot  of  the  Island  of  St.  Mary, 
a  house  of  the  same  order,  sent  him 
brothers  for  his  new  establishment,  and 
set  the  Blessed  Everard  over  them.  Fol 
cold  became  a  lay- brother  in  his  own 
monastery,  and  lived  there  for  fifteen 
years  in  great  humility.  Bessela  also 
took  the  monastic  habit,  and  became 
founder  and  first  abbess  of  Wert,  be 
tween  the  Meuse  and  the  Waal,  where 
she  ruled  over  seventy  Premonstratensian 
nuns.  Folcold  and  Bessela  died  about 
1  i:>3.  AA.SS.,  Prseter.  Le  Paige, 
ID  ill.  Prsem.  Ordinis. 

St.  Beth,  ELIZABETH  OF  REUTHE. 

St.  Betilda,  BATHILDE. 

St.  Bettelina.  Not  later  than  9th 
century.  Worshipped  at  Croyland — sup 
posed  to  have  been  a  nun  there.  Stadler. 

St.  Beuve,  BOVA. 

St.  Bevea,  BAIIBEA. 

St.  Bey,  BEGA. 

St.  Beya,  BEGA  (1),  and  VEY. 

St.  Bez,  BEGA  (1). 

St.  Bibiana,  or  YIVIANA,  Dec.  2, 
V.  M.  364.  Patron  of  the  city  of 
Seville ;  against  epilepsy ;  and  of  drinkers 
in  Germany ;  invoked  against  drunken 
ness  and  headache,  apparently  enabling 
her  votaries  to  indulge  their  taste  for 
strong  drink  with  impunity. 

Represented  (1)  in  her  church  in 
Rome,  holding  a  dagger  and  a  palm ; 
(2 )  holding  a  branch  with  little  twigs  on 
it ;  (3)  carrying  bags. 


Daughter  of  SS.  Flavianus  and  DA- 
FROSA.  Sister  of  ST.  DEMETKIA.  Scourged 
to  death  at  Rome,  under  Apronius,  in 
the  time  of  Julian  the  Apostate.  Her 
body  was  ordered  to  be  left  for  beasts  to 
eat,  but  after  two  days  it  was  taken  at 
night  by  a  pious  Christian  priest  named 
John,  and  buried  near  the  palace  of 
Lucinius.  A  chapel  was  built  over  her 
grave  on  the  restoration  of  peace  to  the 
Church. 

It  is  not  unlikely  that  her  martyrdom 
and  that  of  her  parents  took  place  in  the 
reign  of  Gallienus,  just  a  century  earlier. 
There  was  no  organized  persecution  of 
the  Church  under  Julian,  although  there 
are  instances  of  such  martyrdoms,  either 
for  private  ends  of  the  persecutors  or  on 
account  of  political  action  on  the  part 
of  Christians. 

R.M.  Butler,  Lives.  Lcygendario. 
Ribadeneyra.  Vega.  Villegas.  Bede. 
Husenbeth.  AA.SS.,  St,Pigmemu9t  March 
23.  Baring-Gould,  Lives,  Dec.  2. 

St.  Biblias,  or  BIBLIS,  Juno  2.  3rd 
century.  One  of  the  martyrs  of  Lyons. 
She  was  one  of  the  ten  who,  on  being 
accused  as  Christians,  denied  their  faith, 
and  even  accused  the  others  of  crimes, 
in  order  to  screen  themselves  by  appear 
ing  not  to  belong  to  the  same  community. 
The  apostates  were  treated  with  con 
tempt  by  the  multitude,  and  were  kept 
in  prison  with  the  other  Christian  con 
fessors  until  the  Emperor's  pleasure 
should  be  known  regarding  them.  On 
the  arrival  of  an  order  that  the  Christians 
should  bo  put  to  death,  but  that  those 
who  would  renounce  their  errors  should 
be  set  at  liberty,  the  apostates  were 
brought  before  the  tribunal  again.  To 
the  surprise  of  all,  they  declared  them 
selves  ashamed  of  their  base  denial  of 
their  faith,  and  ready  to  prove  their 
repentance  by  enduring  tortures  and 
death.  Biblias,  as  a  Roman  citizen,  was 
beheaded.  She  was  first  tortured,  and, 
when  asked  if  the  Christians  sacrificed 
nnd  ate  their  own  children,  she  answered, 
"  How  can  they  eat  their  own  children, 
when  they  are  not  even  allowed  to  eat 
the  blood  of  animals?"  Baillet,  Vie. 
(See  BLAXDIXA.) 

St.  Bicca,  or  NICAS,  June  28,  M  in 
Africa.  AA.SS. 


ST.    BLANCHE 


L23 


St.  Bienvenue,  BKNVI:M:TA. 

St.  Bilhild  (  1  i.  BH. UK.  IIII.I.K. 
HII.DIS,  Bmm.n,  llmmu),  Bi.mm.n.  1-Yh. 
I'-:  with  her  husband,  Oct.  28.  7th 
ury.  A  woman  of  high  rank.  Mar 
ried  St.  Faro,  a  nobleman  at  the  court 
of  Clothaire  II.,  early  in  the  7th  o-n- 
tnry.  Faro  and  Bilhild  served  God  to 
gether  to  tho  best  of  their  ability,  until 
at  lust  h«j  found  so  many  hindrances  and 
distractions  that  they  agreed  to  separate. 
Bilhild  took  the  veil,  and  settled  in  a 
solitary  place  on  one  of  their  estates, 
supposed  to  be  now  Champiguy.  Faro 
me  ji  monk,  and,  in  G27,  was  inudo 
Bishop  of  Meaux.  The  devil,  who  is 
always  watching  to  destroy  the  just, 
troubled  him  with  memories  of  his  wife. 
Ho  sent  three  times  to  ask  her  to  como 
and  see  him.  At  last  she  came  ;  but,  lest 
she  should  expose  the  servant  of  God  to 
tin-  traps  of  Satan,  she  cut  off  all  her 
hair,  and  put  on  ugly  old  clothes  and  a 
cilicium.  He  admired  her  courage,  and, 
shuddering  at  tho  sight  of  her,  sent  her 
away.  She  then  became  a  nun  under 
his  sister,  ST.  FARA.  Bucelinus.  Mon- 
lulembort,  Moines.  Saussaye,  Mart.  Gal. 

St.  Bilhild  i  2),  GUXTILD  (1). 

St.  Bilhild  !.:>,  Nov.  27.  8th  cen 
tury.  Al-licss  and  widow.  Born,  to 
wards  the  cud  of  the  7th  century,  at 
Hochheim.  Daughter  of  the  noble  Ibe- 
rim  and  Mechtrida.  She  was  brought 
up  at  Wurtzburg,  and  married  very 
Duke  Hottau.  When  she  was 
eighteen  her  husband  was  Jailed  in 
battle,  and  her  only  child  died.  She 
built  tho  nunnery  of  Altmiiuster,  or 
Antiquacella,  at  Maintz.  She  was  christ- 
i  by  ln-r  unch:  Sigobert,  bishop  of 
that  city,  and  ruled  over  a  large  com 
munity.  The  monastery  was  afterwards 
called  All»as  Domino*,  "White  Ladies," 
and  M 1  until  the  end  of  tho  18th  cen 
tury.  II.  r  mum;  is  in  tho  German, 
•K;h,  and  Hem  -.lie-tine  Martyrolo- 
bner.  The  liev.  Baring-Gould  gives 
her  Lift  from  the  Maintz  Breviary. 
Molanns.  Bucelinus. 

St.  Bilhild  •  I  >,  or  lii.miii.i).     A  nun 
whom  St.  Pra  j.-ctus,  bishop  of  Clermont, 

martyr,   callc.l   -a    worthy   servant 
lirist."  ami  hold  in  L'iv:it  veneration. 
Saussayu,  Mart.  (,nl.,  p.   H'J1.'. 


St.  Birgitta,  BKIGID  of  Sweden. 

St.  Birona,  BKATA  ('!). 

BlSSia  of  Alexandria,  Jtilv  L's. 
Riche. 

St.  Bistamona,  June  4.  Sister  of 
ST.  DIBAMONA,  and  daughter  of  Si. 
SOPHIA — all  martyred  in  Egypt.  Guerin 
supposes  her  to  be  tho  same  as  Ei.ri-, 
or  ESPEKANCE.  (See  FAITH,  HOPE, 
and  CHARITY.)  AA.SS.  Petits  Bol- 
landistes. 

B.  Bivia,  companion  of  B.  CATHEKIXE 
HoitiGiA,  and  one  of  tho  first  nuns  of  the 
Order  of  St.  Ambrose  ad  Nemus.  Helyot, 
Ord.  Mou.,  iv.  9. 

St.  Blaesilla,  Jan.  22.  f:r>o.  A 
disciple  of  St.  Jerome.  Her  husband 
died  seven  months  after  their  marriage. 
After  Blaesilla's  death,  St.  Jerome  wrote 
letters  of  condolence  to  her  mother,  ST. 
PAULA,  and  her  sister,  ST.  EUSTOCHIIM. 
Bollandus  gives  several  extracts  from  his 
letters,  setting  forth  her  virtues  and  piety. 
Boll.,  AA.SS. 

Blanca  (1),  ALDA. 

Blanca  (  -  >,  BLANCHE. 

St.  Blanche  <  l ),  Nov.  no.  c.  1187- 
125:5.  Wife  of  Louis  VIII.,  king  of 
Franco  022.^-1220).  Mother  of  St. 
Louis  (IX. )  ( 122()-1270).  Sho  was  the 
eldest  of  the  eleven  or  twelve  daughters 
of  Alfonso  IX.,  king  of  Castillo  (1188- 
.1214).  Three  of  her  sisters  were  queens 
respectively  of  Portugal,  Leon,  and 
Arragon.  Her  mother  was  tho  daughter 
of  Henry  II.,  king  of  England.  Philip 
II.,  called  "  Augustus  "  and  "  tho  Great," 
king  of  France  ( 1 180-122:} ),  desired,  for 
political  reasons,  to  make  an  alliance 
with  England  and  with  Spain  by  marrying 
his  son  Louis  to  tho  daughter  of  the 
King  of  Castillo.  John,  king  of  England, 
also  favoured  tho  project.  Eleanor  of 
Guienno  had  married,  first,  Louis  VII.  of 
France,  from  whom  she  was  divorced ; 
and  secondly,  Henry  II.  of  England. 
Sho  was  thus  grandmother  of  Louis  VIII. 
and  of  Blanche,  and  took  great  part  in 
negotiating  tho  marriage.  As  soon  as 
tho  arr;m<_'«  nieuts  were  concluded,  she 
wnit  to  Castillo  as  ambassador  for  tho 
two  kings,  to  propose  for  tho  Princess 
1'dunchoand  to  fetch  her.  Tho  marriage 
was  celebrated,  by  proxy  ( c.  1 2<n > ),  at 
Burgos,  with  great  magnificence. 


124: 


ST.   BLANCHE 


Blanche's  father  and  his  court  accom 
panied  her  to  the  frontier  of  Gascony, 
where  Louis  sent  Matthew  de  Mont- 
morency  to  receive  her.  The  marriage 
could  not  be  solemnized  at  Paris,  because 
the  kingdom  was  under  an  interdict,  on 
account  of  Philip's  repudiation  of  his 
wife  Ingibiorg,  and  his  unlawful  marriage 
to  Agnes  of  Meran.  Normandy,  how 
ever,  being  the  property  of  the  bride's 
uncle,  John,  king  of  England,  that 
monarch  went  to  meet  her  and  conducted 
her  thither,  and  the  wedding  was  cele 
brated  at  Parmoy  by  the  Archbishop  of 
Bonrges  in  presence  of  a  brilliant 
assemblage  of  prelates  and  nobles  of 
France  and  England.  Louis  "  emmena 
sacJiere  moicte"  to  Paris  to  the  gay  court 
of  Philip  Augustus,  where  the  greater 
part  of  her  married  life  was  passed. 
The  young  couple  were  thirteen  or 
fourteen  years  old,  both  amiable,  inno 
cent,  pious,  and  much  alike  in  many 
ways,  so  that  they  became  devotedly 
attached,  and  could  not  bear  io  lose  sight 
of  each  other,  and  no  couple  were  ever 
more  united  or  more  happy.  Blanche 
was  remarkable  all  her  life  for  her  noble 
qualities  of  heart  and  intellect.  When 
she  came  to  Franco  her  beauty  and 
dignity  won  the  hearts  of  all  the  French, 
and  her  conversation  was  so  reasonable 
and  so  charming  that  it  was  impossible 
to  refuse  her  anything.  Her  father-in- 
law  admitted  the  value  of  her  judgment, 
and  was  often  guided  by  her  advice ;  her 
husband  would  not  undertake  the  smallest 
thing  without  consulting  her.  The  chief 
business  of  his  short  reign  was  the  war 
with  England.  The  French  won  back 
many  of  the  places  which  were  in  the 
hands  of  the  English,  and  would  prob 
ably  have  driven  them  out  of  France  had 
Louis  not  abandoned  the  struggle  for  the 
purpose  of  fighting  the  Albigenses. 
Blanche,  who  had  a  pious  horror  of 
heretics  and  infidels,  gave  some  of  her 
furniture  and  some  valuable  rings  to 
contribute  to  the  expense  of  a  war  which 
she  considered  sacred.  She  went  with 
him  to  Languedoc,  and  lived  for  some 
time  in  the  camp,  to  encourage  the  Catho 
lics.  During  this  campaign  a  pestilence 
broke  out  in  the  French  army ;  among 
the  immense  number  of  victims  was  the 


king.  He  made  the  nobles  swear  alle" 
giance  to  his  son  Louis  IX.  the  Saint, 
who  was  only  eleven  years  old,  and 
appointed  Blanche  to  be  regent  until 
Louis  should  reach  the  age  of  twenty. 

The  barons  thought  the  reign  of  a 
child  and  the  regency  of  a  woman  an 
excellent  opportunity  to  recover  the 
power  and  independence  they  had  lost 
under  Philip  Augustus.  They  banded 
together  against  the  queen-mother,  but 
her  firmness  of  character  and  political 
ability  were  more  than  a  match  for  their 
arrogant  pretensions.  The  most  power 
ful  of  her  opponents  was  Thibault,  count 
of  Champagne,  afterwards  king  of  Na 
varre,  an  accomplished  knight,  a  brave 
soldier,  and  a  poet,  who  had  long  been 
in  love  with  Blanche,  and  having  never 
received  the  smallest  encouragement 
from  her,  now  thought  to  punish  her 
cruelty;  but  she  put  him  to  shame  by 
her  remonstrances,  and  he  became  her 
staunchest  champion,  and  helped  her  to- 
overcome  his  former  colleagues,  so  that 
her  regency  strengthened  the  authority 
of  the  crown  and  enriched  it  by  prudent 
alliances. 

One  of  the  notable  events  that  occurred 
in  Europe  during  her  regency  was  the 
establishment,  in  1229,  of  the  Inquisi 
tion,  which  Professor  Gustavo  Masson 
characterizes  as  "  the  most  formidable 
engine  of  ecclesiastical  discipline  the 
world  has  ever  seen." 

Blanche  took  very  great  trouble  and 
care  in  the  education  of  her  children. 
St.  Louis  grew  up  to  be  one  of  the  best 
kings  that  ever  reigned  in  any  country, 
and  one  of  the  best  men  that  ever  lived 
in  France.  She  said  to  the  young  king, 
"  My  son,  I  would  rather  see  you  dead 
than  guilty  of  a  mortal  sin."  She  was 
regent  for  him  a  second  time  while  he 
was  absent  at  the  sixth  crusade  (124!»). 
She  and  all  his  wisest  advisers  dis 
approved  of  his  expedition  to  Palestine. 
She  favoured  the  clergy,  both  from  piety 
and  policy.  Both  she  and  her  husband 
are  revered  by  Franciscans  as  members 
of  their  Third  Order.  The  two  monas 
teries  she  built  were  Cistercian,  namely, 
Maubuisson,  at  Pontoise,  where  -she  is 
buried,  and  Le  Lys,  near  Meluu,  where 
her  heart  is  buried.  She  helped  her 


ST.   BLAXDIXA 


125 


son  to  bring  to  Paris  the  holy  crown  of 
thorns,  which  ho  got  from  the  Turks. 
A  festival  was  instituted  in  its  honour, 
Aug.  1  1.  (Gynecseum  and  GbfcJbuA. ) 

During  his  second  expedition  to  the 
holy  wars  in  the  seventh  crusade,  Blanche 
died,  on  hearing  that  he  had  vowed  to 
remain  there. 

She  had  eleven  children,  several  of 
whom  died  young.  One  was  Charles, 
count  of  Anjou,  who  had  Aujou  and 
Maine  from  his  father,  Provence  and 
Forcalquier  from  his  wife,  the  kingdom 
of  the  Two  Sicilies  by  his  sword.  He 
would  also  have  had  the  empire  of 
Greece,  but  for  the  jealousy  of  the  Pope 
(Mezerayj. 

Of  her  two  daughters,  one  died  in 
infancy  and  the  other  was  SAINTE  ISA- 
IIKU.K  DI:  FRANCE. 

Mf/uray,  Histoire  de  France.  Dr. 
Brewer,  History  of  France.  Gustavo 
M;isson,  Mcdiseval  France.  The  con 
temporary  accounts  of  the  reign  of  Louis 
IX.,  and  particularly  of  his  expedition 
to  the  holy  wars,  in  the  collections  of 
Bouquet,  Bouchon,  etc.,  are  full  of 
interest.  Saussaye,  Mart.  GnU.  Her 
/-'/'•  is  to  be  given  by  the  Bollandists 
when  they  come  to  her  day. 

B.  Blanche  (2),  April  2t).  Daughter 
of  Philip  III.  the  Fair,  king  of  Franco 
<  li>.Y- 1:5 14).  Worshipped  in  the  con 
vent  of  Longchamps,  near  Paris,  founded 
by  her  great-aunt,  ST.  ISABELLE  DE 
FRANCE.  AA.SS.,  Prseter ,  from  the 
Fi"' i  in-/ si-  in  M<irt. 

B.  Blanche  (3),  Jan.  14.  Abbess  of 
Argensol,  in  Champagne  (founded  1220). 
When  it  was  revealed  to  her  that  Blanche, 
countess  of  Champagne,  queen  of  Xavarre, 
and  founder  of  her  convent,  must  die 
and  lose  her  soul,  this  saintly  woman 
gave  up  her  own  life  as  the  only  con 
dition  on  which  she  could  ransom  that 
of  her  friend.  JUicelinus,  Mm.  Sen. 

St.  Blanda  (1),  May  in,  M.  222. 
Wife  of  St.  Felix,  M.  Sho  was  paralytic 
and  bedridden  for  four  years.  Felix, 
hearing  of  the  miracles  of  the  Christians, 
applied  to  Palmatias — a  consul  newly 
converted  to  Christianity — promising  to 
adopt  that  religion  if  his  wife  were 
<•ur.il.  Palmatius,  who  was  a  guest  and 
prisoner  in  the  house  of  Simplicius, 


threw  himself  on  his  knees  and  pr.iyo  1 
for  the  restoration  of  BlamLi  to  health. 
Before  an  hour  had  elapsed,  Blanda  run 
to  the  house,  praising  God,  and  begging 
to  bo  baptized  with  her  husband.  Pal 
matius  then  sent  for  St.  Calixtus,  the 
Pope,  who  baptized  them  and  converted 
and  baptized  Simplicius,  his  wife  and 
children,  and  about  sixty-eight  persons 
of  his  household.  The  Emperor  Alex 
ander  was  very  angry,  and  had  all  the 
new  converts  beheaded  and  their  heads 
stuck  on  the  different  gates  of  Kerne,  as 
a  warning  to  Christians.  I?.J/.  Boll., 
AA.SS.,  who  give  the  Acts  "  per  notaries 
Romanes  Couscripta." 

Blanda  (2),  May  l;j,  June  12; 
with  St.  Eleutherius,  Feb.  20,  V.  <>th 
century.  Raised  to  life,  baptized  and 
consecrated  to  God  by  St.  Eleutherius, 
bishop  of  Tournay.  Sho  led  a  holy 
life,  and  her  relics  are  honoured,  with 
those  of  Eleutherius,  in  the  cathedral  of 
Tournay.  Gallia  Christiana,  iii.  571. 
Henschenius,  AA.SS.,  Feb.  20. 

St.  Blandina,  June  2,  Y.M.  f  c.  177. 
One  of  the  martyrs  of  Lyons.  Patron 
of  young  girls. 

Represented  ( 1 )  with  a  gridiron ; 
(2)  tied  to  a  stake  or  pillar,  a  lion,  bear, 
or  ox  standing  by. 

A  sanguinary  and  indiscriminate  per 
secution  of  tlio  ( 'liristiaus  occurred  at 
Lyons  and  Yienne,  in  the  reign  of  one 
of  the  best  of  men,  as  well  as  most 
tolerant  of  rulers,  namely,  Marcus  Aure- 
lius  Antoninus.  These  cruelties  were 
carried  on  by  the  local  authorities  after 
the  Emperor  had  ordered  the  suspension 
of  the  persecution.  There  is  nothing  in 
sacred  history  more  authentic  than  the 
story  of  the  Martyrs  of  Lyons.  The 
circumstances  are  related  in  a  letter 
from  the  surviving  Christians  of  those 
Churches  to  those  of  Phrygia  and  Asia. 
This  letter  is  supposed  to  bo  written  by 
St.  Irenteus,  coadjutor  of  St.  Photinus, 
bishop  of  Lyons.  Part  of  it  is  preserved 
in  the  Ecd&fattical  Jlint<n  //  of  Eusebius, 
who  says  that  ho  has  given  it  in  full  in 
his  Book  of  Martyrs,  which  is  lost. 
The  letter  says  that  uthe  faithful  were 
dragged  about  the  streets,  imprisoned, 
stoned,  and  overwhelmed  with  outran 
Among  the  most  distinguished  of  the 


120 


ST.  BLANDIXA 


forty-nine  martyrs  was  Vettius  Epaga- 
thus,  who,  before  he  had  be^n  arrested 
or  accused  as  a  Christian,  publicly  re 
monstrated  against  the  injustice  of  con 
demning  them  without  evidence ;  and 
undertook  to  prove  that  they  were 
innocent  of  any  crime.  He  was  placed 
amongst  the  confessors,  and  it  is  probable 
that  as  a  Roman  citizen  he  was  one  of 
those  eventually  beheaded,  like  Attains, 
who,  after  being  led  into  the  amphi 
theatre  to  fight  with  beasts  for  the 
amusement  of  the  populace,  was  re 
manded  to  prison  for  a  time  and  suffered 
the  more  dignified  penalty.  Sanctus  a 
deacon,  and  Maturus  a  neophyte,  were 
killed  by  being  roasted  in  hot  iron 
chairs.  The  aged  Bishop  Photinus 
was  one  of  several  who  died  of  the 
poisonous  atmosphere  of  the  prison, 
before  any  torture  was  inflicted  on  them. 
Ten  of  the  accused  apostatized ;  among 
them  ST.  BIBLIAS.  They  were  im 
prisoned  with  the  rest,  and  treated  with 
greater  contempt  on  account  of  their 
cowardice.  It  happened  that  some  of 
the  Christians  had  heathen  slaves  who 
were  arrested  with  them,  and  these,  in 
their  terror  of  being  identified  with  the 
proscribed  sect,  accused  them  of  the 
most  horrible  crimes.  Meantime  the  con 
fessors  would  not  allow  any  one  to  call 
them  martyrs.  By  their  intercession 
and  example,  they  reclaimed  many  of 
the  apostates.  After  some  delay,  while 
the  Emperor's  decision  was  awaited, 
these  were  re-examined,  and  were  offered 
their  liberty,  on  condition  that  they 
should  positively  renounce  their  religion, 
but,  with  the  exception  of  those  who  had 
never  been  Christians  at  heart,  and  had 
led  wicked  lives,  they  only  desired  the 
privilege  of  suffering  with  their  brethren, 
who  now  received  them  with  open  arms. 
Blandina  was  a  slave,  of  such  a  delicate 
constitution  and  so  little  courage  that 
her  mistress,  who  was  among  the  martyrs, 
feared  she  would  bo  wearied  or  terrified 
into  apostasy.  The  executioners  relieved 
each  other  in  torturing  her,  from  dawn 
iintil  sunset,  in  order  to  induce  her 
to  accuse  her  mistress  and  the  other 
Christians,  as  the  heathen  slaves  had 
done.  But  she  said,  "  I  am  a  Christian ; 
crimes  are  not  tolerated  among  us." 


After  many  kinds  of  torture  had  been 
tried  upon  her,  she  was  bound  to  a  stake 
to  be  devoured  by  the  wild  beasts  that 
were  driven  into  the  arena.  Hanging 
thus,  as  if  on  a  cross,  and  praying 
earnestly,  she  greatly  encouraged  the 
other  confessors,  who  saw  in  their  sister 
an  image  of  Him  who  was  crucified  for 
them.  As  none  of  the  beasts  would 
touch  her,  she  was  taken  back  to  the 
prison.  On  the  last  day  of  the  gladia 
torial  games,  she  and  Ponticus,  a  lad  of 
fifteen,  who  seems  to  have  been  her 
brother,  after  they  had  witnessed  the 
death  of  all  their  companions,  were  com 
manded  to  swear  by  the  idols.  Ponticus, 
encouraged  by  Blandina,  refused,  and 
was  at  once  put  to  death.  Blandina  was 
scourged,  torn  by  beasts,  and  made  to 
sit  in  the  burning  chair,  after  which  she 
was  enveloped  in  a  net  and  thrown  down 
before  a  wild  cow,  which  tossed  her 
about  and  tore  her  limb  from  limb. 
The  pagans  admitted  that  none  of  their 
women  could  have  endured  such  torments 
so  bravely.  The  bodies  of  the  saints 
were  given  to  be  eaten  by  dogs,  and 
soldiers  watched  day  and  night  to 
prevent  any  of  them  from  being  buried 
by  their  friends.  Some  tried  in  vain  to 
bribe  the  guards  to  give  up  the  bodies, 
but  all  that  remained  of  the  martyrs  was 
burned  and  the  ashes  thrown  into  the 
Rhone.  It  was  presumed  that  this  would 
destroy  the  hope  of  their  resurrection. 
The  names  of  the  martyrs  who  suffered 
at  the  same  time  as  Blandina  are  judged 
to  have  been  taken  from  the  original 
account.  Twelve  men  and  twelve  women 
were  beheaded  as  Roman  citizens.  The 
women  were  SS.  ALBINA,  BIBLIAS  or 
BIBLIS,  ELPIS  who  is  also  called  AMNKA 
or  AMNIA,  EMILIA,  GRATA  or  AGRATA, 
JULIA,  MATERNA,  POMPEIA,  POSTUMIANA 
or  POTAMIA,  MAIITA,  RHODANA,  ROGATA. 
Nine  men  and  nine  women  died  in  prison ; 
the  latter  were  SS.  ALUMNA  or  DOMNA, 
ANTONIA,  AUSONIA,  EMILIA,  JAMNICA  or 
GAMNITE,  JULIA,  JUSTA,  POMPEIA,  and 
TiioriiiMA.  Blandina  was  the  only 
woman  who  was  thrown  to  the  beasts. 
Some  of  the  Christians  were  brought 
from  Vienne  to  Lyons  to  be  tried  and 
executed  with  their  brethren  there ;  but 
they  are  generally  all  called  *•  The 


ST.   BOX  A 


127 


Martyrs  of  Lyons  ;  "  they  are  also  called 
"Martyrs  of  Aisnai" — supposed  to  bo 
the  spot  in  Lyons  where  they  were  put 
to  death.  According  to  another  theory, 
the  site  of  their  martyrdom  was  the 
amphitheatre  on  Mount  Forviere.  Blan- 
dina  is  generally  considered  the  chief 
of  these  martyrs,  and  churches  dedicated 
in  honour  of  the  forty-eight  Martyrs  of 
Lyons  are  often  called  by  her  name. 

'/t'..lf.  AA.SS.  Tillemont.  Baillet. 
Butler.  Th,-  Epistle  of  the  GaUim,, 
Church,  s,  translated  by  P>indley(S.P.C.K.). 

St.  Blata,  or  BLATHA,  i.e.  Flora,  Jan. 
20,  V.  ST.  BRIGID'S  cook,  f  c.  :>2:;. 
Colgan,  Ii-'txli  Snintx,  ii.  <>2i>,  Appendix. 

St.  Blath  (1),  an  Irish  V.,  Jan.  18, 
honoured  with  ST.  SCOTH  (2). 

St.  Blath  (2),  BLATA. 

St.  Blatta,  April  22,  V.  Nun  at 
Anastasiopolis,  the  capital  of  Ancyra. 
Sister  of  St.  Theodore  Syceota  ("f  (>13), 
bishop  of  Anastasiopolis,  archimandrite 
of  the  monasteries  of  Galatia.  Boll., 
AA.SS.,  Praett,: 

St.  Blictrude.  Supposed  to  mean 
PLECTRUDK. 

St.  Blida,  May  :i<>.  llth  century. 
Mother  of  St.  Walstan.  Wife  of  Bene 
dict,  of  a  rich  and  influential  family.  They 
lived  at  Baber,  afterwards  called  Baw- 
burgh,  in  Norfolk,  where  Walstan  was 
born.  He  was  ascetic  and  pious  from 
his  youth.  He  gave  his  own  clothes  and 
shoes  to  the  poor,  and  became  a  farm- 
servant  at  Taverham,  near  Cossey.  Ho 
died  working  in  the  field,  May  .'5<>5  1016. 
All  these  places  are  within  a  few  miles 
of  Norwich.  A  well  near  Cossey  still 
bears  his  name,  and  pilgrimages  were 
made  to  ensure  his  intercession  against 
fever,  lameness,  blindness,  and  palsy. 
I51ida  is  represented  (1)  as  a  saint,  on 
the  chancel  window  of  North  Tudden- 
hain  Church ;  (2)  crowned,  and  holding 
a  book  and  palm.  This  representation 
was  formerly  to  bo  seen  on  the  rood- 
screen  of  St.  James's,  Norwich,  and  is 
now  in  private  possession  at  Aylslmni. 
Husenbeth,  EmlJ,  /»*  of  X /////*.  IJutler, 
Liv<'8.  Capgrave,  fol.  : 

Blithildis  <>r  Blithilda,  GKRB] 

St.  Blittrude,  PI.K  m  DB. 

St.  Bogha,  sister  of  SS.  COLMA  and 

\U.\. 


B.  Bogna,  June  1:;.  llth  century. 
One  of  the  patrons  of  Poland.  She  and 
her  husband  were  of  the  most  illustrious 
families  in  Poland.  They  were  childless 
for  thirty  years.  In  lO.'Jn  their  son 
Stanislas  Sezepanowski  was  born  at 
Sc/epano\v,  near  Cracow.  As  bishop  of 
that  town,  he  was  the  only  person  who 
dared  to  reprove  Boleslas  II.  the  Cruel, 
for  his  licentious,  tyrannical,  and  bar 
barous  conduct.  After  repeated  remon 
strances,  ho  excommunicated  the  king, 
who  therefore  murdered  him,  1079. 
Stanislas  and  his  mother  are  buried  at 
Sezepanow.  The  Bollandists  do  not 
sanction  her  worship,  but  describe  her 
virtues  and  those  of  her  husband  in  the 
Life  of  their  son  St.  Stanislas,  May  7. 
Butler,  Lives,  "St.  Stanislas."  Bogna 
appears  in  the  AA.SS.  amongst  the 
PseterwixKi,  June  l.'J. 

St.  Bologne,  BHLMXIA. 

St.  Bolonia,  Oct.  l»l  (in  French, 
BOLOGNE  or  BOULOGNE),  V.  M.  "f"  c.  372 
or  'M2.  Worshipped  at  Chaumont, 
Haute  Marne.  When  she  was  very 
young  her  mother  died,  leaving  her  to 
the  care  of  a  ( Christian  nurse.  Her 
father,  for  fear  of  the  Emperor,  sent  her 
away  to  live  with  the  nurse.  Bolonia 
tended  the  sheep.  When  she  was  fifteen 
Ptolemy,  a  general  under  Julian,  tried 
to  seduce  her  and  then  to  marry  her. 
He  persecuted  her  in  various  ways,  and 
after  many  tortures,  ordered  her  to- 
sacrifice  to  the  gods.  She  answered,  "  I 
sacrifice  myself  to  the  living  God."  Ho 
put  her  into  a  vessel  full  of  water,  with 
stones  and  fetters  to  ensure  her  being 
drowned.  In  this  she  was  thrown  from 
the  top  of  the  hill  on  which  her  father's 
castle  stood,  and  arrived  safe  and  well, 
shining  with  unearthly  beauty  and  glory, 
on  the  bank  of  the  river.  Then  her 
head  was  cut  off,  and  she  carried  it  in 
her  hands  across  tlie  river  to  bo  burl-  1. 
She  was  not,  as  some  have  supposed,  tho 
sister  of  SS.  Gall  and  Bercharius.  Bou 
logne,  in  Chaumont,  is  said  to  bo  named 
after  her.  She  is  worshipped  there  with 
a  special  service  of  nine  lessons  and  two 
collects,  although  she  is  not  mentioned 
in  the  old  nmrtyrologies.  Boll.,  AA.SS., 
<  )ct.  It'. ;  and  Prxbr.,  July  1  7. 

St.  Bona  (1),  Sept.  12  (CABJCUHDIOA, 


128 


ST.  BOXA 


MI.NDICORDA),  V.  Supposed  a  nun  in 
Egypt,  in  the  7th  centur^.  AA.SS., 
Prdettr.  Worshipped  at  Treviso.  Migue. 
Ferrarius. 

St.  Bona  (2),  B..VA. 

St.  Bona  (:i),  May  20,  V.  of  Pisa. 
1156-1207.  Represented  carrying  a 
pilgrim's  staff  and  a  short  double-barred 
cross  in  her  joined  hands.  She  had 
three  half-brothers,  the  Patriarch  of 
Jerusalem,  the  Master  of  the  Temple, 
and  a  Knight  Hospitaller.  From  early 
youth  she  was  under  the  direction  of 
angels,  and  was  the  subject  of  visions. 
She  led  a  life  of  great  austerity,  wearing 
a  hair  shirt  and  an  iron  belt  under  her 
clothes.  Notwithstanding  the  opposition 
of  her  family,  she  went  on  pilgrimage  to 
the  Holy  Land,  and  afterwards  to  Santiago 
de  Compostella.  During  her  journeyings 
she  was  attacked  and  wounded  by  robbers ; 
she  crossed  rivers  dry-shod,  and  otherwise 
miraculously  helped  herself  and  others. 
After  her  return,  she  built  a  church  at 
Pisa  in  honour  of  St.  James  of  Com 
postella.  She  devoted  herself  to  a 
religious  life  in  the  Order  of  Canons 
Eegular.  She  died  in  the  odour  of 
sanctity.  She  was  buried  in  the  church 
of  St.  Martin,  at  Pisa,  followed  to  the 
grave  by  the  archbishop  and  a  great 
concourse  of  people.  An  altar  was 
afterwards  dedicated  there  in  her  name. 
She  was  never  canonized,  but  was 
worshipped  at  Pisa.  AA.SS.  Cahier, 
Carac&rittiquei.  Husenbeth,  Emblems. 
The  ring  with  which  she  was  married  to 
Christ  and  the  table  at  which  He  supped 
with  her  were  reverently  preserved  at 
two  monasteries  near  Pisa.  Lives  of  the 
Brethren. 

St.  Bona  (4),  Aug.  5.  t  12^. 
3rd  O.S.F.  St.  Lucchese  or  Lucesio, 
and  his  wife  St.  Bona  or  BUONA  DONNA, 
lived  at  St.  Casciano,  where  several 
children  were  born  to  them.  They 
afterwards  removed  to  Poggibonsi. 
Lucchese  took  part  with  the  Guelphs. 
He  spent  most  of  his  substance  in  keep 
ing  up  his  rank.  He  then  sot  about 
restoring  his  fortune  by  trade,  and  became 
a  provision  merchant.  This  trade  brought 
him  the  temptation  to  wish  for  a  famine 
for  the  sake  of  the  profits  he  could  make. 
He  soon  repented  of  his  wicked  desire, 


and,  after  the  death  of  his  children,  he 
gave  away  all  that  he  had,  except  a  small 
sum  with  which  he  bought  a  little  garden 
and  maintained  himself  and  his  wife. 
He  wished  to  join  the  Poor  Friars,  as 
the  Brothers  of  St.  Francis  were  called  ; 
but  not  being  able  to  do  so,  he  prayed 
to  be  taught  how  to  sanctify  his  soul  in 
the  world.  He  devoted  himself  to  works 
of  benevolence,  begging  from  the  rich 
for  the  sake  of  the  poor,  visiting  the 
Maremma  every  summer,  to  minister  to 
the  wants  of  those  who  suffered  from  the 
heat  and  the  unhealthy  air,  at  the  same 
time  exhorting  them  to  repentance  and 
righteousness.  At  first  Bona  blamed 
his  excessive  charity,  and  feared  he  would 
leave  her  and  himself  in  destitution. 
One  day  she  was  angry  with  him  for 
giving  away  the  last  morsel  of  bread  in 
the  house.  He  answered  that  He  who 
had  multiplied  the  five  loaves  would  be 
able  to  provide  for  them.  Presently 
some  beggars  came  to  the  door,  and 
Lucchese  told  his  wife  to  go  to  the  cup 
board  and  get  them  something.  She 
laughed,  knowing  the  place  was  empty ; 
but  he  again  bade  her  go.  She  went, 
and  found  a  large  supply  of  bread. 
From  that  time  she  always  gave  without 
stint,  and  when  St.  Francis  came,  preach 
ing  poverty  and  charity,  Bona  was  as 
ready  as  her  husband  to  receive  his 
instructions. 

Such  was  the  compunction  caused  by 
the  preaching  of  this  great  apostle,  that 
numbers  of  people  crowded  into  the 
monasteries,  and  thousands  more  were  dis 
posed  to  follow,  regarding  the  cloistered 
life  as  the  only  way  of  saving  their  souls. 
St.  Francis  discouraged  this  movement ; 
he  told  them  they  could  not  secure  their 
salvation  by  burying  themselves  in  the 
religious  houses,  and  that  many  of  them 
would  serve  God  better  by  carrying  on 
their  ordinary  business  righteously  and 
bringing  up  their  children  virtuously. 
It  was  for  such  as  these  that,  in  12121,  he 
instituted  his  Third  Order.  The  rule 
was  simple,  and  it  was  expressly  declared 
that  it  did  not  oblige  under  pain  of 
sin.  Four  things  were  required  of  the 
candidates:  (1)  restoration  of  all  goods 
unjustly  acquired  ;  (2)  reconciliation 
with  all  adversaries  :  (:>)  observance  of 


ST.   BONOS  A 


the  commandments  of  God  and  the  pre 
cepts  of  the  Church  and  the  Rule  :  i  4  ) 
in  case  of  the  reception  of  a  murri> ••! 
woman,  her  husband's  consent  was  neces 
sary.  They  wore  a  simple  grey  dress 
and  the  Franciscan  cord ;  they  were  not 
allowed  to  attend  theatrical  representa 
tions,  dances,  or  revels.  They  were  to 
regulate  their  worldly  affairs  and  make 
their  wills.  Eventually  the  Third  Order 
betook  themselves  to  cloisters,  throwing 
away  what  was  perhaps  the  most  bene 
ficial  part  of  the  system  of  their  founder. 
Lucchose  and  Bona  continued  to  be 
members  of  this  order  for  nineteen 
years.  At  one  time  Lucchese  appears  to 
have  lived  alone  in  a  hermitage,  visiting 
Bona  and  assisting  her  in  good  works. 
Bona  fell  ill,  and  Lucchese,  who  was  also 
ill,  went  to  see  her,  and  advised  her  to 
receive  the  Holy  Communion.  When 
she  had  done  so,  ho  said,  "  My  dear 
companion,  God,  who  gave  us  grace  to  re 
nounce  our  property  together,  is  going  to 
grant  us  the  favour  of  leaving  the  world 
together  ;  wait  a  little  while  until  I  have 
received  the  Holy  Sacrament,  and  then 
we  will  go  together  to  eternal  happiness." 
He  went  back  to  his  hermitage,  sent  for 
his  confessor  and  the  parish  priest,  and 
received  with  great  devotion.  He  re 
turned  in  a  state  of  extreme  exhaustion 
to  Bona,  who  died  holding  his  hands. 
He  was  carried  back  to  his  hut,  where 
he  died  with  his  eyes  fixed  on  the  crucifix, 
on  April  2s,  on  which  day  ho  is  com 
memorated  in  the  Franciscan  Martyrohr/y. 
They  were  both  buried  in  the  Franciscan 
church  at  Poggibonsi,  afterwards  called 
San  Lucchese. 

Brocchi,  Sunti  Fiorcnttni.  Magliano, 
Hist.  J''nineincintn.  Praycr-Jtook.  Luc- 
cheso  may  mean  a  man  of  Lucca,  and 
Buona  Donna,  a  good  woman,  his  wife. 

B.  Bona  (o)  d'Armagnac,  Oct.  26. 
loth  century.  Clarissan  nun  in  the 
convent  of  St.  Anne  of  Lezignan,  near 
BTarbonne.  Daughter  of  the  Count  d'Ar- 
ma^nac.  Burn  in  answer  to  the  prayers 
.  COLKTTI:,  who  told  the  count  and 
countess  that  their  first  child  would  bo 
;i  'laughter,  and  become  a  holy  nun  of 
h«-r  order,  the  K< 'formed  Order  of  St. 
Fr:u:«-is  al  I.-  /i^nan,  and  that  they  mu>t 
not  oppose  her  vocation.  Accordingly, 


their  eldest  child  became  a  nun  of  that 
order,  and  three  years  after  her  pro 
fession  she  died  in  the  odour  of  sanctity, 
under  the  name  of  S<EUU  BONNE.  Jumel, 
L'.f>  of  St.  Coh'ttf.  AA.SS.,  Prsetcr. 

Sainte  Bonde,  SANTA  BONDA.  Cor 
ruption  of  St.  Abundius,  bishop  of  Como, 
who  died  4(58.  A  convert  of  Santa 
Bonda  is  mentioned  in  the  letters  of  St. 
Catherine  of  Siena.  AA.SS.,  April  2. 
Helyot,  Ilist.  Ord.  Non.,  iii. 

SS.  Bonifacia.  Four  women  of  this 
name  appear  as  martyrs  in  old  calen 
dars. 

St.  Bonita,  Oct.  in,  V.  Oth,  10th, 
or  llth  century.  A  goose-girl  in  the 
village  of  Alvier,  in  Auvergne.  She 
had  a  great  devotion  to  St.  Julian.  In 
answer  to  her  fervent  prayer,  an  angel 
took  her  across  the  river  in  time  of  flood, 
so  that  sho  might  worship  at  his  tomb 
as  usual.  After  this  she  led  an  angelic 
life.  Tradition  adds  that  she  lived  when 
the  English  were  fighting  in  that  part 
of  Franco.  AA.SS. 

B.  Bonizella,  May  »>,  widow,  f  800. 
Her  body  is  preserved  entire  in  the 
church  of  Trequanda,  in  the  dioceso  of 
Siena,  and  her  festival  is  kept  there  on 
the  third  Sunday  in  May.  Her  history 
is  lost,  and  is  believed  to  have  been 
destroyed  in  a  fire  in  1  .'384.  AA.SS. 
Bonne,  Bona  <  ">). 
St.  Bonosa  (I ),  in  French  VENEUSE, 
VEXOUSE,  Feb.  2,  July  15,  a  Roman 
V.  M.  207,  at  Porto  Romano,  under 
Severus.  The  Leggenfario  says  that 
when  sho  was  condemned  to  bo  beaten, 
she  was  miraculously  concealed  from  the 
eyes  of  her  tormentors,  although  sho 
could  feel  their  blows.  She  was  then 
given  into  the  care  of  a  prefect,  who  was 
to  convert  her  if  ho  could,  and  otherwise 
to  kill  her.  When  sho  was  again  con 
demned  to  be  scourged,  the  executioners 
were  seized  with  ucuto  pains  in  their 
arras,  and  found  themselves  unable  to 
use  the  whips.  Sho  was  kept  many  days 
in  a  dark  prison,  and  finally  beheaded. 
Fifty  soldiers  wero  converted  by  her 
and  put  to  death  with  her.  They  are 
honoured  as  martyrs.  St.  Bonosa  is 
commemorated  in  the  Uummi  Murtyro- 
/".///,  July  !."»,  with  her  brother  St. 
Eutropius,  and  sister  ST.  ZOZIMA,  all 

K 


130 


ST.   BOXOSA 


martyred  at  Porto  "Romano.  The  Mur- 
tyrolo<jii  of  St.  J<  rom<>  says  \hat  their 
sepulchre  was  venerated  in  Nisela,  or  /// 
insuld.  The  fragments  of  a  magnificent 
stone  were  discovered  at  two  different 
times,  in  1837  and  in  18,58,  about  a 
mile  from  the  walls  of  Porto  Romano, 
near  the  Capo  due  Rami,  where  the  island 
begins.  All  the  modern  discoveries  tend 
to  establish  the  tradition  that  the  three 
martyrs  were  buried  here.  Civilta  Cat- 
tolicfi,  seria  vi.  vol.  7,  p.  481,  Aug.  11, 
isilii.  R.N.,  July  15.  Boll.,  AA.SS. 
Leggendario  delle  Sante  Veryini,  Feb.  2. 

St.  Bonosa  (2),  May  10,  M.  at 
Tarsus,  in  Cilicia.  Boll.,  AA.SS. 

St.  Bonosia,  Feb.  2,  M.  at  Rome, 
with  Cappa  and  many  others.  Boll., 
AA.SS. 

St.  Borema,  BEATA  (l;. 

St.  Botild,  or  BOTHILDIS,  July  28. 
"f  1102.  Queen  of  Denmark.  Daughter 
of  Turgot,  or  Trugillus,  a  Swedish  noble. 
Wife  of  Eric  II.  (Eycgodj,  king  of 
Denmark  (1095—1102),  stepson  of  ST. 
GUDA.  Botild  suffered  her  husband's 
infidelities  meekly.  He  was  beloved  by 
his  people  for  many  noble  qualities,  but 
was  liable  to  fits  of  fury,  in  one  of  which 
he  killed  some  of  his  faithful  servants. 
His  repentance  was  deep,  and  after  pay 
ing  the  blood  fine,  he  could  not  quiet 
his  conscience  without  making  a  pil 
grimage  to  Jerusalem  to  atone  for  the 
sin  of  murder.  When  his  intention  was 
known,  his  people  besought  him  not  to 
go,  and  offered  a  third  of  their  property 
to  pay  for  Masses,  and  to  buy  off  the 
king's  vow.  He  insisted  on  going,  and 
Botild  determined  to  accompany  him. 
One  of  his  illegitimate  sons  was  ap 
pointed  regent.  Knud,  the  only  son 
Botild  had  given  to  Eric,  was  left  at 
home ;  he  grew  up  a  great  warrior,  and 
was  crowned  King  of  the  Obotrites  by 
the  Emperor  Lothaire.  The  pilgrims 
went  through  Russia  to  Constantinople, 
and  thence  to  Cyprus,  where  Eric  was 
taken  ill  and  died.  -Botild  proceeded  on 
her  pilgrimage,  and  died  on  the  Mount 
of  Olives,  within  sight  of  the  gates  of 
.Jerusalem,  in  1  H>2.  Some  historians 
place  their  death  a  year  later.  During 
their  life,  Eric's  brother  Knud,  king  of 
Denmark,  was  canonized.  A^astovius, 


IV//8  Aquilonm.  Saxo  Grammaticus, 
7//.S-/.  D/ni.  Otto,  tfnntdhitn-iii.  Dalin. 
»S/w/  Hil:t'8  Historifi.  Mas  Latrie,  Tremor, 
Hamsfortii,  Citron.  Langebek,  Scriptores 
Hcnun  Uttiiii'm-iiiii,  i.  271.  Dahlmanu, 
])<  in //'//•/,-. 

St.  Boulogne,  BOLONIA. 

St.  Bourguine,  BUHGUXDOFOKA. 

St.  Bova,  April  24,  sometimes  erro 
neously  called  BONA,  in  French  BKUVE, 
V.  Abbess  at  Rbeims.  (>th  or  7th  cen 
tury.  Sister  of  St.  Balderic,  or  Baudri, 
founder  and  abbot  of  Montfau<;on,  or 
Fauquemont,  near  Rheims.  These  saints 
are  said  to  have  been  the  children  of  a 
King  Sigebert.  If  Mr.  Baring-Gould  is 
right  in  making  him  Sigebert  I.,  who 
began  to  reign  5(51,  their  mother  was  the 
celebrated  Queen  Brunehaut,  whose  mar 
riage  is  said  to  be  the  first  that  was 
solemnized  with  a  religious  ceremony 
in  France.  Butler  and  Baillet  say  Bova 
was  a  great  lady  at  the  court  of  King 
Dagobert,  and  edified  the  court  by 
her  virtues  until  she  was  about  thirty 
years  old,  when,  about  (W,  she  with 
drew  to  the  monastery  St.  Balderic  had 
built  for  her  in  a  suburb  of  Rheims. 
Here  she  was  soon  joined  by  her  niece, 
ST.  DODA.  Balderic  went  to  stay  with 
his  sister  and  niece,  and  died  in  their 
nunnery.  Bova  did  not  long  survive 
him.  Doda  succeeded  her  aunt  as  abbess, 
about  (57:5.  These  saints  are  mentioned 
by  Flodoard,in  his  history  of  the  Church 
of  Rheims  (  10th  century).  The  original 
history  of  their  lives  was  destroyed  in  a 
great  fire.  In  the  10th  century  an 
anonymous  author  compiled  another, 
with  the  help  of  the  nuns  who  had  often 
heard  it  read.  Butler,  Lives.  Baillet, 
Vies.  Hugo  Menard,  Mart.  Ben.  Baring- 
Gould,  Liven,  "St.  Balderic,"  Oct.  If,. 

St.  Boylette,  COLETTE  BOILKT. 

St.  Bozena,  BKATIUCE  (2). 

St.  Breaca,  Oct.  27,  June  4  (Bin:  \<;i:, 
liiiKCA,  BHKOCK,  BIJH;,  BUIGA,  BKIGH  ). 
.">th  or  (>th  century.  Possibly  the  same 
as  BKIGA  ( :> )  or  (4).  Breaca  joined  or 
headed  a  band  of  Irish  missionary 
settlers.  Accompanied  by  her  foster- 
son,  King  Germoe,  SS.  Fingar  and 
I'IAI.A,  IA,  IJriiiAN.  CIJKWKNNA,  and 
several  others,  she  crossed  over  from 
Ireland  to  Cornwall,  where  they  landed 


ST.    BRKiA 


131 


in  the  Hayle  estuary  on  the  north  coast. 
They  were  well  received  by  King  Theo 
dore.  Breaca  built  several  churches. 
<  'ornish  legend  says  she  was  a  midwife, 
and  the  sister  of  St.  Levin.  Ho  was  a 
hermit  at  Bodellen,  in  Cornwall.  He 
used  to  catch  one  fish  every  day  for  his 
own  food.  One  evening,  when  he  went 
fishing,  he  caught  two  bream  on  his 
hook.  He  took  them  both  off,  and  threw 
them  back  into  the  sea ;  the  same  two 
came  again  a  second  and  a  third  time; 
he  supposed  thero  was  some  reason  for 
this  double  supply,  and  carried  them 
both  home;  there  ho  found  that  his 
sister  St.  Breaca  had  come  to  visit  him 
with  her  two  children,  who  had  had  a 
long  walk,  and  were  very  hungry.  The 
fish  were  cooked  for  supper.  The  chil 
dren  ate  their  portions  eagerly,  without 
waiting  to  pick  out  the  bones,  and  both 
were  choked.  From  that  day  the  bream 
Las  been  called  by  the  Cornish  fisher 
men,  chaJc-cheel  (choke-child  j ;  some 
people  say  it  was  the  chad,  but  the  bream 
has  very  dangerous  bones,  and  is  more 
likely  to  have  been  tho  fatal  food. 
Nothing  is  known  with  any  certainty 
about  St.  Levin,  and  some  of  the  stories 
give  him,  instead  of  Breaca,  a  sister 
Manaccan.  AA.SS.  British  Pi>'ty.  A. 
Forster,  Emjlish  Di'd'<c<iti<m8.  Kev.  S. 
Darin;.:  (iniild,  />Wi-  of  tin-  West.  Forbes. 
Hunt.  7Vy//>/.//-  lin,,,,nn'L'B  of  the  West  of 
England  .  .  .  Ti-«>lit'«>ii8  of  Old  Cornwall. 
Smith  ami  Ware. 

Breenada,  .July  :;,  V.  ?th  century. 
Irish.  Commemorated  with  Tirechan, 
a  disciple  of  Ultan.  Boll.,  AA.SS., 
Prxter. 

St.  Breeyith, 

St.  Brega,  B«OA. 

St.  Breock,  15i;i:\«  \. 

St.    Brettiva,    Jan.    11    (Bmcnvl, 

BI.HIIIA.  r.i;on.\\,  I5i:vKKi;j.  Supposed 
1"  ho  Irish,  but  worshipped  chiefly  in 
Norway  ami  Iceland.  From  tin-  llth 
<•' -utiiry  her  name  appears  thero  in  the 
Catal  :  saints'  days  io  he  kept 

huly.  llrotcva  is  still  found  as  a  name 
MI  In-laii'l.  ami  popularly  understood  to 
mean  tin-  guilty  Kve.  In  tho  Nor 
wegian  calendars  a  horse  is  the  sign  f..r 
St.  Urottiva's  day.  The  word  /•/<//- 
to  turn  violently,  to  double  up. 


A  farmer  drove  out  for  hay  on  that  day. 
Being  warned  that  it  was  />/  <  //'  M 
he  obstinately  and  profanely  made  a 
pun  on  her  name,  by  answering,  "  Turn 
me  this  way,  turn  me  that,  I'll  turn  me 
home  a  load  of  hay."  But  his  horse 
fell  and  broke  its  leg.  Tho  pictured 
horse,  therefore,  stands  in  tho  calendar 
as  a  warning.  The  festival  is  also  called 
Jirykki'  M<'88>r  and  7>/v//.-Ks-  M-asn,  from 
tho  custom  of  the  remnants  of  the  Yule 
fare  being  stewed  and  eaten  on  that  day. 
Keport  xx.  Antiquarian  Society  of  Cam 
bridge. 

St.  Brewo,  WINIFRED. 

St.    Bricheza,   a    mistake    for    ST. 

liICIIKXA. 

St.  Brictiva,  BKETTIVA. 

St.  Bride,  BIIIGID  (2). 

St.  Bridget,  BKIGID. 

St.  Brie,  BKIGID  (  2  I. 

St.  Brig,  BIIKACA. 

St.  Briga,  or  BKIGH.  Briga  is  one 
of  the  names  of  ST.  BHIGID,  besides 
which  there  are  several  Brigas,  called 
also  Brigh.  (I)  A  pious  matron, 
daughter  of  Feargna,  who  assisted  St. 
Patrick  in  his  labours;  (2)  Brigh  of 
Coirpre,  Jan.  7,  who  is  possibly  the 
same  as  Briga  (  1  i.  Smith  and  Wace. 
( )'llanlon. 

St.  Briga  (-5),  or  P>KK;II,  Feb.  1. 
Knd  of  .">th  or  beginning  of  o'th  century. 
An  abbess  in  Leinster,  contemporary 
and  friend  of  ST.  BKIGID  (2).  At  one 
of  her  frequent  visits  to  St.  Briga's 
convent,  when  the  nuns  had  washed  the 
feet  of  their  beloved  guest,  one  of  them, 
who  had  long  lost  the  use  of  hers  from 
gout,  put  them  into  the  same  water. 
I  lei  ore  she  had  time  to  dry  them,  they 
wen-  perfectly  well.  When  Brigid, 
Iliiga,  and  tho  nuns  were  at  dinner,  they 
noticed  that  Hrigid  kept  her  eyes  fixed 
•  MI  one  spot.  They  asked  her  the  reason. 
She  said  she  saw  tho  devil  sitting  there 
amongst  them.  At  Briga's  request  she 
made  the  sign  of  tho  cross  on  her  eyes, 
and  so  enabled  her  to  see  him  too.  lie 
had  an  immense  head,  a  black  face,  fiery 
.  flaming  breath,  thick  knees  and 
ankles.  Urigid  asked  him  why  he  and 
his  companions  bore  so  fierce  a  hafred 
towards  the  human  race.  Ho  answered, 
'•  Ik-cause  wo  do  not  wish  any  one  to 


132 


ST.   BRIGA 


enjoy  the  glories  of  heaven,  since  we 
ourselves  have  lost  all  hope  of  entering 
there."  "  Ah  !  "  said  the  saint,  "  how 
different  is  my  inclination !  If  I  could 
not  go  to  heaven  myself,  I  should  wish 
to  open  to  all  others  the  gates  that  I 
knew  to  be  shut  against  me."  She  then 
asked  what  business  he  had  in  a  re 
ligious  community.  lie  told  her  that 
he  was  harboured  there  by  one  of  the 
nuns,  who  did  his  will  rather  than  that 
of  her  ostensible  Master.  Brigid  ascer 
tained  from  him  the  name  of  the  nun, 
and  then  opened  her  eyes  with  the  sign 
of  the  cross,  that  she  might  see  what  a 
hideous  and  cruel  master  she  served. 
The  nun,  with  tears,  besought  her 
prayers,  and  promised  to  amend  her 
life.  Brigid  then  banished  the  devil 
from  amongst  them,  and  the  nun  led  a 
holy,  penitential  life,  and  was  saved. 
Boll.,  AA.SS.,  in  the  fifth  Life  of  St. 
Brigid. 

St.  Briga  (-4),  Jan.  7,  was  the  sister 
of  St.  Brendan,  the  navigator.  After 
his  seven  years'  voyage,  he  founded  the 
monasteries  of  Clonfert  and  Annadown, 
and  set  his  sister  over  the  latter,  and 
there,  in  577,  he  died  in  her  arms,  at 
the  age  of  ninety-four.  Smith  and 
Wace.  This  Briga  is  thought  to  be  the 
same  as  ST.  BREACA,  who  settled  in 
Cornwall,  but  it  does  not  seem  very 
likely  that,  when  her  brother  had  died 
at  ninety-four,  she  could  have  been 
young  enough  to  start  on  a  missionary 
tour  to  another  country. 

Briga  (5),  BREACA. 

Brighe,  BRIGID  (2). 

Brighite,  BUIGID  (2). 

St.  Brigid  (1),  Feb.  l,  with  Helen 
(4)^  Sapientia  (2),  cousins  of  ST. 
URSULA,  and  daughters  of  St.  Kilian, 
one  of  the  conductors  of  her  campaign. 
AA.SS.,  Oct.  21. 

St.  Brigid  (2),  Feb.  1,  born  about 
the  middle  of  the  5th  century,  died  in  or 
before  525  (BREEYITH,  BRIDE,  BRIDGET, 
BRIGHIT,  BRIGIDA,  BRIID,  BRITTA,  BRYDE, 
BHYDOCK  ;  in  France,  BRIGITTE  ;  in  Hol 
land,  BRIE,  BRIGHE  ;  the  MARY  of  Ire 
land;,  the  "Fiery  Dart."  Patron  of 
Ireland,  Leinster,  Kildare,  of  the  family 
of  Douglas,  and  of  cattle  and  dairies. 
The  dedications  in  her  name  arc  very 


numerous  in  Ireland  and  on  the  western 
side  of  Great  Britain. 

Represented  (1)  with  flames  playing 
round  her  head;  (2)  with  a  cow  and  a 
large  bowl. 

The  greatest  of  all  the  Irish  saints, 
except  St.  Patrick.  Founder  of  the 
first  nunnery  in  Ireland,  and  chief  over 
many  monasteries  for  both  sexes.  Bishop 
Conlaeth,  or  Conlian,  at  the  time  head  of 
the  bishops  and  abbots,  attended  to  the 
spiritual  interests  of  her  nuns  and  the 
services  of  her  church. 

Montalembert  says  that  Ireland  was 
evangelized  by  two  slaves,  Patrick  and 
Bridgid;  that  Brigid  was  twice  sold, 
was  flogged,  insulted,  and  subjected  to 
the  hardest  labour  required  of  a  female 
slave  in  those  days ;  she  learnt  mercy 
in  the  school  of  suffering  and  oppression ; 
she  became  a  nun,  but  by  no  means  a 
recluse ;  she  travelled  all  over  Ireland, 
and  had  frequent  and  important  inter 
course  with  all  sorts  and  conditions  of 
persons,  but  always  in  the  interest  of 
souls,  or  with  a  view  to  helping  the 
unfortunate.  She  was  honoured  with 
the  friendship  and  confidence  of  the 
holiest  and  most  learned  Irishmen  of 
her  time,  among  whom  tradition  places 
St.  Ere,  bishop  of  Slane,  St.  Mel  of 
Ardagh,  Cailaet,  bishop  of  Kildare,  St. 
Ailbe  of  Emly,  St.  Brendan  of  Clonfert, 
St.  Gildas,  who  sent  her  a  small  bell 
cast  by  himself.  St.  Finnian  was  also 
her  contemporary,  and  once  preached 
before  her  and  her  nuns  at  Kildare. 
She  is  believed  to  have  been  contem 
porary  with  St.  Patrick,  although  much 
younger.  There  is  considerable  un 
certainty  as  to  her  dates,  and  still  more 
as  to  his.  She  died,  upwards  of  seventy, 
in  or  before  ."> 2 ,">.  In  an  old  Life  of  St. 
Patrick,  it  is  said  that  she  fell  asleep 
while  he  was  preaching,  and  that  he 
made  her  tell  her  dream,  which  he  inter 
preted  as  referring  to  the  future  history 
of  Ireland.  One  legend  says  that  he 
taught  her  to  piny  on  the  harp,  and  that 
she  embroidered  a  shroud  for  him  at  his 
own  request,  and  took  it  to  him  at  the 
monastery  of  Saball ;  he  then  charged 
her  to  bless  Ireland  for  thirty  years 
after  his  death. 

Here  are  some  of  the  countless  tradi- 


ST.   BRIGID 


133 


tions  concerning  St.  Brigid.  She  was 
tli--  •laughter  of  Dubtuch,  a  nobleman 
of  Leinster,  who  \\ii-;  <lt  scended  from 
Eochard,  brother  of  King  Conn  of  the 
Hundred  Battles;  her  mother  was  Broet- 
seach  or  Brocessa  O'Connor,  his  slave. 
Diihtnch's  wife  had  several  sons,  but  no 
daughter,  and  her  jealousy  of  Brocessa 
was  increased  by  the  prophecy  that  Bro 
cessa  would  give  birth  to  a  daughter 
who  should  bo  very  illustrious.  She 
insisted  that  Brocessa  should  bo  sent 
away.  So  Dubtach  sold  her  to  a 
magician  or  bard  at  Faugher,  near  Dun- 
dalk,  with  the  condition  that  her  child 
should  bo  returned  to  him.  The  night 
that  she  arrived  in  her  new  home,  a  holy 
man  came  begging  for  hospitality.  Ho 
I>.i-sed  the  whole  night  in  prayer,  and  in 
the  morning  told  his  host  he  had  seen  a 
globe  of  fire  resting  over  the  place  where 
the  servant  slept.  One  day  the  bard 
invited  his  king  and  queen  to  supper, 
but  the  queen  could  not  come  because 
she  was  hourly  expecting  to  have  a 
child.  The  friends  and  servants  of  the 
king  inquired  of  the  bard  what  sort  of 
child  the  queen  would  have,  and  when  it 
would  be  born.  Ho  told  them  that  it 
would  have  no  equal  in  Ireland  if  it  were 
born  at  sunrise,  neither  in  the  house  nor 
out  of  the  house.  At  midnight  the 
qii'-cn  LMV.  birth  to  a  son.  Very  early 
in  the  morning,  Brocessa  went  and  milked 
the  cows  as  usual.  She  returned  with  a 
large  pail  of  milk.  As  she  entered  her 
master's  door,  having  one  foot  in  the 
house  and  one  foot  out,  she  fell  down  on 
the  threshold,  and  there,  at  the  moment 
of  sunrise,  she  was  delivered  of  a 
daughter,  Brigid,  whoso  infancy  was 
illustrated  by  prodigies,  and  who  was 
evidently  under  the  immediate  protection 
of  Heaven.  Flames  often  filled  her  room 
01  surrounded  her  head,  but  did  not 
hurt  her  or  destroy  anything.  No  food 
found  to  suit  her  until  the  magician 
set  apart  a  beautiful  white  cow  for  her 
use,  and  got  a  Christian  woman  to  milk 
it.  According  to  agreement,  the  bard 
sent  the  child  Urijid  to  her  father. 
Once  she  went  to  help  her  mother,  who 
was  making  butter  and  taking  care  of 
the  cows  some  distance  from  her  master's 
house.  As  fast  as  the  butter  was  made, 


Brigid,  who  said,  **  Every  guest  is 
Christ,"  gave  it  all  away  to  beggars  and 
travellers.  After  a  time  the  magician 
and  his  wife  came  to  the  farm  to  fetch 
the  butter.  When  Brigid  saw  what  a 
largo  cask  they  had  brought  to  carry  it 
away  in,  she  was  much  embarrassed, 
knowing  she  had  only  the  supply  of  one 
day  and  a  half;  however,  she  received 
them  cheerfully,  washed  their  feet,  and 
gave  them  food.  She  then  went  to  her 
own  cell  and  prayed,  and  afterwards 
brought  the  butter  she  had  to  the  bard's 
wife,  who  laughed  at  her  and  said,  "Is 
that  all  the  butter  you  have  made  in  so 
many  days?"  Brigid  said,  "Fill  the 
cask :  you  shall  have  butter  enough." 
The  woman  began  putting  the  butter 
into  her  large  receptacle  out  of  Brigid's 
little  one,  and  very  soon  it  was  quite 
full.  When  the  magician  saw  that 
miracle,  ho  said  to  Brigid,  "  You  shall 
have  all  the  butter  for  yourself,  and  the 
twelve  cows  which  you  have  milked 
shall  be  yours  also."  Brigid  said, 
"  Keep  your  cows,  and  give  me  my 
mother's  freedom."  The  magician  an 
swered,  "  The  cows  and  the  butter  and 
your  mother  are  yours."  Then  he  be 
lieved  in  Christ  and  was  baptized,  and 
Brigid  gave  all  his  gifts  to  the  poor,  and 
returned  to  Dubtach  with  her  mother. 
Her  father  offered  to  sell  her  to  the 
king,  saying  that  he  wished  to  get  rid  of 
her  because  she  gave  to  the  poor  every 
thing  she  could  lay  her  hands  upon. 
While  they  were  in  the  house  discussing 
the  matter,  Brigid  was  left  in  the  carriage 
at  the  door.  A  beggar  asked  her  for 
alms,  and  as  she  had  no  money  she  gave 
him  her  father's  sword,  which  was  a  gift 
from  the  king.  When  ho  came  back, 
she  said  that  what  she  gave  to  the  poor 
she  gave  to  Christ,  that  her  father  and 
the  king  ought  to  bo  glad  that  the  sword 
was  so  honoured,  and  that  if  she  could, 
she  would  give  them  both,  and  every 
thing  that  belonged  to  them,  to  Christ. 
The  king  then  gave  her  a  new  sword  for 
her  father. 

Some  Christians,  travelling  through 
the  country,  wore  taken  by  Dubtach's 
followers.  As  they  could  not  give  a 
satisfactory  account  of  themselves,  they 
were  condemned  to  death  as  rogues  and 


134 


ST.   BRIGID 


spies.  Brigid  said  they  were  jninstrels, 
and  bade  them  play  on  her  harp.  "  Alas," 
said  the  strangers,  "  we  have  never  learnt 
music."  "  Fear  not,"  replied  Brigid, 
"  play."  And  she  blessed  their  hands, 
laying  her  own  upon  them  ;  whereupon 
the  strangers  played  and  sang  more 
beautifully  than  any  minstrels  that  had 
ever  been  heard  in  that  hall. 

When  she  was  sixteen,  her  wisdom 
and  beauty  were  praised  throughout  the 
land.  Her  father,  who  had  no  other 
daughter,  wished  her  to  make  an  advan 
tageous  marriage;  but  Brigid,  being 
determined  to  consecrate  her  life  to  the 
service  of  God  and  to  works  of  mercy, 
prayed  that  some  deformity  might  come 
upon  her  to  deliver  her  from  liability  to 
marriage.  Immediately  one  of  her  eyes 
burst  in  her  head,  thus  destroying  all 
her  beauty.  Dubtach  then  permitted 
her  to  take  the  veil.  As  she  knelt  to 
receive  it,  the  wood  of  the  altar  became 
green  at  her  touch,  and  for  years  after 
wards  effected  miraculous  cures.  At  the 
same  time,  her  lost  eye  was  restored,  and 
a  pillar  of  fire  appeared  above  her  head. 
Her  enthusiasm  soon  led  other  women 
to  join  her.  At  first  they  lived  together 
at  Kilbrighde,  or  Kilbude,  near  the  sea. 
There  are  many  places  of  this  name  in 
Ireland,  but  this  is  supposed  to  be  the 
one  in  the  county  Waterford.  After  a 
time,  Brigid  built  herself  a  cell  under  a 
goodly  oak,  and  added  a  church  and 
other  buildings  for  her  nuns.  This  was 
Kildare,  Kil  Dara,  the  cell  or  chapel  of 
the  oak.  There  were  already  communi 
ties  of  men,  and  there  were  churches  and 
Christian  schools,  but  this  was  the  first 
convent  of  women  in  Ireland.  The 
dwellings  of  the  nuns  were  probably  a 
number  of  huts  or  cells  close  to  the 
church.  The  church  was  divided  into 
three  parts,  one  for  monks,  one  for  nuns, 
and  one  for  the  people. 

Brigid  always  showed  a  deep  and 
tender  sympathy  for  slaves  and  captives, 
whose  troubles  she  knew  by  experience. 
Once  she  went  to  ask  for  the  liberty  of 
a  captive ;  the  master  was  absent,  but  she 
made  friends  with  his  foster-father  and 
brothers  by  teaching  them  to  play  the 
harp,  and  had  already  a  strong  party  in 
her  favour  when  the  chief  came  home. 


Charmed  by  her  musio,  he  begged  her 
blessing,  which  was  granted  on  con 
dition  of  his  setting  his  prisoner  at 
liberty. 

She  took  a  great  interest  in  young 
persons,  and  delighted  to  encourage  them 
in  virtue  and  piety.  One  day,  as  she 
was  standing  outside  the  monastery  with 
some  of  her  nuns,  she  saw  a  young  man, 
named  Nennidh,  running  very  fast, 
"  Bring  that  youth  to  me,"  commanded 
the  abbess.  He  came  with  apparent 
reluctance.  "  Whither  so  fast  ?  "  asked 
Brigid.  Nennidh  answered,  with  a 
laugh,  that  he  was  running  to  the  king 
dom  of  heaven.  "I  wish,"  said  Brigid, 
"  that  I  were  worthy  to  run  there  with 
you  to-day.  Pray  for  me,  that  I  may 
arrive  there."  The  young  man,  touched 
by  her  words,  begged  her  to  pray  for 
him,  and  resolved  to  embrace  a  religious 
life.  Brigid  then  foretold  that  he  was- 
the  person  from  whom  she  should  receive 
the  holy  viaticum  on  the  day  of  her 
death.  He  took  great  pains  to  keep  his 
hand  worthy  of  so  great  an  honour,  and 
was  called  Nennidh,  the  clean-handed. 
He  wrote  a  hymn  in  honour  of  St.  Brigid, 
preserved  in  Colgan's  Acts  of  the  Saints, 
Jan.  1-8.  He  is  numbered  among  the 
saints,  but  is  not  the  great  St.  Nonnidh, 
surnamed  Laobh-deare,  the  one-eyed,  or 
squinting. 

Many  of  the  stories  of  the  life  of  St. 
Brigid  relate  to  the  journeys  and  excur 
sions  she  used  to  make  in  her  carriage. 
On  one  of  these  journeys  she  saw  a  poor 
family  carrying  heavy  burdens  of  wood, 
and  with  her  usual  kindness  gave  them 
her  horses.  She  and  her  sisters  sat 
down  by  the  wayside,  and  she  told  them 
to  dig  there  for  water.  As  soon  as  they 
did  so,  a  fountain  sprang  from  the  earth, 
and  presently  a  chieftain  passed  by  and 
gave  his  horses  to  Brigid. 

Another  time  she  happened  to  be  alone 
in  a  friend's  house  when  some  persons- 
came  begging  for  bread.  She  looked 
about  for  any  of  the  household,  but  could 
see  no  one  except  a  boy  lying  on  the 
ground.  He  was  deaf  and  paralytic,  but 
Brigid  did  not  know  it.  She  said  to 
him,  "  Boy,  thou  knowest  where  the  keys 
are  ?  "  He  said,  "  Yes,  I  know."  Tho 
holy  woman  then  told  him  to  go  and 


ST.  BRIGID 


185 


serve  these  poor  persons,  which  he  did, 
and  had  his  faculties  ever  after. 

In  a  time  of  famine  she  went  with 
gome  of  her  nuns  and  asked  for  provisions 
from  Bishop  Ybar.  He  had  no  bread, 
so  lie  set  before  her  a  stone  with  some 
lard.  The  stone  became  bread,  and 
Bri.irid  ;md  the  bishop  wore  satisfied  to 
make  a  meal  of  it,  but  two  of  the  virgins, 
«li  siring  to  eat  flesh,  hid  it,  and  they 
found  it  turned  into  serpents.  Brigid 
rebuked  them,  and  on  their  repentance 
the  serpents  again  became  bread. 

She  had  power  over  wild  beasts.  Once 
when  a  wolf  had  killed  a  sheep-dog,  she 
made  him  take  the  place  of  his  victim, 
and  drive  the  sheep  without  frightening 
them. 

Cows,  calves,  milk,  and  butter  figure 
largely  in  the  legends  of  this  saint.  A 
number  of  strangers  arrived  at  her  home, 
and  as  she  had  nothing  to  give  them  but 
what  she  could  get  from  one  cow,  she 
milked  it  three  times,  and  it  gave  as 
much  as  three  cows.  It  is  in  allusion  to 
this  legend  that  she  appears  in  some 
pictures  holding  a  large  bowl. 

She  seems  to  have  shown  severity  or 
inflicted  punishment  only  when  the 
objects  of  her  anger  were  guilty  of  un- 
kindness.  For  instance,  when  a  woman 
refused  to  wash  a  leper  whom  Brigid 
intended  to  heal,  she  transferred  the 
leprosy  to  the  unkind  one,  but  afterwards 
]•  rayed  for  her,  and  thereby  healed  her. 
day  two  lepers  came  begging,  and 
she  gave  them  a  calf  One  of  them  said 
li<-  d'id  not  want  half  a  calf,  and  did 
not  care  to  have  it  unless  ho  might 
have  it  all  to  himself.  Brigid  bado 
him  take  the  animal,  and  said  to  the 
other,  '•  Wait  with  mo  a  little  while, 
ami  sic  if  (iod  will  send  you  anything 
to  make  up  for  your  share  of  the  calf." 
She  procured  another  calf  for  him,  and 
he  went  and  overtook  the  ungrateful 
1<  i"  r.  They  so. ni  came  to  a  great  river, 
and  the  good  leper  and  his  calf  arrived 
iy  at  the  other  side,  but  the  thankless 
one  and  his  calf  were  washed  away  and 
drowned. 

Her  hospitality  and  charity  were  un- 
bounde.l.  The  lame  of  her  holiness,  her 
niirael.  s.  and  her  prophetic  powers  61- 
d  to  Scotland.  It  is  said  that  Ki 


Xectan,  being  driven  out  of  Scotland, 
went  to  Ireland,  and  there  visited  Brigid, 
and  asked  for  her  prayers.  She  promised 
that  if  he  went  back  to  his  own  country 
(iod  would  have  mercy  upon  him,  and  he 
should  possess  the  kingdom  of  the  Picts 
in  peace. 

She  was  upwards  of  seventy  when  she 
died.  She  was  buried  at  Kildare,  and 
translated  to  Downpatrick,  where  she  was 
laid  beside  St.  Patrick  and  St.  Columba. 
It  is  a  mistake  to  identify  her  with 
ST.  BRIGID  OF  GLASTONBURY  or  ST. 
BRIGID  OP  ABEKNETHY.  Several  other 
saints  of  the  same  name,  contemporary 
with  her,  or  nearly  so,  are  mentioned  by 
Colgan.  She  is  honoured  in  many  places 
and  calendars  on  the  Continent,  but  is 
perhaps  not  so  universally  known  there 
as  ST.  BKIGID  OF  SWEDEN. 

After  her  death,  the  sacred  fire,  which 
she  had  kept  perpetually  burning,  and 
which  caused  the  church  of  Kildare  to 
be  called  the  house  of  tire,  was  kept  up 
on  her  tomb  until  I'J'Jn,  when  sundry 
accusations  of  superstition  and  heathen 
ism  having  arisen  against  the  custom, 
Henry  London,  archbishop  of  Dublin, 
ordered  it  to  bo  put  out  to  avert  scandal. 
It  was  relighted  and  kept  burning  until 
the  time  of  Henry  VIII.,  when  the  nuns 
were  banished  from  Kildare,  their  goods 
confiscated,  and  the  churches  desecrated. 
Her  Life  was  written  immediately 
after  her  death  by  Brogan  (called  also 
Cloen).  Another  biography  of  her  was 
written  in  the  same  century,  another  in 
the  following,  and  so  on.  Five  Lives 
are  given  in  the  Bollandist  collection. 
li.M  Bede,  Mart.  Colgan,  Al.>v 
Jlihi'i-niic.  Forbes,  Kalendars.  Monta- 
lembert,  M>nk8  of  the  West.  Butler. 
Cahier. 

For  other  stories  of  St.  Brigid,  see 
UIMCA  i  ) ),  DAKDITLAGHA,  HINNA,  LASREA. 
St.  Brigid  ( '^  )  of  Abernothy.  Bishop 
Forbes,  ScotM  Cdlcndurs,  thinks  it  is 
probable  there  was  a  Scotch  saint  oi  the 
name  of  Brigid,  whoso  relics  were  kept 
at  Abernethy.  The  Aberdeen  lln-viary, 
in  the  story  of  ST.  M A/...TA,  says  that  St. 
UriL'id  of  Aberuethy  was  cousin  of  (ira- 
venlus,  king  of  the  Picts,  who  during 
his  wars  with  the  liritons  was  admon 
ished  by  supernatural  means  to  send  to 


136 


ST.  BRICM) 


Ireland  for  Brigid,  and  ffllow  her 
advice.  She  came  with  St.  Mazota  and 
eight  holy  virgins,  and  settled  at  Aber- 
nethy,  and  there  built  a  church,  where 
the  king  was  baptized. 

St.  Brigid  (4)  of  Benchor,  whose 
head,  in  1 22:>,  was  brought  from  Scotland 
or  Ireland  to  Denis,  king  of  Portugal, 
and  kept  at  Lumiar  with  great  venera 
tion,  is  said  to  have  founded  a  great 
monastery  at  Benchor.  This  may  have 
been  Banchory  in  Scotland,  or  Bangor 
in  Wales,  or  some  place  in  Ireland. 
Bollandus  could  not  identify  her  with 
either  of  the  well-known  SS.  Brigid. 
Perhaps  she  is  ST.  BRIGID  OF  ABEII- 

NETHY. 

St.  Brigid  (5-11).  Colgan,  in  his 
History  of  tlie  Irish  Saints,  speaks  of 
twenty-five  Brigids,  some  of  whom  are 
distinguishable  from  each  other,  and 
some  are  not.  No  one  but  a  Celtic 
scholar  and  antiquary  could  attempt  to 
disentangle  them  all,  or  form  an  opinion 
as  to  how  many  Brigids  there  were,  or 
which  is  a  duplicate  of  which.  I  take 
these  seven — who  are  possibly  reducible 
to  four — from  Bishop  Forbes'  article 
"  Brigida,"  in  Smith  and  Wace's  Diet. 

St.  Brigid  (f>),  March  9,  of  Moin- 
miolain.  (Perhaps  same  as  6.) 

St.  Brigid  (6),  Sept.  30.  Great- 
granddaughter  of  Colla  or  Colladius, 
who  gave  land  to  St.  Patrick. 

St.  Brigid  (7),  May  13,  24,  nursed 
and  converted  her  infirm  husband  :  after 
his  death  she  returned  to  her  father's 
house,  and  built  herself  a  cell. 

St.  Brigid  (S;  of  Oughterard,  co. 
Kildare.  (Perhaps  same  as  7.) 

St.  Brigid  O'J  of  Senboith,  or  Shaubo, 
in  Wexford.  (Perhaps  same  as  7.) 

St.  Brigid  (10),  March  (5.  Daughter 
of  Lenin,  one  of  several  saints  descended 
from  the  family  of  St.  Foillan.  One  of 
six  sisters  to  whom  is  dedicated  the 
"  church  of  the  Sisters,"  at  Kill-uaning- 
hean,  in  the  district  of  Ui-Brivin. 

St.  Brigid  (  1 1  ),  sister  of  St.  Sedna, 
abbot  of  Killaine,  and  of  SS.  GOUHA 
and  LASSAKA,  all  descended  from  Ere, 
the  ancestor  of  the  kings  of  Albanian 
Scotia. 

St.  Brigid  (12)  Mactail.  Oth 
century.  Daughter  of  Conchraid,  of  the 


family  of  Mactail.  She  had  her  cell  at 
Cluan-in-fidi,  on  the  banks  of  the  Shan 
non.  She  made  a  vestment  which  she 
wished  to  send  to  Inniscathy  for  St. 
Senan,  who  was  settled  there  not  earlier 
than  ,~>:>4.  Finding  no  better  mode  of 
sending  it,  she  wrapped  it  in  hay  and 
put  it  in  a  basket,  which  she  addressed 
and  set  afloat  on  the  river.  It  is  said  to 
have  arrived  safely.  This  anecdote  is 
related  of  ST.  BKIGID  OF  KILDAIIE,  who 
sent  her  basket,  however,  by  sea,  and  a 
much  greater  distance.  Lanigan,  Ecclcs. 
Hist,  of  Ireland,  i.  44'.». 

St.  Brigid  ( 1  :> J,  March  1 4.  An  Irish 
virgin,  brought  up  at  Dunkeld  with  St. 
Cuthbert,  by  St.  Columba.  Bishop 
Forbes,  Scot.  CaL 

St.  Brigid  (14),  or  BIUTTA,  Jan.  14. 
8th  century.  Of  Beauvais  :  also  called  of 
Tours  and  of  Nogent  ;  with  her  sister 
ST.  MAURA,  July  13,  MM.  of  virginity. 
Daughters  of  the  King  of  the  Scots.  They 
were  born  in  731,  on  the  day  that  a  long 
and  desolating  famine  and  pestilence 
came  to  an  end.  Their  mother  died  in 
giving  them  birth.  Maura  devoted  her 
life  to  fasting  and  prayer.  Brigid 
devoted  hers  to  works  of  mercy.  Con 
trary  to  their  wishes,  the  king  sought 
advantageous  alliances  for  them.  While 
he  was  taking  measures  to  bring  them  to 
his  way  of  thinking,  he  died.  They  were 
now  heirs  of  the  kingdom,  as  their  only 
brother  Hispadius  was  feeble  of  body 
and  unfit  to  succeed  his  father.  They 
renounced  their  right  to  the  throne,  took 
their  brother  with  them,  and  went  to 
Piome.  After  they  had  visited  the  holy 
places,  they  cast  a  devil  out  of  Ursinus 
their  host,  who  thenceforth  became  their 
devoted  servant.  They  next  went  to  the 
territory  of  Beauvais,  where  they  settled 
at  Balagny,  near  Creil.  Here  they  were 
attacked  by  four  ruffians,  and  suffered 
much  in  their  own  defence.  At  last  the 
robbers  killed  them  and  their  brother, 
and  Ursinus  buried  them.  After  many 
years,  ST.  BATHILDE,  queen  of  France, 
had  them  translated  to  her  new  monastery 
of  Chelles.  Colgan,  Irish  Saints,  Jan. 
14.  French  Mart.,  July  13.  Guerin, 
Pet  Its  Soli.  (Cf.  MAURA.  The  difier- 
enco  in  dates  tends  to  the  conclusion 
that  the  legends  are  fictitious.) 


ST.    IIRIGID 


187 


St.  Brigid  <  15).  Dee.  31,  Fab.  I.    l.'th 

century.  Irish.  Her  brother  St.  Andrew 
left  liis  country  to  go  on  a  pilgrimage. 
When  he  said  farewell  to  her,  ho  advised 
her  to  dedicate  her  life  to  God.  She  did 
so.  Many  years  passed,  and  she  had  long 
ceased  to  expect  news  of  her  brother, 
when,  about  the  year  84otsho  was  sitting 
at  homo  preparing  her  frugal  fare,  when 
an  uugol  appeared  and  carried  her  off  to 
Fiesole,  near  Florence.  There  she  found 
herself  in  the  presence  of  St.  Andrew, 
who  lay  on  his  death-bed,  surrounded  by 
his  sorrowing  monks.  He  had  been  for 
years  Archdeacon  of  Fiesole,  under  its 
Irish  seventh  bishop,  St.  Donatus,  and 
had  restored  the  monastery  of  St.  Martin. 
Donatus  was  lately  dead.  Andrew  was 
ill  of  fever,  and  felt  that  ho  had  not 
many  days  to  live.  He  greatly  longed 
to  see  his  sister  Brigid  before  he  died, 
and  in  answer  to  his  strong  wish,  she 
had  been  miraculously  brought  to  him. 
Sliu  thought  she  was  dreaming,  and  was 
as  much  amazed  and  bewildered  as  the 
monks  were  to  see  her  arrive  in  their 
midst.  Andrew  said,  "  Brigid,  my  be 
loved  sister,  I  have  longed  to  see  thee 
before  I  die,  and  because  of  the  great 
distance  that  lay  between  us  I  feared 
my  desire  would  not  be  granted.  I 
trust  that  here  where  I  have  lived,  thou, 
as  a  solitary  and  penitent,  wilt  dwell, 
and  by  thy  prayers  and  virtues  till  up  the 
measure  of  my  shortcomings.  Cease 
from  thy  amazement,  and  pray  for  me 
with  all  thy  soul,  for  my  last  hour  is  at 
hand,  and  my  summons  has  come." 
Then  Brigid  awoke  as  from  a  dream,  and 
wept  both  for  joy  and  grief;  she  grieved 
to  lose  him  again  so  soon,  but  exulted 
that  he  had  resisted  temptations  and 
overcome  the  evil  one.  She  promised 
that  all  the  days  of  life  that  remained  to 
her  should  be  dedicated  to  carrying  out 
his  will,  and  that  she  would  stay  in  the 
country  of  his  adoption  and  walk  in  his 
footsteps  as  far  as  her  weakness  allowed. 
Then  brilliant  lights  and  sweet  odours 
announced  the  ascent  of  the  soul  of 
Andrew,  and  all  the  people  came  and 
:;it«  il  their  dead  saint.  Brigid  left 
the  monastery  and  s«  ttl. -.1  noar  the  source 
«>f  the  Sioci.  hi«jh  up  in  tho  Val  d'Arno, 
where  she  founded  a  church  in  honour 


of  St.  Martin  of  Tours.  After  some 
years  she  wont  further  up  the  mountain 
to  a  more  secluded  place  in  tho  thick 
woods.  Hero  she  found  a  cave,  where 
she  led  a  solitary  life  of  penanco  and 
prayer,  and  there  she  lived  to  a  groat 
age.  The  cave  is  still  shown  under 
neath  the  church  of  the  Madonna  del 
Sasso,  high  up  among  the  Apennines, 
about  two  miles  from  Lobaco.  In  870 
the  inhabitants  built  a  church  on  the 
site  of  her  hermitage,  and  called  it 
Santa  Brigida.  Boll.,  AA.SS.  Lanigau. 
Stokes,  Six  Months  in  the  Apennines. 

St.  Brigid  (H>),  or  BIRGITTA,  Feb. 
1,  V.  Sister  of  St.  Henry,  Emperor 
( •  1 1  „  (2-1024).  Abbess  of  a  monastery  at 
Regensburg,  founded  by  St.  Wolfgang. 
She  is  worshipped  by  the  Benedictines 
only.  AA.SS.,  Prseter. 

St.  Brigid  (17)  of  Glastonbury,  a 
recluse  at  Glastonbury,  whose  necklace 
and  other  relics  were  shown  there  in 
the  time  of  William  of  Malmesbury 
(llth  century),  and  were  supposed  to 
have  belonged  to  ST.  BHIGID  of  Ireland. 
Later  critics  and  investigators  say  this 
was  another  saint,  whoso  memory  is 
swallowed  up  in  the  fame  of  her  great 
namesake. 

St.  Brigid  (18),  March  0.  13th 
century.  Franciscan  nun,  seen  by  her 
contemporary,  ST.  AGNES  OF  BOHEMIA, 
among  the  angels  in  glory.  AA.SS. 

St.  Brigid  ( l  i> )  of  Sweden,  July  2:*, 
Oct.  s.  i:in2  or  KK)4-i;J7;J.  Commonly 
called  BKIGHITE,  BHIGIDA  or  BIUGITTE, 
BBITTA  or  BRITA,  but  her  proper  name 
was  BIUGITTA.  Dr.  Dollinger  calls  her 
"  one  of  the  great  visionaries  of  tho  1 4th 
century."  Founder  and  patron  of  the 
Order  of  the  Saviour  of  the  World,  or 
Brigittines,  and  of  the  monastery  of 
Wadstein,  tho  first  of  that  order. 

Represented  (1)  holding  in  her  hand 
a  heart  surmounted  by  a  crucifix,  to 
indicate  her  devotion  to  tho  Passion ; 
(2)  standing  before  a  cross,  holding  a 
candle,  in  allusion  to  her  custom  not  to 
let  Friday  pass  without  undergoing  some 
suffering  in  honour  of  Christ :  if  no 
other  opportunity  for  suffering  occurred, 
she  dropped  burning  wax  on  her  flesh  ; 
(:J)  stigmata  in  tho  air  near  her,  to 
denote  revelations  which  she  had  on  the 


138 


ST.   BRIGID 


subject ;  (4)  writing  in  a  bool^  an  angel 
dictating  to  her. 

In  the  Norwegian  calendars  of  the 
i:>th  century  a  house  is  the  emblem  of 
her  day,  in  allusion  to  the  monastery 
she  founded ;  sometimes  the  day  is 
marked,  instead,  by  two  heather-bushes, 
because  on  this  day,  Oct.  8,  the  bear  is 
supposed  to  begin  to  prepare  his  lair  for 
the  winter  by  gathering  ling. 

Brigid  was  daughter  of  Birger  Person 
Brahe,  a  devout  warrior,  who  fought 
against  the  Russians  and  made  a  pilgrim 
age  to  Jerusalem.  Her  mother  was 
Ingeborg,  of  the  great  family  of  Fol- 
kunga,  who  gave  Sweden  her  first  kings. 
Shortly  before  the  birth  of  Brigid,  her 
mother  was  at  sea  in  a  frightful  storm 
when  many  persons  were  drowned.  The 
following  night  she  was  told  in  a  dream 
that  she  was  saved  from  shipwreck  on 
account  of  the  predestined  sanctity  of 
her  unborn  daughter.  She  died  soon 
after  the  birth  of  her  child.  Brigid  was 
three  years  old  before  she  began  to 
speak,  and  then  she  surprised  her  family 
by  uttering  quite  distinctly  words  of 
prayer  and  praise.  Sometimes  she  got 
up  to  pray  while  the  other  girls  in  her 
room  were  asleep.  On  one  of  these 
occasions  the  aunt,  who  had  charge  of 
them,  quietly  fetched  a  cane  to  whip  her. 
She  no  sooner  held  it  over  the  back  of 
the  young  saint  than  it  fell  into  small 
pieces.  At  thirteen  she  married  Fulk 
or  Wulf,  prince  or  layman  of  Nericia, 
who  was  eighteen.  They  joined  the 
Third  Order  of  St.  Francis,  and  passed 
the-jfirsi- year  of  their  married  life  in 
holy. virginity.  They  devoted  much  of 
their  property,  time,  and  energy  to  works 
of  religion  and  charity,  turning  their 
house  into  a  sort  of  hospital,  where  they 
tended  the  sick.  About  1  :-J4rt  they  took 
their  eight  children  on  a  pilgrimage  to 
St.  James  of  Compostella,  in  Spain.  On 
their  return  journey,  AVulf  was  taken  ill 
at  Arras.  He  received  the  last  sacra 
ments,  but  Brigid  continued  to  pray  for 
his  recovery.  St.  Denis  appeared  to  her 
in  a  dream,  and  foretold  many  events ; 
and  as  a  pledge  of  their  truth,  said  that 
Wulf  should  recover  immediately ;  which 
he  did.  Whenjthey  reached  Sweden  he 
retired,  with  Brigid's  approbation,  into 


the  Cistercian  monastery  of  Alvastro, 
where  he  very  soon  died.  From  that 
time  she  led  a  life  of  austerity  and 
devotion,  eating  with  the  poor  in  the 
hospitals,  and  begging  with  them  about 
the  streets,  denying  herself  the  use  of 
linen,  and  wearing  a  cilicium. 

It  was  about  KJ44,  soon  after  the 
death  of  her  husband,  that  she  founded 
the  monastery  of  Wadstein,  on  the 
beautiful  shore  of  Lake  Wettern,  in  the 
diocese  of  Lincopen.  It  was  the  first  i 
house  of  her  Order  of  the  Saviour  of  the 
World,  since  called  that  of  the  Brigittines.  \ 
It  was  a  branch  of  the  Order  of  St. 
Augustine,  and  was  instituted  expressly 
for  women ;  men  were  never  to  be  admitted, 
except  to  minister  to  the  spiritual  wants 
of  the  nuns;  the  abbess  ruled  over  the 
monks  in  all  temporal  matters.  The 
rule  she  gave  contains  the  most  minute 
directions,  not  only  for  the  conduct  of 
the  members  of  the  order,  but  concerning 
their  dress  and  the  furniture  of  the  house 
and  church.  The  number  of  nuns  in 
each  monastery  was  fixed  at  sixty,  that 
of  the  priests  at  thirteen,  in  honour  of 
the  twelve  apostles  and  St.  Paul.  There 
were  to  be  eight  lay  brothers  and  four 
deacons,  representing  the  four  doctors 
of  the  Church  (SS.  Jerome,  Ambrose, 
Augustine,  and  Gregory)  ;  in  all,  eighty- 
five,  the  number  of  the  thirteen  apostles 
and  seventy-two  disciples  of  Christ. 

While  she  was  protesting  against  tho 
wickedness  of  the  time,  against  the 
abuses  in  the  Church,  and  the  conduct 
of  her  cousin,  King  Magnus  Srnek,  and 
prophesying  that  God's  judgments  would 
fall  upon  the  land,  the  Black  Death 
came  from  England  in  a  ship.  Before 
the  ship  was  unloaded,  every  man  who- 
had  come  in  it  was  dead,  and  the  con 
tagion  had  made  many  other  victims. 
It  spread  over  the  country,  and  killed  a 
third  of  the  population,  laying  waste 
whole  districts,  so  that  many  churches 
were  unused  and  forgotten,  and  in  the 
next  generation  people  discovered  them 
in  unsuspected  places,  where  the  woods 
had  grown  up  around  them  and  hidden 
them. 

St.  Brigid  never  took  the  veil,  because 
the  rule  of  the  order  would  have  pre 
vented  the  pilgrimages  she  believed  God 


SS.   BRITTA   AND    MAT  MA 


139 


required  her  to  make.  She  went  to 
Rome,  and  obtained  the  confirmation  of 
her  order  by  Urban  V.  in  i:*7<>.  After 
visiting  Naples  and  Sicily,  she  was  in 
spired  to  go  to  Jerusalem,  although, 
being  in  her  seventieth  year,  she  had 
some  misgivings  about  her  infirmities. 
Her  son  Charles,  father  of  the  younger 

Si.    UKKJID    "K    S\VK1)K\,  Set    Off  With    llCT, 

but  (lied  at  an  early  stage  of  the  journey. 
She  was  comforted  by  a  revelation  of 
his  having  entered  into  eternal  bliss. 
Her  daughter,  St.  Catherine  of  Sweden, 
and  her  son  Birger,  went  with  her  to 
Jerusalem.  She  was  taken  ill  on  the 
return  journey,  and  died  in  l:57.'i,  soon 
after  her  arrival  in  Rome. 

It  is  recorded  that  she  was  never 
known  to  be  angry  or  jealous.  She 
caused  the  Scriptures  to  bo  translated 
into  her  native  language. 

She  had  four  sous  and  four  daughters, 
one  of  whom  was  Abbess  of  Wadstein ; 
another     daughter,     Mareta,     was     tho 
mother  of  Ingrid,  abbess  of  Wadstein. 
There  is  extant  a  volume  of  tho  ll>r>- 
Itittitii*  <•/  St.  Br/'tjid,  presented  by  her 
dau.u'hti-r  St.  Catherine  to  Pope  Gregory 
XI.,    who   commissioned    three   learned 
cardinals  to  examine  them ;  they  found 
in  tin  in  nothing  contrary  to  the  Catholic 
faith.     Her  denunciations  of  the  abuses  rf 
of  the   time  in  high  places  were  some-  f 
what  like  those  of  St.  Hildegard,  but  I 
much  more  explicit.     A  coarse  sort  of) 
guipure  lace,  made   in   Sweden,  is  said 
to  have  been  introduced  by  St.  Brigid, 
who  learned  the  art  on  her  pilgrimages, 
and  taught  it  to  her  nuns. 

The  tomb  of  Brigid's  father  and 
mother  is  still  shown  in  the  cathedral 
of  Upsala.  Their  recumbent  statues  lie 
on  a  slab,  a  lion  at  his  feet  and  a  dog 
at  hers ;  their  seven  children  are  repre 
sented  on  tho  border  of  the  tomb.  Two 
•beets  of  her  handwriting  are  shown  in 
the  Library  at  Stockholm. 

11'  r  canonization  was  begun  by  Boni- 
fuc«-  I  X..  and  was  completed  by  Martin  V., 
in  I  ll<>. 

/.'..I/.,  Oct.  8.  Fant  and  Annerstedt, 
/,'  im  Stu'cicarum,  iii.  Hclyot,  Hint. 
Oi-il.  M,,,..  part  iii.  chap.  -J.  Bull.  r. 
Bailht.  .M'^M^uy.  Duffy.  Mrs.  Jame 
son.  (Jeijar,  //  '.  •/  ftpftA  //,  i.  L".'<i5  etc. 


Karamsin,  7  fist.  <!<•  Rnssir,  iv.  :>LV 
Report  of  tho  Cambridge  Antiquarian 
Society,  Oct.,  1H7H.  A  very  interesting 
book,  Tin-  ..")//>/•"»//•  <>f  ""/•  A'/'/.y,  edited 
for  tho  Early  English  Text  Society,  by 
Miss  Toulmin  Smith,  and  written  for 
the  monastery  of  St.  Saviour  and  St. 
Brigid  at  Isleworth,  near  Twickenham, 
gives  some  particulars  of  her  life,  and 
an  account  of  the  establishment,  in  140»>, 
of  this  first  Brigittine  monastery  in 
England.  Paul  du  Chaillu,  Land  of  the 
Miiiniijlit  Sun,  ii.  p.  :J:J:>,  etc.,  gives  a 
charming  description  of  the  country 
where  Wadstein  is  situated,  and  some- 
legends  collected  from  tho  people  of  the 
district. 

St.  Brigid  (20)  the  Younger,  of 
Sweden,  V.  f  1:*IW.  Granddaughter 
of  ST.  BHIGID  OF  SWEDEN,  being  the 
daughter  of  her  son  Charles,  who  died 
on  pilgrimage.  The  younger  Brigid 
was  brought  up  in  the  convent  of  Vreta, 
on  the  Wettern  Lake.  When  she  was 
seven,  her  grandmother  appeared  to  her 
and  predicted  her  death.  She  made  her 
last  confession,  and,  although  it  was 
January,  she  begged  persistently  for 
strawberries,  and,  by  a  revelation  from 
St.  Brigid,  some  were  found  under  the 
snow,  on  a  hill  near  tho  convent.  She 
was  buried  at  her  grandmother's  mon 
astery  of  Wadstein.  Vastovius,  Viti» 


B.  Brigid  ('21  )  of  Holland.  :;rd 
O.S.D.  Supposed  14th  century.  She 
was  so  full  of  love  to  God  that  He 
adorned  her  with  tho  stigmata.  Pio, 
Uomiiii  <•  tl"nn<;  p.  .">ni;.  Choquet,  Smicti 
ll'I'/i,  O.S.D.,  chap.  xxv. 

Brigidona  and  Mary,  Muy  r.,  MM. 
AA.SS.,  Prseter.  MS.  Calendar  of  Tam- 
laght. 

St.  Briid,  BHIGID  (2). 

B.  Briolaya,  Oct.  28,  V.  t  c.  1500. 
Cistercian  nun  at  Ebora,  in  Portugal. 
Remarkable  for  silence.  She  is  praised 
by  several  hagiologists,  but  has  no- 
authorized  worship.  Arturus  calls  h«-r 
"  Saint."  Bucelinus  calls  her  "  Jilessed." 
Boll.,  AA.SS.,  Preeter. 

St.  Brita,  BHICH.  (  i 

St.  Brites,  BKATKK  i:. 

SS.  Britta  (  I  )  and  Maura,  July  :t. 
II"Tionrod  at  Tours.  tf<r  liuitiin  i  14). 


140 


ST.   BRITTA 


St.  Britta  (2 ),  or  Brita.  BRIGID  (19) 
of  Sweden  is  so  called  in  Dalecarlia 

St.  Brittifa,  UIIKTTFVA. 

St.  Bronacha,  or  BKOXANA,  April  2. 
Abbess  of  Glensechis,  in  Ireland.  Butler. 

St.  Bronfinnia,  UANFINNIA. 

B.  Bronislavia.  i:-ith  century.  A 
relation  of  St.  Hyacinth,  O.S.D.,  a  canon 
of  Cracow.  In  1  857  the  six  hundredth 
anniversary  of  St.  Hyacinth  was  cele 
brated  with  an  eight  days'  festival, 
special  indulgences  being  granted  in 
connection  with  it  by  Pius  IX.  On  this 
occasion  the  picture  of  the  Blessed 
Bronislavia  was  carried  in  procession  in 
the  church  of  the  Dominicans.  Her 
relics  repose  in  the  church  of  the  canon- 
esses  of  St.  Norbert.  CivUta  CattoUca, 
Nov.,  1857. 

St.  Broteva,  BRETTIVA. 

St.  Bruinech,  BUKIAN. 

St.  Bruna,  ALDA. 

St.  Bruncecha,  or  BRUNECH,  May 
2i>,  V.  Ancient  Irish.  Either  ST. 
MOCHUA,  daughter  of  Crimthan,  or  her 
sister.  AA.SS.,  Prseter. 

St.  Brussia.  Once  worshipped  in 
Attica. 

St.  Bryde,  BRIGID  (2). 

St.  Brykke,  BRETTIVA. 

St.   Bublasa,  June    1,  M.  with  ST. 

UCEGA. 

St.  Bucella,  or  LUCELLA,  May  10,  M. 
an  Africa.  AA.SS. 

St.  Bugga  (1),  ETHELBURGA. 

B.  Bugga  ( 2),  EDBURGA  (5). 

B.  Bullona,  MARGARET  AGULLONE. 

St.  Bunette,  patron  of  a  church  in 
Berry.  Mas  Latrie,  Tresor. 

St.  Buolaie,  patron  of  a  church  in  the 
diocese  of  Lu^on.  P.B.  Migne.  Stadler. 

B.    Burgunda,   July  8.     A    noble 


matron  at  Wurtzburg,  in  Franconia. 
There  is  no  authority  for  her  worship, 
although  Arturus  calls  her  Blessed.  She 
is  mentioned  in  the  Arts  of  St.  Kiltan. 
He  was  an  Irish  monk,  who,  with  SS. 
Coloman,  or  Colonatus,  and  Totnan,  went 
to  preach  the  Christian  religion  in  Fran 
conia.  They  converted  the  duke,  anil 
made  him  put  away  his  wife  Geilana, 
who  had  been  his  brother's  widow.  She 
was  so  angry  that,  during  the  absence  of 
the  duke,  she  had  the  three  missionaries 
murdered  and  their  bodies  concealed. 
Burgunda,  who  lived  near  the  oratory  of 
the  three  monks,  knew  what  had  hap 
pened,  but  did  not  dare  to  reveal  it. 
She  told  it,  however,  before  she  died. 
Meantime,  first  the  executioners  and  then 
the  duchess  were  seized  by  the  devil  and 
died  in  torments,  calling  out  the  names 
of  their  victims.  AA.SS.,  Prsetcr. 

St.  Burgundofora  is  mentioned  in 
the  Roman  Martyrohgy,  April  3,  as  an 
abbess  in  England,  and  in  Guerin's 
Dictionnaire  Hogiographiqut,  Jan.,').  Pro 
bably  ST.  FARA  is  meant.  So  many 
English  ladies  attained  great  perfection 
under  her  rule,  that  she  was  doubtless 
highly  venerated  in  England. 

St.  Burian,  May  1,  29,  June  4,  19 
(BERIONA,  BRUINECH,  BURIENA).  6th 
century.  One  of  the  Irish  saints  who, 
like  BRIDGET,  ITA,  and  BRIGA,  set  up 
great  schools  for  girls.  This  soon  raised 
the  status  of  women,  which  until  then 
was  very  low.  She  migrated  to  Corn 
wall,  and  settled  near  the  Land's  End. 
Athelstane  founded  a  collegiate  church 
in  her  honour.  Smith  and  "W ace.  Baring- 
Gould,  Book  of  the.  West.  Wilson,  Eng 
lish  Mart.  AA.SS.  Brit.  Sancta. 

Buriena,  BURIAX. 


c 


St.  Cacola,  GAKU.A. 

St.  Cacra,  CKCRA. 

St.  Gael,  Oct.  26,  V.  Sister  of 
DAKHELIN. 

St.  Caentigern,  KENTIGERNA. 

St.  Caesaria,  or  C^SAKIUS.  (See 
CARMILLA.  i 

St.   Caia,   or  CAJA,  Jan.   19,  M.  in 


Africa,  with  more  than  six  hundred  others. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Caila,  PIALA. 

St.  Cain.  First  half  of  6th  century. 
Patron  of  Llangain,  Caermartheushire. 
Daughter  of  ST.  CAW.  Sister  of  SS. 

GWENAFWY,       CWYLLOO,       PEILLAN,       and 

PEITHIKN.     Rees,  228. 


ST.  CALLISTIIKM: 


141 


St.  Cainder,  or  KKXNKKK,  Nov.  :-. 
daughter  of  Caelan  of  Rinnh  Allaid. 
Irish.  Forbes.  K<i/<  n<l<tr*. 

St.  Cainner,'  or  KKNNKKK,  Jan.  28, 
Daughter  of   ('ruithnechan,  worshipped 
at    Kilcnllen,  Kildare.     Forbes,  Kalen- 
•  Kennere,"  from  Colgan. 

Caintigerna,  KEXTIGEKXA. 

St.  Caiola,  GAIOLA. 

St.  Cairecha,  KAIKECHA. 

St.  Calamanda,  or  CALAMANDHA, 
5,  V.  of  Catalonia,  M.  Represented 
holding  a  palm-branch,  in  a  picture  in 
the  church  of  St.  James  at  Calaffum, 
where  an  altar  was  dedicated  to  her. 
Sin  is  invoked  with  success  when  rain 
is  wanted.  Some  authors  suppose  her 
to  have  been  a  companion  of  ST.  UKSULA. 
Henschenius,  in  AA.SS. 

St.  Calamandra,  CALAMANDA. 

Ven.Calefaie,orCALEFAGiA.  Teacher 
of  St.  Ausonius,  first  bishop  of  Angou- 
leme.  (iuerin. 

St.  Calis.  "  (Sec  CHAKIESSA.) 

St.  Calista,  Jan.  ID,  M.  in  Africa, 
witli  more  than  six  hundred  others. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Callinica  (1),  or  CALLINICCS, 
March  22.  "f  c.  2,">2.  In  the  reign  of 
the  Emperor  Decius,  ST.  BASILISSA  (2), 
a  rich  woman  of  Galatia,  employed 
Callinica  to  carry  gifts  of  money,  food, 
and  other  necessaries  to  the  imprisoned 
Christians ;  at  the  same  time,  she  used 
t«»  entreat  them  to  pray  that  her  faith 
and  courage  might  not  fail  in  time  of 
mid.  One  day  Callinica  was  caught 
ministering  to  the  prisoners.  Her  exami 
nation  and  confession  led  to  the  arrest 
<>f  Hasilissa.  Both  avowing  their  belief 
in  Christ,  and  steadfastly  refusing  to 
sa.-rilice  to  the  idols,  were  tortured  and 
beheaded.  In  some  of  the  old  calendars 
they  are  called  two  holy  women ;  in 
others,  Calliuicus  is  called  a  man.  Other 
accounts  place  them  in  the  reign  of 
Trajan,  and  descri1>e  them  as  two  of  the 
five  companions  of  his  daughter  13  KOZKLLA, 
"i  1'  Another  account  says  they 

were  companions  of  St.  Beryllus,  a  native 
of  Antioch,  appointed  first  Bishop  of 
C.itiinia,  in  Sicily,  by  St.  Peter  the 
apostle.  l;.M.  j.l.» 

St.  Callinica  i  ii;.    (8*  Ni«  I:TA.) 

St.  Calliope  Lerama,  June  8,V.  M. 


Represented  with  a  hot  iron  held  to  her 
breast.  She  is  honoured  in  the  Greek 
Church,  and  believed  to  have  been  put 
to  death  with  tortures  of  peculiar  atrocity 
in  the  reign  of  the  Emperor  Decius. 
The  Spanish  hagiologists  say  her  martyr 
dom  took  place  in  the  reign  of  Nero  and 
at  the  town  of  Triboraci,  called  in  her 
honour  Lerma.  There  is  a  great  deal 
more  about  her  in  Salazar  which  Hen 
schenius  leaves  to  those  who  are  greedy 
of  such  inventions.  R.M.,AA.SS.  Callot. 
Husenbeth. 

SS.  Callista  (1  )  and  Christa,  Feb. 
.">,  MM.  They  were  hired  to  induce  ST. 
DOKOTHY  (1)  to  follow  their  example* 
and  apostatize.  They  not  only  failed  to- 
pervert  her,  but  were  influenced  by  her 
to  repent  and  return  to  the  true  religion, 
and  were  martyred  by  being  plunged 
into  a  boiling  caldron.  They  are  com 
memorated  with  SS.  Dorothy  and  Theo- 
philus.  Legend  says  they  were  sisters 
of  Dorothy,  but  Tillemont  does  not 
mention  this.  Tillemont,  v.  498. 

St.  Callista  (2),  with  her  brothers, 
SS.  Kvodius  and  Hermogenes,  April  25, 
Sept.  2,  M.  c.  :3<>4.  She  encouraged 
them  to  endure  martyrdom  at  Syracuse. 
B.M. 

St.  Callisthene,  Oct.  4.  4th  century. 
Lived  at  Ephesus  with  her  father,  St. 
Audactus,  a  Christian  dnke.  She  un 
wittingly  attracted  the  admiration  of 
Maximianus  (afterwards  Emperor).  As 
he  was  a  monster  of  wickedness,  Audac 
tus  sent  her  out  of  the  way.  Maximianus 
revenged  himself  for  her  disappearance 
by  confiscating  the  goods  of  the  family, 
and  banishing  them  to  a  neighbouring 
province.  There  the  local  authorities 
were  ordered  to  compel  Audactus  to 
sacrifice  to  the  gods,  and,  as  ho  resisted, 
ho  was  beheaded.  Callisthene,  to  escapo 
from  further  persecution,  cut  off  her  hair 
and  dressed  herself  as  a  man,  and  under 
this  disguise  lived  for  several  years  at 
Nicomedia.  During  this  time  she  appears 
to  have  maintained  herself  by  the  prac 
tice  of  medicine.  Wo  next  hear  of  her 
in  Thrace,  attending  a  girl  who  had  a 
disease  of  the  eyes  and  was  threatened 
with  blindness.  She  recovered,  and  her 
grateful  parents  were  so  pleased  with 
their  young  doctor  that  they  proposed 


142 


ST.   CALLODATA 


to  marry  him  to  tboir  daughter.  Cal- 
listhene  then  confided  her  story  to  them, 
and  she  seems  to  have  remained  with 
them  until  she  heard  of  the  death  of 
Maximianus.  The  same  year  an  edict 
was  published  in  favour  of  the  Chris 
tians,  and  Licinius  succeeded  to  the 
power  and  dignities  of  his  colleague  and 
rival.  ( 'allisthene  applied  to  Constantia, 
the  Christian  empress,  who  received  her 
into  her  house,  placed  her  children  under 
her  care,  and  persuaded  Licinius  to 
restore  the  property  of  Audactus  to  his 
-daughter.  She  next  obtained  permission 
to  remove  her  father's  body  from  the 
place  of  his  martyrdom  to  Ephesus,  where 
she  lived  righteously,  and  died  in  peace. 
The  father  and  daughter  are  honoured 
together.  Menology  of  Basil.  AA.SS. 
Smith  and  Wace.  Mas  Latrie. 

St.  Callodata,  CALODATA. 

SS.  Callwen  and  Gwenfyl,  Nov.  1 . 
^)th  century.  Commemorated  at  Defynog 
and  Llanddewi  Brefe.  Descendants  of 
Brychan.  See  ALMHEDA.  Baring-Gould. 
Rees. 

St.  Calodota,  or  Callodata,  Sept.  <>. 
M.  c.  2f>0,  at  Alexandria,  with  THECLA, 
ANDROPELAGIA,  and  several  others.  Wife 
of  one  Cyrus.  AA.SS. 

St.  Calonica,  May  ID,  M.  Buried  in 
the  catacomb  of  Calixtus,  Via  Appia, 
Rome.  AA.SS. 

St.  Calpurnia  (  1  ),  June  2.  One  of 
the  227  Roman  martyrs  commemorated 
together  in  the  Mart  t/r<>lo</i/  of  St.  Jerome. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Calpurnia  (  2  ),  commonly  called 

.1  i«»M ANA   OF  TODI. 

St.  Calricia,  May  r>  (  CAKICA,  CARICIA, 
•CAUISIA,  (2)),  M.  at  Milan,  supposed 
under  Maximian.  AA.SS. 

St.  Cama,  June  4,  M.  in  Cilicia,  or 
Sicily.  AA.SS. 

St.  Camela,  Sept.  IT.  (('AMKLIA,  CA- 
MKLLA,  CAMILLA  i,  V.  Specially  honoured 
at  Toulouse,  and  in  the  diocese  of  Mire- 
poix,  in  Aquitaine,  where  a  church  and 
village  bear  her  name.  Supposed  to 
have  been  martyred  by  the  Albigeois 
heretics,  or  to  have  lived  earlier  than 
that  time — perhaps  Hth  or  Dth  century. 
Stilting,  in  AA.SS.  Mas  Latrie.  Guerin 
calls  her  CAMILLA  or  CAMILIE,  a  Cister 
cian  at  Carcasonne. 


St.  Camilla  M  »,  March  3,  V. 
•(•  4:57.  Disciple  of  St.  Germanus.  SS. 
Camilla,  MAGNKNTIA,  PALLADIA,  MAXIMA, 
and  PORCARIA  accompanied  the  body  of 
their  master  on  its  journey  from  Ravenna 
to  Auxerre,  in  France  ;  but,  overcome 
by  the  fatigues  and  difficulties  of  tho 
way,  Camilla,  Magnentia,  and  Palladia 
died,  at  different  places,  before  its  arrival 
at  Auxerre.  Palladia's  death  took  place 
at  Ste.  Palaye,  so  called  in  her  honour. 
Camilla  was  buried  at  Ecoulives.  Her 
body  and  that  of  Palladia  were  burned 
by  the  Calvinists.  Maxima  built  a 
church  over  tho  tomb  of  St.  Germanus, 
and  was  buried  there  herself.  Porcaria 
was  buried  in  another  church  dedicated 
in  her  honour,  about  nine  miles  from  the 
town.  It  is  uncertain  whether  these 
four  saints  were  sisters  or  only  fellow- 
disciples.  Camilla  is  mentioned  with 
St.  Germanus  in  the  Viola  Sanctorum, 
and  in  a  MS.  Life  of  St.  Maynriitid, 
quoted  in  AA.SS. 

St.  Camilla  (2),  CAMELA. 

B.  Camilla  ( •> ),  LUCY  BAHTOLIXI  Ru- 
CELLAI. 

St.  Camilla  (  4 ),  BAPTIST  A  VARAXI. 

B.  Camilla- Pia,  March  31,  O.S.F. 
Founder,  in  1504,  of  a  convent  of  Claris- 
san  nuns  at  Carpi,  near  Modena,  in  Italy. 
P.B. 

St.  Camiona,  or  CANNIONA,  one  of 
the  twelve  companions  of  ST.  BENEDICTA 
(7).  Honoured  at  Le  Mensil-Saint- 
Laurent,  near  Origny. 

St.  Candedia,  May  1 0,  M.  at  Tarsus, 
in  Cilicia.  AA.SS. 

St.  Candia,  CANDIDA  (11). 

St.  Candida  (1)  the  Elder,  Sept.  3. 
1  st  century.  Patron  of  Naples.  When 
St.  Peter,  the  apostle,  was  on  his  way  to 
Rome,  after  he  had  founded  the  Church 
in  Antioch,  he  passed  through  Naples, 
where  he  was  kindly  received  by  an  old 
widow  named  Candida.  When  he  spoke 
to  her  of  the  Christian  faith,  she  said  she 
would  believe  in  his  God  if  he  could 
cure  her  of  excessive  pains  in  her  head, 
from  which  she  had  suffered  for  many 
years.  He  cured  her  and  instructed  and 
baptized  her.  She  then  besought  his 
aid  for  a  good  old  man  who  was  helpless 
and  suffering  much  from  a  grievous 
disease.  St.  Peter  gave  her  his  staff,  and 


ST.   CANDIDA 


1!:; 


bade  her  go  and  touch  her  friend  with  it 
in  the  name  of  Christ.  She  cured  her 
friend,  and  the  staff  was  long  preserve*! 
in  the  church  at  Naples.  R.M.  A.[.SS. 
St.  Candida  (2),  Dec.  1.  1st  cen 
tury.  M.  at  Rome,  in  the  time  of  Trajan, 
with  Lucius  her  husband,  Rogatus  and 
Cassiau.  Candida,Lucius,SergiusPaulus, 
and  many  others  were  converted  by  St. 
Paul  at  Paphos,  in  Cyprus.  Jt.M. 


St.  Candida  en,  June  <;.  M.  with 
her  husband,  St.  Artemins,  a  jailor,  and 
their  daughter,  ST.  PAULINA  (  t>  ),  in  the 
Diocletian  persecution,  at  the  end  of  the 
;ird  or  beginning  of  the  4th  century. 
Paulina  was  vexed  with  a  devil.  B. 
Peter,  a  prisoner  in  the  custody  of  Ar- 
tcniius,  healed  her  by  his  prayers,  and 
was  thus  the  means  of  converting  Arte- 
mius,  Candida,  and  their  daughter.  They 
with  all  their  house  and  many  others  — 
at  least  three  hundred  men,  besides  women 
—  were  baptized  by  1J.  Marcellinus,  a  pres 
byter.  When  the  judge  Serenus  heard 
this,  and  Artemius  refused  to  sacrifice  to 
idols,  he  ordered  him  with  his  wife  and 
daughter  to  bo  buried  under  a  mighty 
pile  of  stones.  As  they  were  being  led 
to  the  place,  so  many  Christians  met 
them  that  the  murderers  fled  affrighted, 
only  to  bo  pursued,  caught,  and  detained 
as  prisoners  until  Marcellinus  had  cele 
brated  Mass  in  the  crypt  where  the 
saints  were  to  suffer.  Marcellinus  said 
to,  them,  "  Lo,  we  had  it  in  our  power 
to  injure  you,  and  to  take  away  from 
you  Artemius  and  his  daughter  ;  but  this 
we  have  not  done.  What  say  you  to 
this  ?  "  Gnashing  with  their  teeth  upon 
the  mm  of  God,  they  slew  Artemius 
with  tho  sword  ;  Candida  and  Paulina 
lh<y  cast  headlong  from  the  crypt  — 
probably  :i  cave  —  and  overwhelmed  them 
wit:  Another  account  says 

-  into  tho  crypt,"  and  udds  that  Artciniii* 
ben  with  "lead-weighted  thongs." 
The  (•.•ninifin.  .ration  of  St.  Artemius  is 
piv-cribL-d    in    the    I'.n.-viary    of   Tours, 
I  !'•:!''».        It.M.       .1.1.  NX.,    from    a     vi-ry 
iiiM-i--iit  3I>.  In  -longing  t  •  the  church   i»f 
aviour  at 

St.  Candida  (4j,  Sep.  20,  V.  M. 
sic.-t.r.ling  to  tin-  IinnKin  Martyrdlogy,  at 
Curtilage,  under  Maximian,  but  claimed 


by  tho  Church  of  Carthagena,  in  Spain,  as 
a  martyr  there.  Patron,  with  ST.  CIIAKI- 
TIN  \  i  !  >,  of  ( 'arthagena. 

St.  Candida  (•">),  Aug.  !".»,  V.  M. 
whose  body  was  translated  by  Pope 
Pascal  I.  (SM-S24)  into  the  church  of 
St.  Praxedis  at  Rome.  H.M.  This  is, 
purhaps,  tho  same  as  CANDIDA  (4). 

St.  Candida (<>),  Jan.  7,  M.  in  Greece. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Candida  (7),  Jan.  7.     AA.SS. 

St.  Candida  (*),  Sept.  28,  M.  in 
Africa.  AA.S*. 

St.  Candida  (i»),  Aug.  :n.  4th 
century.  Lived  in  Rome  with  her 
intimate  friend,  ST.  MAKCELLINA  (1),  and 
followed  her  to  Milan.  Candida  was 
buried  in  the  basilica  of  St.  Ambrose, 
and  has  been  venerated  with  the  title  of 
"  Saint f>  ever  since  the  !Hh  century. 
Her  portrait  in  mosaic  is  in  the  choir 
with  those  of  Marcellina  and  Satyrus. 
Her  name  is  in  the  oldest  manuscript  of 
the  Litany  used  on  Rogation  days.  In 
very  ancient  times  she  was  included  in 
the  Catalogue  of  Milanese  Saints,  and 
honoured  by  a  special  service  on  Aug. 
.'11.  Lady  Herbert,  Marcellina. 

St.  Candida  ( 1 0),  wife  of  a  general 
named  Trajan.  She  and  her  daughter, 
a  holy  virgin,  who  predeceased  her,  were 
much  given  to  manual  labour,  because 
Candida  said  that  fasting  was  not  enough 
to  keep  tho  devil  out,  hard  work  also 
was  necessary.  ST.  GKLASIA  was  a 
disciple  of  Candida.  PaUadii  Lausiaca. 

St.  Candida  (1  l),or  CAXDIA,  Oct.  22, 
V.  M.  Native  of  Tortosa,  in  Spain. 
Companion  of  ST.  URSULA.  AA.SX. 

St.  Candida  (12)  the  Younger, 
Sept.  4,  Of  Naples,  f  .">HU.  A  very 
pious  woman,  who  loved  God  better  than 
her  husband  and  only  son.  She  died 
before  them  and  was  buried  in  the 
cl nirch  of  St.  Andrew,  in  a  place  called 
Ail  Nidum,  in  or  near  Naples.  Some 
time  afterwards  a  miraculous  liquid 
flowed  from  her  tomb,  and  was  found 
to  bo  a  euro  for  various  diseases.  ll.M. 
J.I. NX. 

St.  Candida  ( 1  -'5),  Jan.  L'7.  Towards 
tho  end  of  tho  sth  century.  Worshipped 
at  the  monastery  of  I  Janoles  and  village  of 
Gujalbrs.  iirnr  Gerona,  in  >pain.  Wife 
of  a  devout  nobleman  nam-.-d  I'.andilo. 


144 


B.   CANDIDA 


To  their  regret,  they  had  n«  children. 
At  last  God  told  them  that  they  should 
have  a  son,  who  would  be  one  of  His 
great  servants.  When  he  was  born  they 
called  him  Emerius. 

The  Christians  in  the  north  of  Spain, 
being  oppressed  by  the  Moors,  sent  to 
ask  help  of  Charles,  king  of  France.  (It 
is  uncertain  whether  it  was  Charles 
Martel  or  his  grandson  Charlemagne.) 
They  lost  many  battles,  and  their  resist 
ance  ceased.  After  some  years  it  was 
revealed  to  the  king  that  the  time  had 
come  for  him  to  renew  the  war  against 
the  Moors,  and  that  Emerius,  who  was 
then  a  hermit,  was  destined  to  help  him. 
The  king  accordingly  took  him  for  his 
guide.  During  this  campaign,  Emerius 
procured  bread  for  hungry  Christians 
and  restored  to  life  those  who  died  of 
famine.  The  king  besieged  the  city  of 
Querquens  for  seven  years,  and  then  he 
resolved  to  raise  the  siege  and  go 
into  Catalonia.  As  he  began  to  draw  off 
his  army,  Emerius  cried  out,  "  0  king, 
come  to  Querquenssoua."  He  returned 
and  took  the  city,  and  it  was  called 
Carcassonne.  Then  he  went  into  Cata 
lonia,  to  a  marshy  place  called  Balneoli, 
infested  by  a  lion,  the  terror  of  the 
people.  Emerius  caught  it  by  pouring 
holy  water  on  it.  He  built  a  church 
and  monastery  on  the  place,  and  dedicated 
them  in  the  name  of  St.  Stephen.  The 
king  and  army  did  not  want  to  part  with 
him ;  but  as  he  was  determined  to  leave 
all  secular  concerns,  they  made  him 
abbot,  to  establish  the  Benedictine  rule 
there.  Some  time  after,  Candida  having 
become  a  widow,  went  in  search  of  her 
son,  and  found  him  in  the  island  of 
Fargat.  Great  was  the  joy  of  both,  but 
after  a  few  days  Emerius  realized  that 
the  delight  of  his  mother's  society  was 
winning  his  heart  back  to  earth,  and  as 
he  had  decided  to  give  it  all  to  God,  he 
requested  her  to  go  and  leave  him.  She 
said,  "  Oh,  my  son,  we  have  had  so  little 
happiness  and  comfort  together :  let  me. 
stay  with  you  and  serve  God  and  lead  a 
life  of  poverty."  He  said  it  could  not 
be,  but  he  would  send  her  away  only  as 
far  as  he  could  throw  his  stick.  She 
consented,  thinking  it  would  bo  only  a 
few  yards ;  but  he  threw  it  a  very  long 


way.  She  kept  her  promise  and  took  up 
her  abode  in  the  place  he  had  assigned 
to  her,  and  there  she  ended  her  days. 
AA.SS.  Bucelinus,  M<n.  Ben. 

B.  Candida  (14),  BLANCHE,  queen  of 
France. 

St.  Canna,  Oct.  2:>.  (3th  century. 
Native  of  Bretagne.  Wife,  first,  of  St. 
Sadwrn,  also  a  Breton,  and  by  him 
mother  of  St.  Crallo.  She  migrated  to 
Wales  with  her  first  husband,  and  there, 
secondly,  she  married  Gallgu  Rieddog, 
and  was  by  him  mother  of  St.  Elian 
Geimad.  Elian  is  in  Latin  Hilarius. 
Sadwrn  was  nephew  of  Canna's  great- 
uncle,  St.  Germain  of  Auxcrrc.  They 
were  related  to  many  Welsh  and  Armo- 
rican  saints.  They  give  names  to  several 
places  in  Wales.  AA.SS.  Rees,  Welsh 
Saints,  p.  222,  says  she  founded  Llan- 
ganna,  in  Glamorgan,  and  Llangan  in 
Caermarthen. 

St.  Cannera,  or  CAXXEBIA,  Jan.  28, 
V.  Oth  century.  A  native  of  Bentraig, 
near  Bantry  Bay.  Her  kinsman,  St. 
Senan,  founded  and  ruled  a  small  com 
munity  of  monks  in  Scattery,  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Shannon.  One  of  his  most 
important  rules  was  that  no  woman 
should  enter  that  island.  Cannera,  how 
ever,  was  determined  to  be  buried  there, 
and  to  receive  the  last  sacrament  from  the 
hands  of  Senan.  Guided  there  by  an  angel 
or  by  a  vision,  she  begged  him  to  allow 
her  to  land.  He  positively  refused  to  let 
her  set  foot  on  the  place  consecrated  to- 
the  use  of  his  community.  He  told  her 
to  go  to  his  mother  COMGELLA  (2),  who- 
lived  near.  Cannera  said  she  had  taken 
this  long  journey  on  purpose  to  have  a 
perpetual  resting-place  in  his  island; 
that  Christ  suffered  for  both  sexes,  and 
opened  the  gate  of  heaven  to  women  as 
well  as  to  men ;  and  that  the  apostles 
suffered  women  to  minister  to  them,  and 
did  not  disdain  their  hospitality  or 
society.  After  a  great  deal  of  argument, 
she  said  she  would  only  ask  that  in  her 
life  she  should  receive  the  Holy  Com 
munion,  and  in  death  as  much  earth  on 
the  shore  as  would  cover  her.  Senan 
contended  that  the  sea  would  wash  away 
her  grave.  She  said  it  would  not.  At 
last  he  consented.  He  gave  her  the 
holy  viaticum,  and  she  immediately  died 


SS.  CAPITOL1XA   AND   BROTHELS 


145 


and  was  buried  ou  the  coast  of  Scattery, 
Ami  not  only  do  the  waves  never  encroach 
on  her  grave,  but  navigators  in  danger 
ii.-ar  Ireland  invoke  her  assistance  with 
success.  Lauigan.  Colgan.  AAJ3S. 
lil\"  ,-tn'fe.  Dr.  Led  wick  considers 
-  .  i nus  to  be  the  personification  of  the 
river  Shannon. 

St.  Canniona,  CAMION  A. 

St.  Cansiona,  patron  of  a  church 
mentioned  by  Innocent  III. 

St.  Cantia,  Nov.  2o,  V.M.  Honoured 
at  Toscanella,  in  Tuscany.  Ferrarius, 
^  'atciloffus. 

St.  Cantiana  (1),  June  l.">,  M.  at 
Lucania,  honoured  with  St.  Vitus.     (See 
BNTIA  (  l;.)     AA.SS. 

St.  Cantiana  (2),  CAXTIAXILLA  (1). 

St.  Cantianilla  (  1)  or  CAXTIAN A  2  . 
May  :il,  M.  .'i<>4.  She  and  her  brothers 
<'antius  and  Cantianus,  with  their  gover 
nor  St.  Protus,  are  commonly  called  the 
C'antian  Martyrs.  They  were  related  to 
the  Emperor  Carinus,  and  were  of  the 
noble  Koman  family  of  the  Anicii,  as 
illustrious  for  having  given  several 
martyrs  and  confessors  of  both  sexes  to 
the  Church  as  for  having  given  consuls 
and  Kmperors  to  Rome.  They  were 
brought  up  in  the  Christian  faith,  and 
when  the  persecution  began,  under  Dio 
cletian  and  Maximian,  they  sold  their 
property  in  Rome,  liberated  their  slaves, 
distributed  their  money  to  the  poor,  and 
went  to  Aquileia,  in  Istria,  where  they 
had  other  estates.  They  were  accom 
panied  by  Protus,  their  faithful  friend 
and  adviser.  The  persecuting  edict 
arrived  before  them  at  Aquileia,  and 
when  they  got  there,  hoping  to  see  their 
iri'-nd,  the  venerable  priest  St.  Chryso- 
gonus,  he  had  already  been  put  to  death 
a  month  before  by  the  enemies  of  tho 
t'hnrch.  Next  day  they  went  to  visit 
th«-  ( 'hristians  who  were  in  prison.  Their 
conduct  was  soon  reported  totheEmper«>r, 
who  sent  orders  for  their  arrest.  They 
\-inil. -in  in  a  chariot  drawn  by  mules, 
intending  to  conceal  themselves  at  tho 
tomb  of  St.  Chrysogouus,  at  Aqii.-i- 
latro,  a  village,  now  called  San 
<  'antiano,  four  miles  from  Aquileia  ;  but 
one  of  their  mules  falling  lame  by  tin- 
way,  they  were  overtaken,  and  as  they 
utterly  refused  to  obey  the  Kmp.-ror's 


command  and  renounce  their  religion, 
they  were  at  once  beheaded.  They  tie 
mentioned  in  a  sermon  attributed  to  St. 
Ambrose,  and  in  some  old  martyrologies. 
l!;iillet  esteems  their  story  to  be  true, 
although  the  Acts  published  by  the  Bol- 
landists  are  not  genuine.  It.M.  Hen- 
schenius,  in  AA.88.  Butler. 

St.  Cantianilla  (2;,  June  i;>,  M.  in 
Uarbary.     Guerin. 

St.    Cantide,   or    CAXTIS,    Aug.   5. 
Guerin. 

St.  Cantionilla,  QI-IXTIAXILLA. 

St.  Cantis,  CANTIDE. 

SS.  Capitolina  and  Erotheis  or 
EBOTIS,  her  maid,  Oct.  27,  MM.  304,  in 
Cappadocia,  under  Diocletian.  Capito 
lina  was  a  woman  of  high  rank  in  Cap 
padocia.  When  brought  to  trial  as  a 
Christian,  she  was  asked  her  name, 
country,  and  parentage.  She  answered, 
**  I  am  a  Christian,  my  country  is  tho 
heavenly  Jerusalem,  my  parents  are  the 
teachers  of  Christianity,  and  chiefly  the 
great  Firmilianus,  bishop  of  Cwsarea  in 
Cappadocia."  When  she  had  resisted 
all  the  persuasions  and  threats  used  by 
Zolicinthius,  tho  judge,  to  induce  her  to 
renounce  her  faith  and  worship  the  gods 
— particularly  Serapis — she  was  sent  to 
prison.  A  person  who  had  been  present 
at  the  trial  ran  to  her  house  and  told 
her  maid  Erotis,  who  was  baking,  and 
was  just  going  to  put  loaves  in  the  oven. 
She  left  her  work,  and  ran  to  tho  prison 
and  kissed  the  fetters  that  bound  her 
mistress;  she  congratulated  her  on  tho 
prospect  of  martyrdom,  and  begged  her 
to  pray  that  her  maid  also  might  be 
found  worthy  to  share  her  fate.  Capito 
lina  told  her  not  to  fear,  but  bo  present 
on  the  morrow  and  witness  her  execution. 
Erotis  went  home,  finished  her  cooking, 
and  took  the  bread  to  tho  prison.  Capi 
tolina  bade  her  give  it  to  the  poor,  and 
then  sell  all  her  mistress's  things  and 
distribute  tho  money  to  tho  poor.  Erotis 
obeyed  the  order,  and  next  day,  when 
Capitolina  was  brought  before  the  judge, 
ht-r  zealous  servant  assailed  him  with 
stones  and  abuse.  When  she  had  seen 
hi-r  mistress  transfixed  with  a  sword, 
was  asked  how  a  person  of  her  mean 
station  could  dare  to  behave  in  this 
manner.  She  replied  by  reviling  tho 


146 


ST.   CAPPA 


judge  and  his  gods  ;  and  wfcs  put  to 
horrible  tortures,  under  which  she  ceased 
not  to  thank  God.  Her  wounds  were 
miraculously  healed,  and  she  came  un- 
scorched  out  of  a  furnace  into  which  she 
was  cast.  At  length  she  was  beheaded, 
the  day  after  St.  Capitolina.  E.M.  J/"<- 
Basil.  AA.SS. 

St.  Cappa,  Feb.  2,  M.  with  CASTULA 
(VI)  and  many  others,  at  Rome,  supposed 
nnder  Diocletian.  AA.SS.,  Mart.  St. 
Jerome. 

St.  Captiva,  NINO. 

St.  Carecha,  Feb.  9.  f  578.  Abbess 
of  a  nunnery  in  Gal  way  or  Roseommon. 
She  was  of  the  illustrious  house  of  the 
princes  of  Orgiel.  Sister  of  ST.  FANCHEA, 
also  of  Enna,  or  Enda,  founder  and  abbot 
of  a  monastery  at  Arran-of-the-Saints,  in 
the  bay  of  Galway,  where  St.  Brendan 
of  Clonfert  spent  three  days  with  him 
before  setting  sail  on  his  famous  voyage 
in  search  of  the  Earthly  Paradise.  This 
Enna  was  the  son  of  Caial  of  Clogher, 
and  grandson  of  Damen,  and  his  mother 
is  said  to  have  been  Dairine,  a  sister  of 
King  Aengus.  Lanigan. 

St.  Careme,  CARISSIMA. 

St.    Caria.      (See    ACRABONIA     and 

ASKAMA.) 

St.  Carica,  CALRICIA. 

Caricia,  CALRICIA. 

St.  Cariesse,  CHARIESSA. 

St.  Carina,  CASINA. 

St.  Carinia,  March  6,  M.  at  Nicopo- 
lis.  Guerin. 

St.  Caris,  CHARIS. 

St.  Carisia  ( 1),  or  CHARISIA,  March  1 , 
M.  Guerin.  »' 

St.  Carisia  (2),  CALRICIA. 

St.  Carissa,  June  li>,  V.  M.  One  of 
the  companions  of  ST.  URSULA.  Trans 
lated  from  Cologne  to  Viconia,  in  Hain- 
ault,  June  10,  1157.  AA.SS.,  Prseter. 

St.  Carissima,  or  CHAiussiMA,Sept.  7, 
Oct.  11,  V.  (3th  or  7th  century.  Called 
in  French  CHRKME,  or  CAUEME.  Honoured 
in  the  diocese  of  Albi.  According  to 
local  legend,  she  was  of  noble  birth, 
persecuted  by  her  parents  to  marry 
Hugolino  of  Chateau  Vieux.  Having  a 
vow  to  the  contrary,  she  fled  and  con 
cealed  herself  in  a  wood  for  three  years, 
her  hiding-place  being  known  only  to 
her  nurse,  who  brought  her  bread.  She 


raised  the  nurse's  child  from  the  dead, 
and,  fearing  the  miracle  would  cause  her 
to  be  discovered,  she  crossed  the  Tarn, 
and,  after  wandering  long  in  desert 
places,  she  met  St.  Eugenius,  bishop  of 
Carthage,  then  an  exile.  He  founded  a 
monastery  at  Vieux,  on  the  Vere,  and 
seven  years  afterwards  buried  her  in  it. 
The  monastery  of  Yieux  is  proved  not 
to  have  been  founded  by  Eugenius, 
bishop  of  Carthage,  which  casts  doubt 
on  the  story.  Carissima's  translation  is- 
celebrated  at  Albi  with  that  of  St.  Eugene 
and  other  martyrs,  on  Oct.  11.  Stilting, 
in  AA.SS.  F.M. 

St.  Carita,  April  1:1,  M.    AA.SS. 

St.  Caritaine,  or  CHARITANA,  June 
12,  M.  at  Rome.  Mas  Latrie. 

St.  Caritas.  ( See  FAITH,  HOPE,  and 
CHARITY.) 

SS.  Carmilla  and  Caesaria,  or 
C-ESARIUS,  March  2:5.  Mentioned  in  the 
account  of  SS.  Paul  and  Julian,  MM., 
but  it  is  unknown  whether  they  are  the 
names  of  persons  or  of  places.  Paul 
and  Julian  are  supposed  to  have  suffered 
under  the  Vandals,  but  no  particulars 
are  known.  AA.SS.,  Prseter. 

St.  Carmimdica,  Sept.  in  or  12 
(BONA  (1),  MUNDIOOUDA),  V.  Recluse 
in  Egypt.  AA.SS.,  Prseter. 

B.  Carola,  one  of  the  nine  sisters  of 
ST.  RAIXFREDE. 

St.  Carpia,  May  27,  M.  in  Africa. 
AAJS8. 

St.  Carra,  Jnne  1,  M.  with  ST. 
AVCKGA. 

St.  Casaira,  Jan.  25,  V.  (See  ELVIRA.) 

St.  Casaria  0),  Dec.  8  (CAZARIE, 
CESARIA  (4)).  f  5Si'>.  Wife  of  St. 
Valens.  They  made  a  vow  of  virginity 
on  the  day  of  their  marriage,  distributed 
their  goods  to  tho  poor,  and  led  an  ascetic 
life  in  the  place  where  afterwards  stood 
the  Benedictine  abbey  of  St.  Andrew  of 
Villeneuve,  near  Avignon.  The  clergy 
and  people  of  Avignon  chose  Valens  for 
their  bishop.  Ho  buried  Casaria  in  a 
little  chapel  on  the  hill  of  Audaon.  He 
died,  aged  eighty,  about  5!>  1 .  P.B.  Her 
head,  when  placed  on  that  of  a  sick 
person,  eases  pain.  F.M.  Martin. 

St.  Casaria  <  2  ),  May  1  <  >,  V.  M.  Her 
worship  was  ordered  in  the  Frislarian  Di 
rectory  in  1»>70.  Her  body  was  supposed 


ST.   CASILLA 


it: 


by  1  rensclicnius  to  bo  then  recently  found 
in  one  of  the  Ivoman  cemeteries.  I  for 
history  was  unknown  to  him.  .  !.!.>  V 

St.  Casdia,  CABDOA. 

St.  Casdoa,  Sept.  L';*  (CAfflpiA, 
CASIHIK  i.  Wife  of  Didas,  or  Dada,  kins 
man  of  Sapor,  king  of  Persia,  by  whom 
they  and  their  son  (iabdelas  were  de 
prived  of  their  rank  and  property,  and, 
after  a  long  imprisonment,  beheaded. 
By  another  account  she  was  wife  of 
Sapor.  /Of.  AA.SS. 

SS.  Casia,  Philippa,  and  Eutychia 
were  tried  with  AGAPK  (:>),  CHIOXIA,  and 
IitKNK,  and  remanded  to  prison,  there 
to  be  starved  to  death.  Whether  the 
sentence  was  carried  out  is  not  known, 
but  they  are  accounted  martyrs. 

St.  Casilda,  April  i»  (CASILLA,  CAS- 
HLDA).  "f  c.  the  middle  of  the  Ilth 
century.  Patron  of  Toledo.  Invoked 
against  dysentery.  Represented  carry 
ing  roses  in  her  lap. 

Daughter  of  a  Moorish  king  of  Toledo, 
called  by  different  authors  Alimaymon, 
Aldemon,  and  Cano.  This  king  was  a 
friend  of  Alfonso  VI  He  had  a  palace 
on  the  spot  where  afterwards  stood  the 
monastery  of  Santa  Fe,  and  a  prison  near 
it  where  the  hospital  of  Santa  Cruz  was 
built.  In  that  prison  were  many  Chris 
tian  captives,  whom  Casilda  could  see 
from  her  windows  in  the  palace.  She 
had  a  brother  named  Alimaymon,  who 
was  converted  to  Christianity,  and  took 
the  name  of  Peter  on  his  baptism,  in 
consequence  of  which  he  is  commonly 
remembered  as  the  Infante  Petran,  and 
tin  place  where  the  B.  V.  Mary  appeared 
to  him  is  called  to  this  day  Nuestra 
>ra  do  Sepetran.  His  conversion  led 
to  that  of  his  sister.  He  found  many 
ways  of  alleviating  the  sufferings  of  the 
<  'hristian  prisoners  and  slaves,  and  soon 
Ida,  although  still  a  Mohammedan, 
|  joined  him  in  this  charitable  work.  One 
day,  as  she  was  going  to  the  prison, 
^attended  by  servants  carrying  baskets  of 
i  and  other  comforts,  she  met  her 
lather,  who  asked  her  what  she  had  in 
those  baskets.  S!n-  was  afraid,  and 
answered,  "  Roses."  The  king,  however, 
suspected  the  truth,  and  opened  tin; 
baskets.  He  found  th.-m  full  of  roses; 
but  when  distributed  to  the  <  hristians 


they  were  changed  back  again  to  bread, 
nil  -at,  etc.  The  same  miracle  is  told  of 
86,  KI.!/.AI:I:TH  OF  HUXGAKY,  Boa  01 


After  this  Casilda  was  disposed  to 
believe  in  the  doctrine  of  the  Christians, 
and  they  gladly  instructed  her  in  their 
religion.  She  had  dysentery,  and  kept 
growing  worse,  in  spite  of  all  the  care 
and  advice  of  all  the  doctors  in  the  king 
dom.  The  Christians  told  her  she  would 
recover  if  she  went  and  bathed  in  the 
lake  of  San  Vicente,  near  Burgos,  as 
there  were  leeches  in  it  that  would  suck 
away  all  the  bad  blood,  and  completely 
cure  her  complaint.  She  was  extremely 
anxious  to  try  it,  but  it  was  in  (  'hristian 
territory.  King  Alimaymon,  however, 
procured  a  safe  conduct  for  her  from 
Fernando  I.,  king  of  Castile.  She  set 
out,  accompanied  by  two  maids,  and 
taking  a  present  of  Christian  slaves  ta 
the  king.  On  the  way,  she  had  to  cross 
a  narrow  bridge.  The  devil,  foreseeing 
that  ho  would  lose  a  precious  soul  if 
Casilda  went  to  a  Christian  country  and 
was  baptized,  took  this  opportunity  to 
frighten  her  mule.  She  fell  into  the 
water,  and  would  certainly  have  been 
drowned  but  for  the  timely  interference 
of  an  angel.  At  Burgos  she  recovered, 
and  was  baptized  in  the  church  of  St. 
Vincent.  She  would  not  return  to  Toledo, 
but  remained  among  the  Christians,  and 
lived  as  a  religious  recluse  in  a  hut  on 
the  banks  of  the  lake.  She  attempted 
to  build  a  church  on  its  borders,  but  the 
work  of  each  day  was  mysteriously  i  - 
moved  by  night  to  the  top  of  the  hill, 
so  in  the  end  the  church  was  built  there. 
After  some  years  her  illness  returned. 
Keeling  that  death  was  near,  she  entreated 
that  if  any  one  over  prayed  in  her  name 
for  recovery,  especially  from  the  com 
plaint  of  which  she  was  dying,  the  prayer 
might  be  granted.  Yepez  places  her 
death  about  1047.  Some  accounts  make 
it  later. 

Yepez,  Sermon  1'").  Onintadueno, 
Siintti*  <1<>  Toledo.  Moroni,  Di  //>•., 
"Toledo."  I'iipobrochjin/Lt.XX.  Cahier. 
Ilusenbeth,  Euil»1>  //<*.  Flore/.,  />/»/?•»/ 
S'i'jrn'1'^  xxvii.  7.*>4,  gives  the  legend  with 
slight  variations. 

St.  Casilla,  CASILDA. 


148 


ST.   CAST X A 


St.  Casina,  Nov.  7  (CARIN.^  CASSINK  >, 
M.  at  Ancyra,  302.  Wife  of  St.  Mela- 
sippus,  and  mother  of  St.  Anthony. 
They  were  all  imprisoned  on  account  of 
their  religion.  Anthony  was  thirteen 
when  he  was  brought  from  his  prison  to 
see  his  parents  hung  up  and  cut  to 
pieces.  Casina  had  her  breasts  cut  off; 
they  both  died  under  the  torture.  An 
thony  kissed  their  wounds,  and  anointed 
himself  with  their  blood.  He  next  spat 
in  the  face  of  the  Emperor  Julian  the 
Prevaricator,  whereupon  he  also  was 
made  to  undergo  cruel  tortures.  His 
courage  and  constancy  and  other  miracles 
caused  the  conversion  of  forty  boys,  all 
of  whom  were  put  to  death  with  him. 
There  is  no  contemporary  account,  but 
it  is  known  that  Julian  the  Apostate, 
although  he  affected  toleration,  hated 
the  Christians,  and  allowed  them  to  be 
persecuted  under  various  pretexts.  R.M. 
jiff//.  Basil.  Lobeau,  Bas.  Empire,  ii. 
438. 

SS.  Cassia  and  Paula,  July  20,  M. 
with  fourteen  others  at  Damascus.  E.M. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Cassilda,  CASILDA. 

St.  Cassine,  CASINA. 

St.  Casta  (1),  June   1,  M.  with  ST. 

AUCEGA. 

St.  Casta  (2),  Feb.  22,  M.  with  ST. 
ANTIGA  and  others  at  Nicomedia.  AA.SS. 

St.  Casta  (3),  Feb.  2:,,  M.  with 
others,  supposed  in  Pamphylia.  Men 
tioned  in  old  martyrologies.  AA.SS. 

St.  Castell,  Jan.  27.  The  wife  of 
St.  Julian  the  Hospitaller  is  so  called  in 
the  Martijroloqy  of  Salisbury.  In  some 
editions  of  the  Life  of  St.  Julian,  his  wife 
is  called  CASTELLANA — a  certain  Chate 
laine.  (See  BASILISSA  (0).) 

St.  Castellana,  CASTELL. 

St.  Castonica,  April  13,  M.  AA.SS. 

B.  Castora,  June  14  or  i  :>.  f  i  :;•.>  i . 
O.S.F.  Widow.  Daughter  of  Petruccio 
Gabrielli,  an  eminent  citizen  of  Gubbio. 
Castora  married  Santuccio  Sanfonerio, 
count  of  Castello,  San  Martino,  and 
Bassinaro,  and  D.C.L.  They  lived  at 
St.  Angelo  in  Vado.  He  was  unkind  to 
her.  She  had  one  son,  whom  she  brought 
up  in  the  fear  of  God.  During  her 
husband's  life  she  devoted  all  her  spare 
time  to  works  of  charity,  and  on  his 


death  she  joined  the  Third  Order  of  St. 
Francis.  She  was  buried  in  the  habit  of 
the  order,  in  the  Franciscan  church  of 
St.  Angelo  in  Vado.  Henschenius, 
AA.SS. 

Castula.  There  are  several  martyrs 
of  this  name,  of  whom  little  is  known ; 
it  is  sometimes  written  CASTULUS  ;  the 
sex  is  uncertain. 

St.  Castula  (  1  ),  June  :>,  M.  at  Koine. 

St.  Castula  (2),  June  2.  One  of 
227  Roman  martyrs  commemorated  to 
gether  in  St.  Jerome's  Martyrologv. 

St.  Castula  ('3  ),  or  CATULA/ilay  2S, 
M.  in  Rome  with  St.  Cummin  and  many 
others. 

St.  Castula  (4),  May  31,  M.  at 
Gerona,  in  Spain. 

St.  Castula  ('."> ),  May  7,  M.  in  Africa. 

St.  Castula  ((>),  March  2f>,  M.  with 
more  than  four  hundred  others  at  Nice, 
in  Bithynia. 

St.  Castula  (7,  s,  «> ),  June  1,  MM. 
commemorated  with  ST.  AUCEGA. 

St.  Castula  d<»,  Feb.  17,  V.  M. 
at  Terano,  273.  Disciple  of  St.  Valen 
tine. 

St.  Castula  Hi),  Feb.  22,  M.  with 
ST.  ANTIGA  and  others  at  Nicomedia. 

St.  Castula  02),  Feb.  2,  M.  with 
CAPPA  and  many  others. 

St.  Castula  (13),  Feb.  15.  Com 
panion  of  ST.  AGAPE  (2). 

St.  Castula  (14),  Feb.  1~>.  Com 
panion  of  ST.  GEMELLA  (2  ). 

St.  Castula  O">),  June  2,  M.  at 
Lyons,  not  with  BLANDIXA. 

St.  Castula  (16),  Jan.  2.5,  of  Capua. 
AAJ38. 

St.  Castulina,  June  1.  One  of  227 
Roman  martyrs  commemorated  together 
in  St.  Jerome's  Martyrology.  AA.SS. 

Catalina,  CATHERINE. 

Catalla,  CATULLA. 

Catelergue,  CATHERINE. 

Cateline,  CATHERINE. 

Caterina,  CATHERINE. 

Catheau,  CATHERINE. 

Catherine.  The  following  are  some 
of  the  many  variants  of  this  name  : 
JKrATHARixA,  Greek;  CATALINA.  Spanish; 
CATELEKGUE,  CATELIM:,  CATHEAU,  local 
French;  CATERINA,  CATTAKIXA,  Italian; 
CAWTH,  KATHLEEN,  Irish;  KAREN,  Swe 
dish  ;  KATHERINE,  KATE,  etc. 


ST.   GATHER  INK 


lit! 


St.  Catherine  i  1  i,  Nov.  :>:>,  V.  M. 
at  Alcxuiulria  about  :>i:i.  Perhaps  the 
same  person  who  is  called  DOHOTHEA 
by  Rutinus.  Represented  ( 1 )  being 
married  to  the  Saviour,  the  Infant  Christ 
on  His  mother's  lap,  placing  a  ring  on 
her  finger ;  (  2 )  a  wheel  armed  with  huge 
thorn-shaped  spikes  standing  beside  her ; 
sitting  crowned,  with  a  book  on  her 
lap  ;  (  4  )  teaching  ;  (o)  trampling  on 
th«  Emperor;  ( <> )  dead,  and  carried  by 
angels  to  Mount  Sinai.  Besides  these 
distinctive  representations,  she  generally, 
in  common  with  other  martyrs,  holds  a 
palm  and  a  sword.  She  is  one  of  the 
four  ^ivat  virgin  martyrs  who  are  patrons 
of  the  Greek  Church;  the  others  are 
BS,  HAKHAHA,  MAIUJAKET,  and  EUPIIEMIA. 
Patron  of  Venice,  Guastalla,  Goa,  Scala 
near  Amalfi,  Magdeburg,  Zwickau,  and 
many  other  places ;  of  students,  young 
girls,  philosophers,  theologians,  notaries ; 
of  schools  and  colleges;  of  learning, 
education,  and  science  ;  of  the  millers  of 
Liege ;  of  the  Barefooted  Order  of  the 
Holy  Trinity.  Often  chosen  by  princesses 
and  high-born  ladies  as  the  saint  of  their 
special  devotion. 

The  Legend.  St.  Catherine  was  the 
daughter  of  a  king  of  Egypt,  and  was 
related  to  the  Emperor  Constantino. 
She  was  extremely  beautiful,  clever,  and 
learned.  When  she  succeeded  to  her 
father's  kingdom  and  wealth,  she  had 
many  oilers  of  marriage,  but  she  declined 
t IK  in  all.  Her  tastes  were  all  for  science 
and  study,  and  she  had  no  vocation  for 
married  life.  Her  parliament,  with 
many  compliments  to  her  beauty  and 
wisdom,  urged  her  strongly  to  change 
her  resolve  and  choose  a  husband.  Her 
answer,  in  the  words  of  the  Legenda 
A u»  </,  was — 

"  We  lete  you  playnelye  wyto  that 
lyke  as  ye  haue  descryued  us  so  wyl  wo 
descryue  hyin  that  we  wyll  haue  to  our 
lord  and  husl.oml,  and  if  yo  can  gete 
suche  one  we  wyl  agree  to  take  hym 
wytli  alle  our  hcrte,  for  he  that  thai  bo 
lord  of  my n  lierte  and  myn  husbond  shal 
have  tho  four  notable  thynges  in  hym 
OIKT  al  nit  sure.  Soo  ferfortlily  that  al 
creatures  shall  have  node  of  hym,  and 
ho  iicdeth  of  none.  And  ho  that  shal  be 
my  lord  must  be  of  KO  noble  blood  that 


al  men  shal  do  to  hym  worshyp,  and 
thenvyth  so  greto  a  lord  that  I  shal  neuer 
thynke  that  1  made  hym  a  kyngo  and  so 
rirho  that  he  passe  al  other  in  rychesses. 
And  so  ful  of  beauto  that  angollys  hauo 
joye  to  behohle  hym,  and  so  pure  that 
his  moder  bo  a  virgyne,  and  soo  meko 
and  benygne  that  ho  can  gladly  forgyeno 
al  offencys  do  on  unto  hyra.  Now  I  hauo 
descryued  to  you  hym  that  I  wyl  hauo 
and  desyro  to  my  lord  and  to  my  husbond, 
goo  yo  and  seke  hym,  and  if  yo  can  fyndo 
suche  one  I  wyl  be  his  wyf  with  al  inyn 
herte  yf  he  vouche  sauf  to  hauo  me,  and 
fynally  but  yf  ye  fyndo  suche  one  I  shal 
neuer  take  none.  And  take  this  for  a  fyual 
answer." 

Now,  the  B.  V.  MAIIY  appeared  to 
Adrian,  a  holy  hermit  in  the  desert,  "  a 
certain  space  of  myles"  from  Alexandria, 
and  sent  him  to  Catherine,  with  greetings 
from  the  mother  of  the  husband  she  had 
chosen,  for  "  that  thylke  same  lord  whom 
she  chaas  is  my  sone  that  am  a  pure  vyrgyne, 
and  he  desyreth  hir  beauto  and  loveth 
hir  chastyto  emonge  allo  the  virgynes 
on  the  orthe."  Catherine  goes  to  the 
hermit's  cell  and  is  baptized,  and  then 
she  has  a  vision,  in  which  the  Child  Jesus 
marries  her  with  a  ring. 

The  Lcyycndarios  add  another  episode 
before  her  baptism  and  marriage.  She 
had  a  dream,  in  which  tho  B.  V.  Mary 
appeared  to  her,  in  great  beauty  anil 
splendour,  carrying  her  Divine  Son  in 
her  arms.  The  Child  seemed  to  her 
very  beautiful,  but  His  face  was  towards 
His  mother,  so  that  Catherine  could  not 
seo  it.  She  walked  a  few  steps,  first  to 
one  side  and  then  to  tho  other,  trying  to 
look  upon  the  face  which  she  know  must 
bo  divinely  beautiful ;  in  vain  :  tho  Child 
always  turned  His  bijck  to  her,  to  her 
great  grief.  At  last  His  mother  asked 
Him  to  look  at  Catherine  and  admire 
her,  telling  Him  how  beautiful  and  how 
rich  and  how  wise  and  good  she  was. 
But  Ho  said,  "No,  she  is  ugly  and  poor 
and  foolish ;  I  do  not  want  to  seo  her." 
The  mother  said,  "What  can  poor 
Catherine  do  to  please  you?"  Tho 
child  replied,  "  Let  her  go  and  ask  tho 
hermit."  Catherine  awoke,  anxious  and 
unhappy,  and  went  and  told  her  dream 
to  Adrian,  who  instructed  her  in  tho 


150 


ST  CATHERINE 


Christian  religion,  and  soon  baptized  her. 
Then  came  the  vision  of  her  marriage. 

At  this  crisis  the  Emperor  Maximinus 
ordered  a  grand  sacrifice  to  the  heathen 
gods,  and  commanded  all  the  Christians 
in  Alexandria  to  assist.  Every  man  was 
to  bring  one  beast  or  more,  according 
to  his  ability.  The  sacrifices  were  so 
numerous  that  the  altars  smoked  con 
tinually.  The  Emperor  resolved  to  finish 
the  solemnity  by  a  great  sacrifice  of  one 
hundred  oxen.  Catherine  went  with  a 
retinue  of  servants  to  the  temple,  and  de 
manded  an  audience  of  the  Emperor,  who 
was  amazed  at  her  beauty,  and  encouraged 
her  to  speak.  She  argued  with  him  in 
favour  of  the  Christian  doctrines.  He 
ordered  fifty  of  the  most  learned  heathen 
philosophers  and  rhetoricians  to  dispute 
with  her,  promising  them  great  rewards 
if  they  could  convert  her.  They  were 
at  first  indignant  at  being  asked  to  argue 
with  a  young  woman,  but  soon  not  only 
consented  to  listen  to  her  opinions,  but 
were  converted  by  her.  The  Emperor 
then  appointed  fifty  others,  whom  also 
she  converted.  He  condemned  them  all 
to  be  burnt.  They  fell  at  Catherine's 
feet,  asking  her  how  they  could  be  saved, 
as  they  had  not  time  to  be  baptized.  She 
assured  them  that  their  martyrdom  would 
be  to  them  instead  of  baptism.  Some 
Christians  who  came  to  bury  their  ashes 
found  their  bodies  entire,  not  a  hair  hav 
ing  perished  in  the  fire.  This  miracle 
caused  more  conversions.  Catherine  was 
beaten  and  otherwise  tortured,  and  thrown 
into  a  dungeon.  Her  wounds  were  mi 
raculously  healed,  and  a  dove  brought 
her  food.  The  Empress,  who  is  called  in 
different  versions  of  the  legend  Helen 
and  FAUSTINA,  visited  her  in  prison, 
through  the  connivance  of  Porphyry, 
•captain  of  the  Emperor's  guard.  Both 
%vero  converted  by  Catherine,  and  when 
they  attempted  to  plead  her  cause,  they 
were  put  to  death.  The  Emperor  then 
offered  to  make  Catherine  Empress  if  she 
would  abjure  her  religion.  Exasperated 
by  her  refusal,  ho  devised  an  engine  con 
sisting  of  four  wheels  armed  with  spikes, 
which  were  to  tear  her  in  pieces.  As 
soon,  however,  as  she  was  bound  between 
the  wheels,  fire  fell  from  heaven,  and 
destroyed  them,  the  pieces  flying  among 


the  people,  and  killing  three  thousand 
of  them.  Catherine  was  then  beheaded. 
Her  dying  prayer  was  that  her  body 
might  not  fall  into  the  hands  of  the 
pagans ;  accordingly,  angels  carried  it 
to  Mount  Sinai,  where  it  remains  to  this 
day. 

The  earliest  mention  of  St.  Catherine 
in  the  Eastern  Church  is  in  the  Sth  or  Oth 
century,  when  the  Christians,  then  groan 
ing  under  the  rule  of  the  Saracens,  dis 
covered  her  body  in  Egypt.  It  was 
translated  to  a  monastery  on  Mount 
Sinai,  built  by  the  Empress  HELEN,  and 
enlarged  by  Justinian.  The  legend  of 
its  being  carried  there  by  angels  is  said 
by  Falconius,  archbishop  of  San-Severino, 
to  mean  that  it  was  taken  by  the  monks 
of  Sinai  to  enrich  their  dwelling  with 
this  treasure.  After  the  Crusades  the 
legend  and  the  worship  of  Catherine 
were  widely  spread  in  Western  Europe. 
Her  popularity  is  extraordinary,  con 
sidering  the  small  historical  foundation 
on  which  it  rests.  Eusebius  tells  that  a 
Christian  lady,  the  richest  and  noblest 
of  the  women  of  Alexandria,  and  very 
learned  and  discreet,  excited  the  licen 
tious  admiration  of  Maximinus  (the 
legend  says  Maxentius :  both  were  living 
at  the  time ),  and  as  she  would  not  listen 
to  him,  he  banished  her  and  confiscated 
her  property.  Eusebius  does  not  mention 
her  name.  Rufinus  calls  her  DOROTHEA. 
Baronins  conjectures  that  this  was  her 
name  before  her  conversion,  and  that 
she  may  have  returned  from  her  exile 
and  suffered  martyrdom. 

R.M.  Yillegas.  Assemani.  Mrs.  Jame 
son,  Sacred  and  Legendary  Art.  Baillet, 
Vies.  Butler,  Liccs.  Neale,  East> m 
ClnrcJi.  Baronius,  Annalcs.  Lo  Beau, 
Hist.  Bax.  Empire,  i.  7.">. 

St.  Catherine  (2 ),  or  RACHEL,  May  4, 
Sept.  i\( ),  of  Louvain ;  called  also  "  of 
Brabant,"  "  the  Jewess,"  and  by  different 
authors, "  Saint,"  "Blessed,"  and  "Vener 
able."  IMth  century. 

Between  1124  and  12SS  there  was  a 
rich  Jew  of  Cologne  who  cared  only  for 
his  trade  and  the  money  he  made  by  it. 
He  had  a  little  daughter,  named  Rachel, 
who,  although  scarcely  more  than  a  baby, 
always  listened  attentively  when  her 
father  argued  and  disputed  on  religious 


ST.   CATHERINE 


doctrines  with  ft  Christian  priest  who 
sometimes  visited  at  the  house.  She 
said  nothing,  Init  it  always  seemed  to 
her  that  the  Christian  had  the  best  of  the 
argument.  When  she  was  five  years  old, 
her  parents  went  to  livo  at  Louvain,  and 
then-  Rachel  sometimes  played  with 

<  'hristiun  children.     She  began  to  think 
Christian    names    much    prettier    than 
Jewish  ones ;  the  name  of  Mary  in  par 
ticular    pleased    her    very   much,    and, 
although  a  Jewish   name,  it  was  much 
more    general    among    Christians    than 
J«'\vs.      Sometimes   she   -went   with    her 
little  friends  to  the   house   of  a    good 
priest    named    Reynier.       He    and    his 
servant   Martha  taught  her  for  a  year 
and  a  half,  and  she  wearied  them  with 
her  insatiable  desire  to  learn.     At  last 
her  parents  looked  up  from  their  money 
bags,  and  began  to  perceive  what  their 
daughter  was  doing   under   their   very 
eyes.     They   were   very   angry,   but   as 
most  of  the  persons  in  authority  in  the 
place  were  Christians,  they  tried  to  pro 
ceed  quietly,  and  made  a  plan  to  take 
Rachel  away  and   marry  her,  although 
she  was  only  eight  years  old.     Rachel 
determined  to  leave  her  home.     Having 
made  her  little  plan,  she  lay  down  and 
slept  so  long  and  soundly  that  the  time 
of  her  intended  flight  passed  by.     Next 
night  she  thought  she  would  stay  awake, 
but  sleep  again  overcame  her.     However, 
the  Virgin  Mary  awoke  her,  and   said, 
"Get    up,   Rachel,   and    go    to    Father 
Reynier."     She  did  so,  and  ho  took  her 
to  the  Cistercian  monastery  called  the 
Pare  des  Dames,  near  the  city  of  Louvain. 
Hero  she  was  christened  by  the  name  of 

<  'atherine.     Her  parents  complained  to 
the  Duke  of  JJrabant  and  to  Pope  Ho 
noring,  saying  their  daughter  was  not  of 
an  age  to  take  any  important  step  with 
out  their  permission,  and  begging  that 
she  might  bo  restored  to  them  until  she 
should  complete  her  twelfth  year,  when 
they  promised   that    if  she  persisted  in 
her  wish   to  he  ix  Christian,   they   would 
give  their  consent.      At  the  same  time, 
they  tri.-d  hril.i-ry  and  every  underhand 
means  to  obtain  a  decision  in  their  favour, 
and  them  \\.-re  not  wanting  wicked  theo 
logians,   who,    for    the    sake    of  money, 
favoured  the  claim  of  the  .Jews  to  have 


their  child  given  back  to  them  at  least 
until  her  twelfth  year.  The  duke  in 
clined  to  give  up  the  child,  but  was 
talked  over  by  the  Abbot  Gauthier  de 
Villars.  The  bishop  ordered  the  nuns 
to  give  her  up  ;  and  the  abbess,  fearing 
to  disobey  him,  said,  "Catherine,  your 
father  wants  to  see  you."  Catherine 
flatly  refused  to  go  to  him.  The  bishop 
continued  to  worry  the  nuns  until  the 
case  was  referred  to  the  Archbishop  of 
( 'ologuc,  who  decreed  that  they  were  not 
to  be  molested  any  more.  The  bishop 
then  ordered  Catherine  to  appear  before 
his  tribunal,  that  it  might  bo  finally 
settled  whether  she  had  a  true  vocation 
for  a  Christian  and  religions  life  or  not. 
The  Jew  engaged  a  clever  advocate. 
Catherine  relied  solely  on  the  protection 
of  ( 'hrist  and  the  Virgin  Mary,  who  had 
again  appeared  to  her,  and  promised  to 
befriend  her.  The  Abbot  of  Clairvaux 
interfered,  as  the  head  of  the  Cistercian 
Order,  to  which  the  Pope  belonged;  he 
threatened  the  advocate  that  ho  would 
have  him  suspended  from  the  exorcise  of 
his  profession  for  his  impiety,  hut  the 
lawyer  whispered,  "  I  will  not  say  a  word 
against  the  Jewess.  Let  me  but  gain 
this  money  from  the  Jew."  Accordingly, 
as  soon  as  ho  had  the  fee  in  his  hand,  ho 
refused  to  proceed  with  the  case.  Several 
learned  clergymen  asked  questions  of  the 
young  convert,  and  were  convinced  that 
her  call  was  the  work  of  the  Holy  Spirit. 
The  bishop,  however,  continued  to  take 
the  Jew's  part  from  time  to  time  for  two 
years.  In  five  years  more  Catherine 
took  tlio  veil  in  the  same  monastery,  and 
spent  the  rest  of  her  life  there,  distin 
guished  by  great  holiness,  and  honoured 
after  her  death  by  miracles.  Soon  after 
she  had  taken  the  veil,  a  young  man,  who 
was  related  to  her,  asked  for  an  inter 
view,  011  pretence  that  he  also  wished  t<> 
bo  converted.  Catherine  declined  to  see 
him,  or  address  a  single  word  to  him. 

Analrcta,  ii.  14.V>.  Hucelinus,  Men. 
I:  .  AA.SS.,  May  4.  Manrique,  Anital* 
of  tin-  ( 'i#trrciaiint  took  the  story  from  the 
writings  of  Thomas  Cantipratonsis  and 
Ccsarius,  both  of  whom  knew  Catherine, 
and  heard  the  details  from  her  own  mouth. 

St.  Catherine  (3)  of  Siena,  April  W, 
V.  L847  1380,  Called  at  Siena,  "Tho 


152 


ST.   CATHERINE 


Beloved  Sienese,"  "  La  Beata  Popolana," 
"The  Blessed  Plebeian  or  daughter  of 
the  People,"  "  The  People's  Catherine," 
"  Our  Lady  of  the  Contrada  d'Oca,"  etc. ; 
sometimes  called  EUPHROSYNE,  i.e.  gracious 
or  charming.  The  greatest  woman  saint 
of  the  Order  of  St.  Dominic.  Patron  of 
Siena. 

Represented  ( 1 )  wearing  a  crown  of 
thorns,  and  a  rosary,  because  she  was  a 
Dominican ;  (2)  with  a  heart  in  her 
hand ;  (%)  with  St.  Dominic,  at  the  feet 
of  the  Virgin  Mary,  as  if  both  were  re 
ceiving  the  mission  to  promote  the  devo 
tion  of  the  rosary.  ST.  MARY  MAGDALENE 
DE'  PAZZI  is  also  represented  with  a  crown 
of  thorns,  but  she  has  no  rosary. 

One  of  the  youngest  of  twenty-five 
children,  and  a  twin,  Catherine  was  the 
daughter  of  James  Benincasa,  a  rich  dyer 
of  Siena,  and  Lapa  Piagenti,  his  wife. 
They  belonged  to  the  middle  class,  the 
popolani,  which  then  ruled  the  republic 
of  Siena,  and  Benincasa  at  one  time  held 
the  office  of  chief  magistrate.  They  lived 
in  the  Contrada  d'Oca,  where  their  house, 
called  the  Fullonica  (the  dye-works),  is 
still  shown.  It  is  separated  by  a  valley 
from  the  hill  on  which  stands  the  Do 
minican  church  frequented  all  her  life 
by  Catherine,  and  visible  from  her  house. 
When  Catherine  was  six  years  old,  she 
and  her  brother  were  one  day  sent  to 
visit  a  married  sister  on  the  other  side 
of  the  hill.  On  their  way  home,  they 
had  crossed  the  hill  and  the  Valle  Piatta, 
and  were  just  turning  into  the  street  now 
called  the  Cortone,  when  Catherine's  steps 
were  arrested  by  a  vision  of  Paradise. 
Looking  up  to  the  sky,  she  saw,  just 
above  the  church  of  St.  Dominic,  a  ma 
jestic  throne,  whence  the  Lord  Jesus,  in 
splendid  robes,  extended  His  hand  to 
wards  her  in  blessing.  Beside  Him  stood 
SS.  Peter,  Paul,  and  John,  and  around 
them  were  angels  and  glorified  souls. 
Soon  her  brother  missed  her  from  his 
side,  and,  looking  back,  saw  her  standing 
still  in  the  middle  of  the  road,  gazing  up 
into  heaven.  He  called  her,  but  she 
took  no  notice  ;  he  went  back,  and  asked 
her  what  she  was  doing,  and  as  she  did 
not  seem  to  hear,  he  took  her  by  the 
hand,  to  lead  her  away.  She  looked 
down  at  him  for  a  moment,  and  when 


she  again  turned  her  eyes  heavenward 
the  vision  was  gone.  The  child  wept 
disconsolately,  and  said,  "Ah!  if  you 
could  have  seen  what  I  saw,  you  would 
never  have  disturbed  me."  But  the  light 
she  had  seen  through  the  gates  of  Para 
dise  shone  evermore  in  her  soul.  From 
that  time  forth  she  considered  herself 
consecrated  to  God,  and  in  every  detail 
of  her  daily  life  she  had  a  great  fear  of 
offending  Him.  With  this  in  view,  she 
prayed  long  and  earnestly,  set  herself  to 
root  all  self-love  out  of  her  own  heart, 
and  practised  fasting  and  mortification 
of  various  sorts.  Her  great  talent  for 
converting  and  influencing  others  early 
manifested  itself  by  her  collecting  chil 
dren  around  her,  and  persuading  them 
to  use  the  same  sort  of  self-denial,  and 
say  certain  prayers.  When  she  was 
twelve  years  old  her  parents  began  to 
busy  themselves  about  a  suitable  marriage 
for  her ;  but  as  she  objected  to  every 
plan  of  the  sort,  they  applied  to  a  relation, 
who  was  a  Dominican  friar,  and  begged 
him  to  advise  her  to  consent  to  their 
wishes.  Instead  of  doing  so,  he  recom 
mended  her  to  cut  off  her  hair,  in  token 
that  all  schemes  for  marriage  were  to  be 
given  up.  Catherine's  hair  was  very 
abundant,  and  of  a  golden  brown^hue 
that  has  always  been  much  admired  in 
Italy,  so  that  when  Lapa  found  what  her 
daughter  had  done  she  was  very  angry. 
This,  added  to  her  general  neglect  of 
dress  and  appearance,  and  her  prolonged 
prayers  and  meditations,  so  displeased 
her  family  that  they  dismissed  their 
servant,  and  made  Catherine  do  all  the 
work  of  the  house  ;  at  the  same  time,  they 
deprived  her  of  the  much-valued  privilege 
of  having  a  room  to  herself.  She  laboured 
cheerfully  to  perform  all  the  services  re 
quired  of  her,  carrying  burdens  up  and 
down  stairs  lightly,  and  working  in  the 
kitchen  so  well  and  so  quickly  that  she 
still  had  time  for  her  devotions.  Her 
father  before  long  recognized  her  voca 
tion,  and  when  she  declared  herself 
vowed  to  a  religious  life,  he  said  no  one 
should  interfere  with  her  pious  observ 
ances,  and  he  helped  her  liberally  in  her 
charities.  A  small  room  under  the  house 
was  given  up  to  her,  and  here,  with  a 
plank  for  a  bed  r.nd  a  stone  for  a  pillow, 


ST.  CATHERINE 


153 


she  lial  leisure  and  seclusion  for  her 
it.  i  vent  prayers.  Sho  allowed  herself 
less  and  less  food  and  sleep.  In  after- 
years  she  said  that  the  hardest  struggle 
of  her  life  had  been  to  overcome  the 
re  and  the  necessity  for  sleep.  She 
;al(  d  her  mother  to  ask  the  Sisters 
of  Penance  (Third  Order  of  St.  Dominic), 
tin  n  commonly  called  .1/i nit'-lln tr(  cloaked 
sisters),  to  receive  her  into  their  number. 
They  refused,  on  the  ground  that  they 
had  never  taken  young  girls,  and  had  no 
cloister  to  keep  them  in;  they  were  al 
most  all  widows  of  ripe  age,  living  each 
in  her  own  home  ;  they  had  no  vows,  and 
in  their  liln-rty  they  daily  renewed  the 
offering  of  their  lives.  By-and-by 
Catherine  caught  small-pox  of  a  virulent 
type,  and  while  Lapa  was  trembling  for 
the  life  of  her  child,  the  young  saint 
besought  her  to  apply  again  to  the  3/in//- 
/'  llnti'j  and  beg  them  to  accept  her  as  a 
sister.  They  said  they  would  receive 
her,  provided  she  was  not  strikingly 
pretty.  As  she  was  now  so  disfigured 
as  to  be  scarcely  recognizable,  there 
remained  no  obstacle,  and  as  soon  as 
possible  on  her  recovery,  sho  was  the 
first  virgin  to  be  clothed  with  the  habit 
of  the  Sisters  of  Penance.  Tommaseo 
says  it  was  in  I  :'.''•  J  ;  .Mrs.  Drane  follows 
those  authors  who  place  it  a  little  later. 
( 'atlierine  loved  her  mantle,  the  symbol 
of  her  consecration  ;  she  patched  it  when 
necessary,  and  took  care  of  it  as  long  as 
she  lived.  The  next  throe  years  sho 
spent  in  the  strictest  solitude  and  silence, 
communing  with  God,  and  learning  to 
sill  (due  every  natural  inclination,  some 
times  afflicted  by  frightful  temptations, 
often  consoled  by  heavenly  visions,  which 
continued  more  or  less  during  the  whole 
of  her  wonderful  life.  At  the  end  of 
tin iso  three  years  sho  was  commanded 
by  the  Saviour  to  go  and  sit  at  table 
with  her  family;  as  she  regretted  the 
solitude  in  which  her  Lord  had  deigned 
to  converse  with  her,  lie  told  her  she 
could  have  a  cell  within  her  heart,  where 
il.  would  dwell,  so  that  while  she  was 
ministering  to  oth<  is,  sin:  would  still  be 
alone  with  Him.  This  constant  reali/a- 
tinn  of  the  presence  of  Christ  lifted  her 
ul)ove  all  small  considerations,  all  fears 
and  difficulties,  and  gave  her  that  clear 


discernment,  that  deep  humility,  ready 
courage  and  helpfulness,  by  which  she 
earned  the  love  and  reverence  of  her 
contemporaries.  It  was  about  tho  same 
time  that  sho  had  tho  vision  in  which  sho 
was  married  to  the  Lord,  and  sho  ever 
afterwards  saw  His  ring  on  her  finger, 
although  it  was  invisible  to  others. 

St.  Catherine  is  remarkable  for  the  many 
and  difficult  conversions  sho  effected. 
Her  earnestness  gave  her  wonderful  in 
fluence  over  all  whom  she  addressed. 
When  she  was  preaching,  those  who 
could  not  come  near  enough  to  hear  her 
words  were  stirred  to  contrition  and 
conversion  by  her  look.  One  of  her 
converts  was  Nicolas  do  Toldo,  a  young 
knight  of  Perugia,  who  was  condemned 
to  death.  Ho  cursed  his  fate  and  his 
judges,  and  although  as  yet  ho  felt 
neither  penitence  nor  resignation,  ho  sent 
to  beg  Catherine  to  visit  him  in  prison, 
and  by  her  affectionate  remonstrances 
she  brought  him  to  a  better  way  of  feel 
ing.  She  persuaded  him  to  make  a 
general  confession,  and  he  received  the 
Holy  Communion  for  the  first  time  in 
his  life.  He  made  her  promise  to  stand 
beside  him  at  the  block.  Sho  met  him 
on  the  scaffold,  and,  kneeling,  prayed 
with  and  for  him  until  the  axe  fell,  when 
sho  received  his  head  in  her  hands,  and 
saw  his  soul  ascend  to  heaven. 

She  was  requested  to  try  to  convert 
Nanni  di  Ser  Vanni,  a  very  troublesome, 
worldly,  and  irreligious  man.  Finding 
all  her  exhortations  fruitless,  she  ceased 
to  speak,  and  began  silently  praying  for 
him.  He  immediately  repented  of  his 
sins,  humbly  made  peace  with  his  neigh 
bours,  and  embraced  a  penitential  life. 
He  gave  St.  Catherine  his  castle  of  P.el- 
caro,  near  Siena,  which,  in  1377,  she 
converted  into  a  convent. 

There  was  a  poor  leprous  woman 
named  Cecca  in  one  of  tho  hospitals  at 
Siena.  The  institution  was  so  poor  that 
it  could  hardly  supply  its  inmates  with 
tho  necessaries  of  life.  As  sho  grew 
worse,  and  became  a  source  of  danger  as 
well  as  disgust  to  others,  no  one  liked 
to  attend  upon  her,  and  it  was  decided 
that  sho  should  bo  sent  to  tho  lazaret 
outside  the  gates.  Catherine  heard  of 
the  case,  and  went  to  tho  hospital.  She 


154 


ST.   CATHERINE 


kissed  the  poor  sufferer  wliftm  others 
were  afraid  to  touch,  and  said  that  if 
they  would  allow  her  to  remain  she 
would  supply  her  with  everything  she 
required,  and  would  come  daily  and 
minister  to  her  with  her  own  hands. 
Prom  that  day  she  came  every  morning 
and  evening,  dressed  the  wounds  of  the 
patient,  and  attended  to  all  her  wants 
with  as  much  care  and  reverence  as  if 
it  had  been  her  own  mother.  At  first 
Cecca  was  pleased,  but  she  soon  became 
very  ungrateful  and  insolent,  and  reviled 
her  charitable  nurse  with  unseemly  words. 
'Catherine  bore  it  all  with  her  usual  un 
ruffled  sweetness,  overcame  the  objec 
tions  of  her  mother  to  the  risk  she  ran, 
and  assisted  not  only  with  her  hands, 
but  with  prayers  and  exhortations  until 
Cecca  died.  Meantime,  this  saintly  nurse 
had  caught  leprosy  in  her  hands.  She 
washed  the  body  and  reverently  carried 
it  to  the  grave,  laid  it  in,  and  covered  it 
with  earth.  When  this  was  done,  the 
hands  that  had  served  God  in  the  person 
of  His  afflicted  one  were  cleansed  of  their 
leprosy,  and  were  ever  after  very  fair 
and  delicate-looking. 

It  was  probably  late  in  the  year  1:57.'), 
after  another  such  great  victory  over 
the  rebellion  of  body  and  spirit  against 
loathsome  labours  and  slanderous  in 
sinuations,  that  she  had  the  blessed  vision 
of  the  Saviour  offering  her  two  crowns. 
He  bade  her  choose  between  one  decked 
with  precious  stones  and  one  made  of 
very  sharp  thorns,  and  asked  which  would 
she  have  in  this  life  that  she  might  have 
the  other  in  the  life  to  come.  "  I  choose 
in  this  life  to  be  ever  more  conformed 
and  made  like  to  Thee,  my  Lord  and 
Saviour,  and  cheerfully  to  bear  crosses 
and  thorns  for  Thy  love,  as  Thou  hast 
done  for  mine."  Thus  saying,  she  took 
from  His  hands  the  crown  of  thorns, 
placed  it  on  her  head,  and  pressed  it 
down  so  forcibly  that  she  felt  lor  a  long 
time  a  sensible  pain  in  her  head  from 
the  pricking  of  the  thorns. 

In  L'374  the  pestilence  called  in  Eng 
land  the  "black  death"  raged  in  Tuscany, 
arid  Catherine  devoted  herself  to  the  care 
of  the  bodies  and  souls  of  the  victims  in 
her  native  city.  Among  the  patients 
\?hosc  lives  she  saved  by  exertions  and 


prayers  was  her  biographer  Raymond  of 
( 'upua. 

When  her  services  were  no  longer 
urgently  needed  in  Siena,  the  people  of 
Pisa  sent  for  her.  There  she  healed 
many  and  converted  such  numbers  that 
Pope  Gregory  XL,  who  was  then  at 
Avignon,  commissioned  three  Dominican 
friars,  of  whom  Raymond  was  one,  to 
hear  the  confessions  of  Catherine's  con 
verts.  They  were  occupied  day  and 
night  in  shriving  penitents,  many  of 
whom  had  never  confessed  before.  It 
was  at  Pisa,  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Chris 
tina,  that  Catherine  received  the  stigmata 
while  praying  before  the  crucifix  painted 
by  Guinta  Pisano  in  12(30. 

Her  sanctity,  charity,  and  discretion 
were  now  so  well  known  as  to  procure 
for  her — a  tradesman's  daughter,  without 
health,  wealth,  beauty,  or  ambition — an 
influence  in  the  ecclesiastical  and  politi 
cal  world,  which  has  often  been  bought 
too  dearly  or  sought  in  vain  by  queens 
and  princesses.  One  use  she  made  of  it 
was  to  preach  a  Crusade  against  the 
Turks.  But  she.  saw  that  the  discords 
at  home  must  first  be  healed.  Florence 
was  in  open  revolt  against  the  Church, 
and  in  1374  the  Pope  laid  the  city  under 
an  interdict.  The  people  of  Florence 
sent  for  Catherine,  and,  after  fully  in-\ 
structing  her  in  the  case  from  their  point 
of  view,  appointed  her  ambassador  ex 
traordinary  to  go  to  Avignon  and  effect 
a  reconciliation  with  the  Pope.  He 
received  her  with  the  greatest  respect, 
but  she  did  not  succeed  in  concluding  a 
solid  peace.  However,  she  took  advantage 
of  her  visit  to  His  Holiness  to  urge  him 
to  go  to  Rome,  where,  for  lack  of  a  ruler, 
anarchy  and  great  misery  prevailed,  and 
grew  daily  worse.  Many  writers  have 
asserted  that  the  return  of  the  Popes 
from  Avignon  to  Rome  was  brought  about 
by  Catherine,  but  Gregory  XI.  had 
already  perceived  that  it  was  his  duty 
to  take  this  step,  and  had  resolved  to  do 
it.  She  encouraged  him  in  his  pious 
intention,  and  adjured  him  not  to  be 
turned  from  it  by  any  difficulty,  nor  to 
listen  to  the  persuasions  of  those  whose 
interest  it  was  to  keep  him  away  from 
the  holy  city. 

After  three  months  at  Avignon,  she 


ST.   CATHERINE 


went  back  to  Siena,  and  resumed  her  life 
of  charity  and  devotion.  The  Pope  at 
the  same  time  made  the  long-deferred 
journey  to  Rome.  Soon  afterwards  ho 
desired  her  to  go  to  Florence,  whero  she 
lived  for  some  time  amid  daily  crimes, 
riots,  and  confiscations.  During  this 
IH  riod  there  occurred  an  insurrection  of 
the  people,  chiefly  directed  against  the 
( i  nulphs.  The  houses  of  some  of  Cathe- 
rinc's  friends  wore  sacked  and  burnt. 
A  mob  of  some  of  the  lowest  of  the 
populace  suddenly  took  the  fancy  to 
blame  ( 'atherine  as  the  author  of  all 
their  misfortunes.  They  cried  out,  "  Let 
us  take  Catherine  and  burn  her ;  let  us 
cut  that  wicked  woman  in  pieces." 

Those  who  had  given  her  hospitality 
were  afraid,  and  some  of  her  friends 
tried  to  get  her  away  secretly  from  the 
house  where  she  was  living.  As  she 
was  praying  in  the  garden,  she  heard 
the  cries  of  the  rioters,  and  went  joyfully 
forward.  The  first  man  she  met  was  a 
furious  ruffian,  brandishing  a  sword  and 
shouting,  ''Where  is  Catherine?"  She 
knelt  down  before  him  and  said  quietly, 
"I  am  Catherine.  Do  to  mo  whatever 
God  may  permit.'1  The  man  was  em 
barrassed,  and  could  only  adjure  her  to 
fly.  She  said,  "Why  should  I  fly  ? 
Where  would  you  have  me  go?  I  ask 
nothing  better  than  to  be  sacrificed  for 
<i«>d  siiid  the  Church,  so  if  you  are  going 
to  kill  me,  I  will  not  resist."  The  man 
and  his  followers  withdrew  in  confusion. 
This  happened  in  1:178.  On  the  death 
of  Gregory  XI.,  in  the  same  year,  began 
the  Great  Schism.  Catherine  considered 
Urban  VI.  duly  elected,  and  influenced 
the  Florentines  to  como  to  terms  with 
him  and  to  reject  the  claims  of  the  anti- 
popo  Clement  VII.  She  wrote,  however, 
to  Urban,  exhorting  him  to  restrain  a 
temper  that  made  him  so  many  enemies, 
and  tt:n<lr<l  to  perpetuate  the  scandal  of 
tin-  schism.  He  took  her  advice  in  good 
part,  and  sent  for  her  to  Home.  She 
went  iln  re  \vith  her  mother  and  several 
of  her  fri< mis.  The  Pope  proposed  to 
send  her  with  Si.  <  Mm  KINK  OF  SWKIM:N, 
to  la-ing  <>v.  r  to  his  party  Joan,  queen 
of  Sicily.  <  atherino  of  Siena  was  eager 
to  go,  but  the  project  was  set  aside. 
Catherine,  however,  helped  to  keep  Urban 


on  the  throne  by  writing  to  Queen  Joan, 
to  the  King  of  France,  the  King  of 
Hungary,  and  other  personages,  entreat 
ing  them  to  return  to  their  righful  master. 
While  she  was  working  in  the  cause  of 
the  Church,  she  died  at  Koine,  i:»S«»,  at 
the  age  of  thirty-three,  and  was  buried 
in  the  church  of  the  Minerva. 

She  was  canonized  by  Pius  II.  in 
1  MI.  Her  house  in  the  Coutrada  d'Oca, 
at  Siena,  is  still  shown  with  reverent 
love,  and  many  pilgrims  resort  to  the 
little  chapel  attached  to  it,  and  delight 
to  see  the  stone  that  served  her  for  a 
pillow,  her  veil,  and  other  mementoes  of 
this  holy  woman. 

It  is  counted  for  righteousness  to 
some  of  the  saints  that  they  never 
looked  anybody  in  the  face ;  Catherine, 
on  the  other  hand,  looked  straight  at 
any  one  she  spoke  to.  Her  countenance 
was  frank,  her  eyes  very  bright,  her 
chin  and  jaw  very  strong  and  somewhat 
prominent.  She  had  considerable  mus 
cular  strength  and  immense  energy,  but 
during  the  greater  part  of  her  life  she 
suffered  from  a  complaint  of  the  stomach, 
which  made  it  impossible  for  her  to  eat 
without  suffering  great  pain  and  sick 
ness.  But  neither  pain  nor  weariness 
ever  prevented  her  being  on  the  alert  to 
seize  any  opportunity  of  winning  a  soul 
to  God  or  doing  any  corporal  act  of 
mercy.  She  would  go  as  simply  and 
readily  to  a  royal  palace  or  a  plague- 
infested  slum,  to  meet  a  friendly  depu 
tation  or  a  hostile  mob.  During  the 
last  year  of  her  life  she  wont  with 
unflagging  energy  about  the  streets  of 
Home,  so  emaciated  that  she  looked  like 
one  who  had  returned  from  the  grave. 

She  comes  into  contemporary  history 
as  a  quite  exceptional  and  important 
personage.  She  was  a  mediator  not  only 
between  Florence  and  the  Pope,  but  also 
between  Itomo  and  Venice,  and  betw<  en 
Venice  and  Hungary.  Families  who 
cherished  hereditary  feuds  as  points  of 
honour,  and  regarded  the  vendetta  as  a 
duty,  were  reconciled  by  her. 

Niccolo  Tommaseo  publishes  ."»7:J  of 

her  letters.     Among  these  are  a  do/«-n 

•  rogory  XI.  and  nine  to  Urban  VI.  ; 

otln-rs  are  to  the   King  of  France,  the 

King  of  Hungary,  the  Queen  of  Naples, 


156 


ST.   CATHERINE 


Sir  John  Hawkwood,  and  otli^r  condot- 
tieri,  the  "  Eight  of  War,'5  bishops,  nuns, 
citizens. 

Her  reproofs  were  wonderfully  gentle 
and  respectful,  yet  forcible  and  undis 
guised.  She  was  severe  towards  the 
clergy,  "having  her  eye,"  says  Toru- 
maseo,  "on  a  Church  higher  than  the 
Vatican,  the  universal  Church  built  in 
the  Word  of  God."  She  says  that  "  self- 
love  has  poisoned  the  whole  world  and 
the  mystic  body  of  the  Church."  She 
speaks  of  the  immoral  and  neglectful 
chief  pastors  as  "  lepers  puffed  up  with 
pride,  insatiable  in  grubbing  up  the 
riches  and  delights  of  the  world,  which 
are  the  death  of  the  soul."  She  wrote 
to  two  priests  who  had  an  inveterate 
quarrel,  "  Has  the  earth  not  yet  opened 
and  swallowed  you  up  ?  "  In  one  of 
her  letters  to  Gregory  she  calls  herself, 
"Your  unworthy  daughter  Catarina, 
servant  and  slave,"  etc.,  and  winds  up, 
"Pardon  my  ignorance,  and  may  the 
love  and  grief  that  make  me  say  these 
things  excuse  me  to  your  benignity. 
Give  me  your  blessing.  Eemain  in  the 
holy  and  sweet  love  of  God." 

Besides  her  letters,  she  was  the  author 
of  a  book  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue 
between  God  and  the  soul,  and  of  several 
poems.  It  was  not  until  she  was  much 
over  twenty  that  she  learnt  to  read,  and 
writing  never  became  easy  to  her.  She 
dictated  her  letters  to  one  or  other  of 
her  disciples,  who  were  proud  to  act  as 
her  amanuenses.  Yet  Italian  writers 
rank  her  with  Petrarch  and  Boccaccio, 
as  one  of  the  makers  of  the  Lingua 
Toscana,  which  became  modern  Italian. 
She  had  a  clear  head,  and  could  dictate 
to  her  secretaries  three  letters  at  once, 
addressed  to  three  different  important 
personages. 

Her  name  is  in  the  Hainan  Mar  tyro- 
logy  ;  she  appears  in  every  collection 
of  Lives  of  Saints,  and  every  history  of 
her  time.  Her  secretaries,  Stephen 
Maconi  and  Raymond  of  Capua  wrote 
their  recollections  of  her.  More  than 
forty  Lives  of  this  saint  have  been 
written  in  various  languages.  There 
are  two  very  interesting  modern  English 
biographies  of  Catherine — one  by  Mrs. 
Drano,  a  Roman  Catholic,  the  other  by 


Mrs.  Josephine  Butler,  a  Protestant.  I 
have  drawn  largely  from  both  and  from 
Tommaseo.  Le  Letlere  di  S.  Catcrina 
fla  Siena  .  .  .  con  procmio  e  note,  etc., 
Florence,  1 860 ;  Mrs.  Jameson,  Sacred 
and  Legendary  Art  and  Legends  of  the 
Monastic  Orders;  and  the  Contemporary 
Ervicw,  March,  1883,  "Siena,"  by  S.  J. 
Capper. 

St.  Catherine  (4)  of  Sweden,  June 
25,|Maroh22,f  1380,  Princess.  Abbess. 
Invoked  for  safe  delivery  by  pregnant 
women. 

Represented  with  a  stag  by  her  side. 

Catherine  was  second  daughter  and 
fourth  child  of  Fulk  or  Wulf  Gudmars- 
son  and  ST.  BRIGID  (10  j.  Her  education 
was  entrusted  to  a  holy  abbess  of  Ris- 
berg,  in  Nericia.  Her  parents  married 
her  to  Eggard  Lydersson  de  Kyren,  a 
devout  soldier.  They  lived  together  in 
the  greatest  harmony  and  affection, 
under  a  vow  of  perpetual  celibacy,  con 
firmed  by  sacraments.  Her  brother, 
Charles  Ulfsson,  a  soldier,  councillor, 
and  lagman  of  Nericia,  opposed  her 
piety,  and  was  very  angry  because  she 
converted  his  wife  to  wear  very  plain 
and  old-fashioned  clothes,  instead  of 
such  as  were  then  worn  by  ladies  of 
their  rank  in  Sweden. 

In  1344,  soon  after  Catherine's  mar 
riage,  her  father  died  and  was  buried 
in  the  monastery  of  Alvastro.  His 
widow  Brigid,  by  Divine  direction,  went 
to  Rome.  Catherine  wished  ardently 
to  go  to  Rome  too.  Her  husband  would 
have  given  her  leave  to  do  so,  but 
her  brother  Charles  wrote,  threatening 
to  kill  him  if  he  allowed  Catherine  to 
leave  the  country.  Eggard  happened 
to  be  out  when  the  letter  arrived,  and 
Catherine  opened  it.  She  appealed  to 
her  uncle  Israel  Birger,  lagman  of  Up 
land,  who  encouraged  her  to  go.  Accord 
ingly,  she  went  with  two  Swedish  ladies 
and  Gustav  Thunason,  who  seems  to 
have  been  her  uncle  by  marriage.  They 
arrived  in  Rome  in  August,  i:>.">t>. 
Brigid  was  then  at  Bologna,  whore  she 
went  by  the  guidance  of  Christ  to  reform 
the  abbot  and  monks  of  Parpensi. 
Meantime,  Catherine  sought  her  anxi 
ously  in  Rome  for  eight  days.  At  the 
same  time,  Peter  Olaf,  Brigid's  spiritual 


ST.    rATIIKRIXK 


157 


father,  was  seized  with  a  great  longing 
to  go  back  to  Rome.  His  mind  was  in 
a  state  of  restless  excitement ;  ho  could 
neither  eat  nor  sleep,  feeling  that  some 
thing  important  demanded  their  imme 
diate  return.  So  he  sot  off  in  advance 
of  the  rest  of  the  party,  and  no  sooner 
arrived  at  St.  Peter's  Church  than  he 
saw  Catherine.  Ho  took  her  to  her 
mother  at  Bologna,  where  she  was 
received  by  the  reformed  abbot  and 
brethren  with  great  devotion  and  joy. 
They  then  went  back  to  Rome.  Catherine 
visited  the  stations  and  the  holiest 
places,  and  after  a  few  weeks  sho  pur 
posed  to  return  to  Sweden.  Her  mother 
begged  her  not  to  leave,  and  Catherine 
yielded,  saying  that  in  order  to  stay 
with  her,  sho  would  renounce  her 
country,  and  even  •  her  husband,  whom 
sho  loved  more  than  her  life.  Brigid, 
who  had  pined  and  prayed  for  a  com 
panion,  was  now  told  by  Christ  that  this 
was  the  companion  Ho  had  promised 
her.  Together  they  visited  the  sick  and 
relieved  the  poor,  as  Brigid,  by  her 
example,  had  taught  Catherine  to  do  in 
her  childhood.  Catherine's  beauty, 
wisdom,  and  kindness  soon  made  her 
very  popular.  Her  extreme  fairness  and 
bright  colouring  were  uncommon  in 
Italy,  and  her  comeliness  was  the  more 
conspicuous  from  her  unusual  height. 
She  cared  so  little  for  fashion  or  splen 
dour  that  sho  wore  ragged  old  clothes. 
With  her  mother's  permission,  sho 
accompanied  some  of  the  noblest  ladies 
of  Rome  on  an  excursion  outside  the 
walls.  They  were  tempted  by  some 
beautiful  grapes  that  hung  over  the  wall 
of  a  vineyard.  The  other  ladies  asked 
Catherine,  as  the  tallest  of  tho  party,  to 
try  to  reach  them  and  pick  ono  of  tho 
bunches.  When  she  stretched  up  her 
arms,  her  cloak  foil  back,  and  sho 
showed  her  sleeves,  patched  and  ragged ; 
but  they  looked  to  her  friends  like 
hyacinth  and  purple,  and  they  said, 
"  Oh,  Lady  Catherine,  what  magnificent 
sleeves !  Who  would  have  thought  you 
wore  such  splendid  clothes  ! "  It  was 
tho  same  with  her  straw  bed;  a  pious 
friend  who  came  to  see  her  when  she 
was  ill,  thought  sho  was  lying  on  a 
sumptuous  couch,  with  coverings  of  scar 


let  and  gold.  Once  when  Brigid  prayed 
for  graco  to  love  Christ  more,  the  Virgin 
M-iry  advised  her  to  wear  an  old  petti 
coat  of  Catherine's,  who  loved  old  better 
than  now,  and  serge  better  than  silk. 
A  woman  who  was  Catherine's  maid  for 
five  years,  and  afterwards  a  nun  at 
Wadstein,  testified  that  Catherine  had 
never  said  an  angry  or  impatient  word. 

After  Catherine  had  promised  to  stay 
in  Rome,  she  became  homesick,  and 
longed  to  see  her  own  country,  her  own 
house,  and  her  husband.  She  com 
plained  to  her  mother  of  these  feelings. 
Brigid  sent  for  her  confessor.  They 
agreed  that  scourging  was  the  only  thing 
to  expel  tho  temptation  to  regret.  While 
Catherine  was  undergoing  this  discipline, 
sho  said  to  tho  priest,  "  Go  on,  strike 
harder ;  you  have  not  reached  the  hard 
ness  of  my  heart."  At  last  her  sorrow 
ful  countenance  cleared,  and  with  a 
joyful  accent  she  said,  "  Now  I  feel  my 
heart  changed." 

Tho  Pope  being  at  Avignon,  many 
sons  of  Belial  infested  tho  streets  and 
public  places  of  Rome,  and  annoyed 
peaceable  citizens  and  respectable  women 
by  their  insolence  and  violence  to  such 
an  extent  that  they  could  not  visit  the 
stations  and  indulgences.  Young  women 
in  particular  were  not  safe.  Catherine 
was  forbidden  by  her  mother  to  go  out 
without  a  numerous  suite.  For  several 
days  she  stayed  in  the  house  with  her 
maids,  while  her  mother  wont  to  tho 
indulgences,  until  sho  began  to  say  to 
herself,  "I  lead  a  miserable  life  here, 
sitting  brutally  at  home,  while  others  go 
and  feed  their  souls  at  the  services.  My 
brothers  and  sisters  in  my  own  country 
can  serve  God  in  peace."  She  fell  into 
low  spirits,  and  soon  had  a  dream  which 
depressed  her  still  more.  As  her  mother 
saw  her  weeping,  sho  asked  what  was 
tho  matter.  Catherine  told  her  that  sho 
dreamt  sho  was  surrounded  with  fire, 
and  could  not  get  away.  Sho  saw  tho 
Virgin  Mary,  and  cried  out  to  her  for 
h.-Ip.  Tho  Blessed  Virgin  replied, 
"  How  can  I  help  you  while  you  cherish 
a  sinful  longing  to  return  home  ?  "  Her 
mother  reasoned  with  her,  and  they 
prayed  that  sho  might  have  grace  to 
k«  •  p  her  good  resolutions. 


158 


ST.  CATHERINE 


She  was  about  twenty,  and  had  been 
more  than  a  year  in  Rome*  when  her 
husband  died.  Many  suitors  speedily 
applied  for  the  hand  of  the  beautiful 
young  widow.  Once  on  a  festival,  when 
St.  Brigid  was  engaged  elsewhere, 
Catherine  went  to  the  church  of  St. 
Sebastian  outside  the  walls,  to  obtain 
indulgences.  A  certain  count,  with  a 
numerous  retinue,  hid  among  the  vine 
yards  through  which  she  had  to  pass ; 
he  ordered  his  servants  to  be  ready  to 
seize  her  the  moment  he  should  give 
the  signal.  A  stag  appeared,  and  while 
they  were  all  looking  at  it  Catherine 
passed  safely  by  unnoticed.  Brigid 
knew  of  it  by  revelation,  and  from  that 
day  Catherine  never  dared  to  go  openly 
to  the  stations  outside  the  walls,  nor 
even  about  the  streets,  but  frequented 
the  nearest  church.  At  last,  one  even 
ing,  Brigid  said,  "  To-morrow  is  the 
feast  of  St.  Lawrence ;  we  will  go 
together  to  his  church."  Catherine  was 
afraid,  but  her  mother  was  confident 
that  they  would  be  protected  by  God 
and  St.  Lawrence.  In  the  morning, 
when  they  went  out,  they  fortified  them 
selves  five  times  "with  the  sign  of  the 
cross,  and  commended  themselves  to  the 
protection  of  the  five  wounds  and  of  St. 
Lawrence,  and  so  got  safe  to  church. 
The  count  who  had  annoyed  them  was 
hiding  about  on  the  road  before  it  was 
light,  hoping  to  waylay  them.  When 
the  sun  had  risen,  and  was  high  in  the 
heavens,  one  of  the  servants,  being  very 
tired,  said,  "Master,  why  are  we  waiting 
here  ?  "  "  To  catch  that  lady  for  whom 
we  watched  in  vain  before."  "  She 
passed  by  hours  ago,  and  is  in  the 
church."  "  But,"  said  the  count,  "  it 
is  not  yet  day."  "  On  the  contrary," 
said  the  man,  "  the  sun  is  high !  "  Then 
the  count  became  aware  that  he  had  been 
struck  blind  for  his  temerity.  He  bade 
his  people  lead  him  to  the  church  and 
inquire  for  the  Swedish  ladies.  When 
they  were  found,  he  fell  at  their  feet 
and  confessed  his  fault.  His  sight  was 
restored  by  their  prayers. 

Once  when  Catherine  was  praying 
before  the  altar  of  St.  John,  in  the 
church  of  St.  Peter,  a  pilgrim  stood 
beside  her  and  desired  her  prayers  for  a 


woman  of  Nericia.  "  Who  are  you  ?  " 
asked  Catherine.  "A  pilgrim  from 
Sweden."  Catherine  courteously  invited 
her  to  come  to  her  mother's  house.  Tho 
stranger  excused  herself,  saying  she  had 
not  time  to  stay,  but  again  urged  Cathe 
rine  to  pray  earnestly  for  the  soul  of  her 
countrywoman,  adding,  "  You  will  soon 
hear  news  from  home,  and  receive 
valuable  help  from  the  Norse  woman, 
and  she  will  place  a  crown  of  gold  on 
your  heads."  Therewith  she  disappeared. 
When  Catherine  questioned  her  com 
panions,  they  said  they  had  heard  her 
talking,  but  had  seen  no  one.  Next  day 
came  the  news  that  Guda,  the  wife  of 
Charles,  was  dead,  and  in  due  time  a 
friend  brought  her  will  and  the  gold 
crown  which,  according  to  the  custom  of 
her  country,  ,she  always  wore.  The 
proceeds  of  its  sale  provided  for  the 
household  of  these  two  saintly  women 
for  a  whole  year.  They  lived  together 
for  twenty-five  years  in  Rome,  and  then 
went  to  Jerusalem.  While  there,  Brigid 
was  taken  ill.  She  lived  to  get  back  to 
Rome,  but  died  soon  after  her  arrival,  in 
1373.  By  her  own  wish  she  was  buried 
first  at  the  monastery  of  Parnisperna, 
and  was  translated  the  same  year  to  her 
own  monastery  of  Wadstein.  Catherine 
made  all  the  arrangements,  and  con 
ducted  the  funeral  party.  One  of  the 
difficulties  of  the  journey  was  the  law 
lessness  of  the  Crucifers,  a  military 
religious  order  who  had  become  corrupt. 
Miracles  accompanied  the  cortet/r  all  the 
way.  They  sailed  from  Dantzig,  landed 
at  Osgocia,  and  proceeded  to  Suder- 
copensem,  where  a  great  crowd  met 
them.  Nobles  and  clergy,  rich  and 
poor,  men  and  women,  accompanied 
them  to  Wadstein,  with  all  the  relics 
that  had  been  given  by  the  queen  of 
Naples  and  other  great  personages,  to 
the  new  monastery.  At  Lincopen, 
Catherine  was  well  received,  and  the 
whole  population  attended  a  grand  func 
tion  in  the  cathedral.  They  arrived  at 
Wadstein,  July  4.  Among  the  nuns 
was  Brigid's  granddaughter,  Ingigerda, 
afterward's  abbess.  Catherine  gave  her 
pious  advice,  and  told  her  that  both  tho 
detractor  and  the  listener  carry  the  devil 
in  their  tongues.  She  therefore  prayed 


B.    CATHKIMXK 


159 


that  God  would  avert  from  the  Brigit- 
tines  the  pestiferous  bite  of  detraction. 

In  accordance  with  the  wishes  of  the 
whole  community,  Catherine  went  to 
Rome  to  procure  the  canonization  of  her 
mother.  She  set  off  in  Easter  week, 
between  April  22  and  2i',  I  .'17 .">,  and 
travelled  to  that  city.  She  also  went  to 
Naples  to  collect  evidence  about  her 
mother's  miracles.  Gregory  XL,  Urban 
VI.,  the  magnates  of  Sweden,  and  all 
the  grandees  and  cardinals  who  had 
known  Brigid  in  Rome,  favoured  her 
< -Hurts.  But  in  those  troubled  times 
there  were  so  many  affairs  in  the  eccle 
siastical  world  more  pressing  than  the 
canonization  of  the  noble  Swede,  that  it 
could  not  be  carried  on  at  once,  and 
Catherine  saw  that  it  must  be  left  until 
the  future.  Accordingly,  she  decided 
to  return  home.  All  the  way  she  was 
treated  as  a  person  of  great  sanctity,  and 
her  progress  was  again  marked  by 
miracles.  She  was  taken  ill  when  she 
left  Rome,  and  gradually  became  worse. 
She  arrived  at  Wadstein  in  July,  I:»SM, 
and  died  March  24,  1381.  She  could 
not  take  the  last  sacraments  because  of 
the  state  of  her  stomach,  and  could  not 
speak,  but  she  silently  prayed,  and  made 
an  act  of  devotion  to  the  sacrament,  and 
so  departed.  Instantly  a  wonderfully 
bright  star  appeared  above  the  house, 
and  remained  there,  hanging  like  a  flame 
over  the  bier,  and,  as  soon  as  she  was 
buried,  it  disappeared.  To  her  funeral 
came  all  the  bishops  and  abbots  of 
len,  Norway,  and  Denmark,  also 
Eric,  son  of  Albert,  king  of  Sweden,  and 
many  barons. 

Catherine  wrought  miracles.  She 
twice  cured  servants  who  had  dangerous 
foils— one  from  a  cart,  and  one  from  the 
top  of  the  house  at  Wadstein.  A  woman 
who  had  had  seven  dead  children  begged 
her  help,  as  she  was  expecting  another, 
:md  feared  it  would  also  bo  born  dead. 
Catherine  prayed  for  her,  gave  her  a 
piece  of  a  dress  that  Urigid  had  worn, 
tuld  her  to  keep  it  about  her  constantly 
until  her  confinement,  and  promised  to 
come  if  she  would  send  f,,r  her  as  soon 
as  she  was  taken  ill.  Accordingly,  she 
went  at  the  critieil  time,  and  prayed 
with  the  mother  until  she  was  delivered 


of  a  living  daughter,  who  was  called 
Brigid  in  recognition  of  the  assistance 
of  the  two  holy  women. 

For  about  a  hundred  years  after  her 
death  her  festival  was  kept  on  March  23 
in  Poland  and  Sweden.  As  it  often  fell 
in  Holy  Week,  Leo  X.,  in  Iol2,  changed 
it  to  June  2.">. 

She  compiled  a  devotional  book  called 
Si'-linna  Truest  ( Consolation  of  the  Soul)  ; 
it  is  written  on  vellum. 

R.M.,  March  22.  AA.SS.  Fant  and 
Annerstet,  Script.  Rerum  Succicarum 
M.>lt'i  -/>/,  iii.  244,  etc.  Butler.  Bail- 
let.  Villegas.  Mrs.  Jameson.  Cahier. 

B.  Catherine  ( ."» )  Colombini,  Oct. 
2»».  f  1.5S7.  First  nun  of  the  Order 
af  Jesuates  of  St.  Jerome,  and  founder 
of  their  first  convent  at  Valpiatta. 

When,  about  l.'Wo,  St.  John  Colom 
bini  of  Siena  had  founded  the  Order  of 
Apostolic  Clerks  or  Jesuates  of  St. 
Jerome  for  men,  he  wished  to  establish 
a  congregation  of  women  to  serve  God 
in  poverty  as  great  as  that  he  imposed 
on  his  disciples.  Ho  looked  around  for 
a  pious  woman  to  begin  the  undertaking, 
and  chose  his  cousin  Catherine,  daughter 
of  Thomas  Colombini,  a  knight  of  the 
Order  of  the  Holy  Virgin  Mother  of 
God,  popularly  called  the  Jovial  Bro 
thers,  because  they  were  married  and 
lived  in  considerable  splendour.  Cathe 
rine  was  willing  to  be  a  virgin  nun,  but, 
accustomed  to  wealth,  she  did  not  like 
the  idea  of  poverty,  privation,  and  beg 
ging  barefooted  from  door  to  door. 
However,  St.  John  Columbini  soon 
persuaded  her  to  follow  his  example. 
She  began  by  giving  away  all  she  had, 
and  making  herself  a  plain  coarse  serge 
gown.  She  was  joined  by  several  widows- 
and  single-women,  who  had  been  much 
impressed  by  his  preaching.  He  gave 
them  the  habit  of  his  order,  with  the 
addition  of  a  white  veil.  They  lived  m 
the  house  of  Catherine,  and  when,  about 
I  '-"S  she  built  the  convent  of  Valpiatta, 
they  chose  her  for  their  superior.  They 
lived  by  the  work  of  their  hands,  and 
admitted  no  member  who  had  not  first 
divest  .1  herself  of  all  her  worldly  goods. 
( 'uthorine  set  an  example  of  the  utmost 
humility,  asceticism,  and  all  other 
virtues  for  twenty-two  years,  and  died 


160 


B.   CATHERINE 


Oct.  20,  1387.  Helyot,  Ordv*  M<maa- 
tiques,  part  iii.  chap.  ,">.">,  ;>*'>;  Drane, 
Catherine  <>f  Sienna. 

B.  Catherine  (»'•  >  Carreria,  Aug.  1, 
of  Mantua,  O.S.D.  Michele  Pio,  the 
historian  of  the  Dominican  Saints,  says 
that  at  the  age  of  forty-two,  after  a  very 
pious  life,  she  shut  herself  up  in  a  narrow- 
cell,  or  rather  between  two  walls,  and 
never  came  out  for  thirty- eight  years,  to 
the  great  admiration  of  all  good  people. 
She  was  buried  near  the  spot.  When 
the  cathedral  of  Mantua  was  built  on 
the  ground  where  her  cell  and  grave 
had  been,  her  body  was  placed  in  a 
handsome  tomb  in  the  chapel  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary  in  the  cathedral. 
An  inscription  setting  forth  her  sanctity, 
and  telling  that  she  was  of  the  Third 
order  of  Preachers,  was  seen  there  by 
Serafino  Razzi,  another  historian  of  the 
Order,  but  the  date  of  her  death  is  un 
known.  AA.SS.,  Prseter. 

St.  Catherine  (7),  Nov.  20,  V.  of 
Tartary.  "f  1414.  Carried  captive  to 
Naples,  and  presented  by  the  queen  to 
ST.  CATHERINE  (4),  who  gave  her  her 
own  name  in  baptism,  and  eventually 
took  her  to  Wadstein.  She  lived  there 
as  a  Brigittine  nun  until  her  death. 
•Catilburnus,  a  holy  priest,  saw  her  soul 
carried  to  heaven  in  the  form  of  a  very 
bright  star ;  at  the  same  time  it  was 
revealed  to  him  that  she  was  the  daughter 
of  a  prince  of  Tartary.  Vastovius,  Vitis 
Aquilonia.  Gynecseum. 

B.  Catherine  (sj  Mancini,  MARY 
(54)  MANCINI. 

St.  Catherine  ( '•' ),  March  t»,  of  Bo 
logna.  14i:;-14ti:{.  O.S.F.  Abbess, 
painter,  and  author.  Patron  of  artists 
and  of  the  Academy  of  Painters  at  Bo 
logna.  Only  child  of  John  de'  Vigri, 
or  Vegri,  a  member  of  one  of  the  prin 
cipal  families  of  Ferrara  ;  it  became  ex 
tinct  in  l»n(.».  Her  mother  was  Benvenuta 
Mammolini.  John  being  at  Padua  in 
the  autumn  of  1 4 1 :5,  Benvenuta  went  to 
stay  with  her  own  relations  at  Bologna 
for  her  confinement,  and  there  Catherine 
was  born,  Sept.  8.  When  she  was  nine 
or  ten  years  old,  she  was  placed  at  the 
court  of  the  Marquis  of  Ferrara,  and 
educated  with  his  daughter,  the  Princess 
Margaret  of  Este.  It  was  during  her 


residence  there  that  the  tragedy  occurred 
which  Byron  has  described  in  his  poem 
"Parisina."  This  may  have  deepened 
her  mistrust  of  worldly  life,  and  accen 
tuated  her  inclination  for  that  of  the 
cloister.  She  placed  herself  under  the 
care  of  a  devout  woman  named  Lucia 
Mascheroni,  who  had  already  edified  all 
Ferrara  by  her  virtuous  training  of  many 
secular  young  women.  About  this  time 
Lucia,  with  all  her  pupils,  went  to  live 
in  a  house  which  had  been  partly  built 
for  a  monastery,  but  had  never  been 
finished.  At  first  they  followed  the  rule 
of  St.  Augustine,  without  any  vow  of 
seclusion.  Here  Catherine  lived  for 
fifteen  or  sixteen  years  ;  here  she  endured 
those  horrible  struggles  with  the  devil, 
and  obtained  those  graces  and  heavenly 
visions  which  are  described  in  her  book, 
Spiritual  Combats.  In  14:52,  when  Lucia 
and  her  disciples  adopted  the  rule  of  ST. 
CLARA,  the  convents  of  Assisi  and  Mantua 
were  the  only  communities  of  that  order. 
The  life  was  so  ascetic  that  few  women 
were  able  to  endure  it :  some  died,  and 
nearly  all  were  more  or  less  dangerously 
ill.  Pope  Eugenius  IV.,  in  1446,  modi 
fied  their  austerities,  authorizing  the 
nuns,  among  other  indulgences,  to  wear 
wooden  sandals  and  woollen  socks ;  their 
fasts  also  were  to  be  less  rigorous. 

In  145(3  Catherine  was  chosen  superior 
of  fifteen  or,  by  some  accounts,  twenty- 
three  of  her  companions  to  go  and  settle 
in  the  new  convent  of  Corpo  di  Cristo, 
at  Bologna,  where  she  established  the 
rule  of  St.  Clara  in  its  original  severity. 
Two  years  later,  Julius  II.  permitted 
her  to  take  her  mother  into  the  convent 
to  give  her  the  attention  her  ago  and 
blindness  required.  Catherine  resigned 
the  government  of  the  convent  in  14i>o, 
but  was  reappointed  the  following  year, 
and  remained  in  office  until  her  death, 
March  <J,  14G3.  Nineteen  days  after 
wards  her  body  was  disinterred  and  found 
warm,  and  with  a  look  of  youth  and 
freshness  it  had  not  worn  of  late  years. 
It  was  set  up  in  the  choir  for  the  vene 
ration  of  the  public,  and  there  worked 
miracles.  The  people  of  Bologna  revered 
her  as  a  saint  from  that  time.  Her  canoni 
zation  took  place  about  two  hundred 
years  later. 


ST.    C'ATHKIIINI-: 


101 


In  her  convent  of  Corpo  di  Cristo  aro 
preserved  several  miuiatures  painted  by 
her  with  great  care  and  delicacy.  ( )no  pic 
ture  of  the  Infant  Christ — her  favourite 
subject — used  to  be  sent  to  sick  persons 
to  cure  them  of  whatsoever  disease  they 
had.     She  is  said  to  have  been  a  pupil 
of  Lippo  Dalnmsio.     In  the  Pinacotcca 
at   Bologna  is  a  small  picture  on  wood, 
of  ST.  UUSULA,  standing,  and  gathering 
her    kneeling    companions    under    In  r 
mantle.     It  is  signed  "  Cat<  •/•///"   1 '/«//•//. 
1  LM.V     It  was  given  to  the  Academy  of 
Fine  Arts  by  Count  Charles  Harescalchi. 
Baruffaldi  says  his  most  treasured  pos- 
•n  was  the  daily  Psalter  Catherine 
used  and  read  ;  it  was  written  on  parch 
ment.      In   tin-  margin  of  the  first  page 
was   the    Bambino  in    swaddling-bands, 
very  minutely  drawn  and  most  beauti 
fully  painted  in  pure  and  brilliant  colour 
ing.     After  his  time  it  became  one  of 
the  treasures  of  the  cathedral  at  Ferrara. 
One  book  was  undoubtedly  written  by 
this   saint ;     it    is   entitled,    Libra   ddle 
Ji<itt<i<//ii-  Xjiiritunli  v.  dcllc  8clt<>.  arme  per 
rle.      Another  book  of  revelations 
has  been  attributed  to  her.     Some  Latin 
verses,   called   "The  llosary,"  aro  said 
to  have  been  dictated    to    her    by  the 
Saviour.     Two  portraits  of  her  are  still 
to  be  seen — one  by  Zuccheri,  formerly 
in  the  church  of  Sta.  Maria  delle  Grazie, 
now  in  the  ( 'asa  Hercolani ;  the  other, 
and   better    painted,    by   Julio   Morina, 
represents  the  vision  she  had  of  Christ 
and  the  Blessed  Virgin  with  SS.  Stephen 
and  Lawrence.     It  is  in  the  Pinacoteca. 
It.M.     Her   Life,  by   Grassetti,  is  in 
the  Bollandist  collection,  and  was  trans 
lated  into  Knglish  for  the  London  Ora 
tory.       Barotti,     M'mitrii:    Ixtorichr.     di 
L'tt'i-nt'i   Ferrarcri.     Ticozzi,  Dizumario 
</«///    .1  /•!•// /'/'•///',   *tc.     Amorini,  Vite  de* 
I         '     Bokgneri.       Baruffaldi,    Pittori 
I          -         ."Mr-,  -'ameson,  Let/ends  of  the 
M<'ii<mti<-  <  )r<L  n. 

B.  Catherine  (  m)  Morigia,  April 

.  of  1'allanxa.  f  147H.  Founder 
and  first  abbess  of  the  nuns  of  St.  Am 
brose  ad  Nemus,  and  of  the  convent  of 
Santa  ."Maria  del  Monte,  at  Varasio. 
Born  at  Pallanza,  a  little  town  on  Lake 
ttaggiore.  <»n  the  appearance  of  the 
plague  there,  in  1  •»:;;,  her  father,  mother, 


and    twelve    children    fled    to   Ugovia, 
where  they  all  died  of  it  except  ( 'atherine. 
She  was  then  consigned  to  the  care  of 
( 'atherine  di  Silenzo,  a  lady  of  rank  and 
of  great  reputation  for  sanctity.     After 
her  death,  Catherine  lived   for  a  short 
time  with  some  pious  women  at  Monte 
Varaiso,  near  Pallanza,  and  tended  them 
during   the  plague,  of  which    they    all 
died.     She   afterwards    had    it   herself, 
and    was    miraculously   cured    on    her 
return  to  her   native    place.     She  then 
went  back  to  Varasio,  and  was  joined  by 
B.  JULIANA,  B.  BIVIA,  and  two  others. 
After  living  in  great  piety  and  austerity 
for  some  years,  they  obtained  permission 
to  adopt  the  rule  of  St.  Augustine,  the 
dress  of  the  monks  of  St.  Ambrose  ad 
Nemus,  with  the  black  veil,  and  to  have 
a  garden  and  cemetery  attached  to  their 
retreat,  which    then    became   a   regular 
convent.     Each    abbess  was    to  be  ap 
pointed  for  three  years,  but  Catherine 
did   not  live   to  finish  her  term.     Her 
body  remained   uncorrupt   and   flexible 
many  years  after  death.     Helyot,  Hist. 
Or<L  Jfon.,  iv.  chap.  i>.     Her  name  is  in 
the  Calendar  of  the  Order  of  St.  Augus 
tine.     AJl.M. 

B.  Catherine  Cll),  O.S.D.,  nun  in 
the  convent  of  Monteregio,  at  Siena. 
fl4!»S.  Pio. 

St.  Catherine  H2),  or  CATTERINA 
FiEsrm  AIM.KNO,  March  2<>,  Sept.  14,  15, 
March  22,  of  Genoa.  1447-i;>lo. 

Represented  holding  a  burning  heart 
and  a  crucifix. 

For  several  centuries  the  Fieschi  were 
counts  of  Lavagna,  and  among  the  most 
illustrious  families  in  Italy.  They  wero 
vicars  of  the  empire,  and,  with  other 
privileges,  enjoyed  the  right  of  coining 
money  in  the  republic  of  Genoa.  Popes 
Innocent  IV.  and  Adrian  V.,  as  well  as 
many  cardinals  and  famous  Genoese 
generals,  were  of  this  family.  ( 1athorine'§ 
father  was  Giacomo  Fieschi,  viceroy  of 
Naples,  under  Kene  of  Anjou,  king  of 
Sicily.  From  her  infancy  she  was  re 
markable  for  her  gentle  and  submissive 
disposition,  and  from  a  very  early  ago 
for  her  piety  and  self-denial.  At 
thirteen  she  wished  to  become  a  nun, 
but  when  she  applied  for  admission  at 
the  convent  of  Our  Lady  of  Grace,  they 


162 


B.   CATHERINE 


would  not  receive  licr  becaust  she  was 
too  small  aiid  delicate.  She  then  gave 
lip  for  the  time  her  project  of  a  religious 
life,  to  which  her  parents  wero  opposed, 
and  at  sixteen  was  given  in  marriage  to 
Julian  Adorno,  a  young  nobleman,  whose 
ambition,  extravagance,  and  profligacy 
caused  her  much  affliction.  Her  prayers 
for  him,  her  patience  and  her  example, 
at  length  converted  him,  and  he  died  a 
penitent  of  the  Third  Order  of  St. 
Francis.  When  Catherine  became  a 
widow,  after  ten  years  of  marriage,  she 
resolved  to  dedicate  herself  to  the  service 
of  God,  and  after  long  deliberation 
decided  on  choosing  an  active  rather 
than  a  contemplative  life,  and  devoted 
herself  to  the  service  of  the  sick  in  the 
great  hospital  of  Genoa,  where  she  lived 
many  years  as  mother  superior.  She 
tended  the  sick  with  the  greatest  kind 
ness,  and  did  not  shrink  from  rendering 
them  the  most  painful  and  revolting 
services.  She  extended  her  charity  to 
all  lepers  and  other  indigent  and  suffer 
ing  persons  in  the  city,  and  employed  fit 
agents  to  discover  and  relieve  them. 
She  died  in  her  sixty-third  year,  Sept. 
14,  1510.  Both  during  her  married  life 
and  afterwards,  she  made  it  a  rule  never 
to  excuse  herself  when  blamed,  and  took 
for  her  motto  a  sentence  from  the  Lord's 
Prayer,  "  Thy  will  be  done  on  earth,  as 
it  is  in  heaven." 

She  wrote  several  treatises,  the  chief 
of  which  are  entitled  respectively,  "  On 
Purgatory  "  and  "  A  Dialogue  ;  "  the 
subject  of  the  latter  is  Divine  love  and 
the  happiness  it  imparts  to  the  devout 
soul.  Baillet  says  that  her  writings 
wero  never  thoroughly  approved  by  the 
Church — a  fact  which  delayed  her  ca 
nonization.  Pope  Benedict  XIV '.  placed 
her  name  in  the  Roman  Martyrohyy. 
li.  (Jutli'T/nd.  Grnu<  nsi*  lllustrutn,  Genoa, 
liJSL',  by  Parpera  the  oratorian,  contains 
an  account  of  her  doctrine  and  a  pane 
gyric  on  her  holy  life.  B.M.  Sticker, 
in  AA.SS.,  Sept.  i:>.  Butler,  Lin-a, 
Sept.  14.  Baillet,  Vies. 

B.  Catherine  (  i:i)  of  Genoa,  one  of 
seventy-two  nuns  who  died  in  the  odour 
of  sanctity  between  14;W  and  171.~>. 
They  wero  of  the  Order  of  St.  Ambrose 
and  St.  Marcelline,  commonly  called  th- 


Annunciation    of    Lombardy.      Helyot, 
Oi'fL  Mon.,  iv.  chap.  in. 

B.   Catherine    C14)    of   Eacconigi, 
Sept.    :>.       14SG  -  l.~)47.       :ird    O.S.D. 
Catherine  was  the  daughter  of  George 
Mattei,  a  locksmith  of  Piedmont.     At 
the  time  of  her  birth  her  family  were 
reduced  to  great  poverty  by  a  war  be 
tween  the  Duke  of  Savoy  and  the  Marquis 
of  Saluzzo.     She  made  her  first  acquaint 
ance  with  life  in  cold  and  penury,  but 
heavenly  gifts  and  graces  were  bestowed 
on  her  from  her  earliest  childhood.     She 
had  visions  of  saints  and   angels,  and 
commended    herself    especially    to    the 
guardianship  of  St.  Stephen,  because  in 
the  early  Church  he   had   the  care  of 
women  who  were  in  need  of  alms.    While 
still  a  child,  she  received  the  Holy  Ghost 
four  times  iu  visible  forms,  namely,  of  a 
dove,  rays  of  light,  a  cloud,  and  tongues 
of  fire.     On  the  last  occasion  she  made 
her  first  confession,  was  absolved  by  a 
saint,  and  received  the  gift  of  knowing 
true  from  false  visions.      Between  her 
sixth     and     twenty-sixth     year    Christ 
appeared  to  her  three  times,  and  married 
her  with  a  different  ring  each  time.     He 
several  times  took  her  heart  out  of  her 
body  and  put  it  back ;  once  He  kept  it 
forty-five  days,  during  which  she  lived 
without  a  heart,  and  with  a  great  open 
place  in  her  side.     She  had  the  stigmata. 
She  described  the  personal  appearance 
of  saints  she  had  seen  in  visions.     ST. 
AGNES  (  2  ),  she  said,  was  little  and  plump, 
with     rosy     cheeks     and     curly     hair. 
Although  poor,  she  was  very  charitable. 
She    deemed   it   better    to    be   without 
clothes     than     without     charity.         At 
thirteen  she  gave  her  chemise  to  Christ 
under  the  form  of  a  beggar,  and  He  gave 
her  a  beautiful  white  robe  in  its  stead. 
ST.   CATHKKI.NK   (Mi   of  Siena,  who   had 
been  dead  more  than  a  hundred  years, 
appeared   to   her  as  a  beggar.      Devils 
persecuted  her,  disguised  as  men,  beasts, 
birds,  and  corpses.     She  was  defended 
against  them  and  against  sin  by  saints 
and  angels.     She  was  taken  to  purgatory, 
where  she  comforted  the  souls  and  felt 
the  fire.     She  also  visited  heavon  and 
hell,  and  recognized  some  of  her  friends 
in  each  of  the  three  places.     She  released 
many    souls    from    purgatory    by    her 


U.    CATIIKKIXK 


103 


prayers,  and  by  the  saino  means  saved 
JUT  native  town  from  fire  and  storms. 
She  fought  and  vanquished  a  devil  who, 
under  the  form  of  a  serpent,  was  carrying 
off  a  wicked  woman.  She  released  and 
converted  the  woman.  She  went  great 
distances  to  help  those  to  whom  she 
could  be  useful.  She  was  carried  by 
angels  from  place  to  place ;  she  once 
went  three  hundred  and  twenty  miles  in 
four  hours.  From  this  miraculous 
I  lower  she  was  called  by  the  peasants  of 
Piedmont  La  Mnxc<i  \  <>.  Sorceress]  di 
Di».  She  died  at  Caramagna. 

Her  life  was  written  by  Francesco 
Pico  della  Mirandola,  count  of  Con- 
cordia  ;  he  knew  her  well,  and  heard  her 
relate  many  of  her  visions.  He  died 
before  her,  and  his  work  was  finished  by 
Father  IVter  Martyr,  of  Garescio,  who 
also  knew  her  very  well,  and  was  only 
a  mile  from  her  at  the  time  of  her  death. 

She  has  a  double  festival  in  the 
Martyrology  of  her  order.  .  I.//..V. 
,n  Siiiiita,  published  by  the  Fathers 
of  the  Oratory.  Pio.  ( 'astillo. 

B.  Catherine  (15;  Tomas,  April  1, 
Aug.  •'!.  •{•  1574.  Canoness,  O.S.A. 
1  >a  lighter  of  Jacob  Tomas  and  Mar- 
quettu  Gallart,  honest  peasants  at  Valde- 
inuza,  iii  Majorca.  She  was  brought  up 
to  hard  work  in  house  and  field.  From 
her  seriousness  and  contempt  of  pleasure, 
tin:  neighbours  gave  her  the  nickname  of 
I  "t>  /'  i-itiij  the  little  old  woman.  At  seven- 
she  entered  the  service  of  a  noble 
family  in  Palnm,  win  TO  she  was  taught 
ad  ami  embroider.  Notwithstanding 
her  great  piety  and  extraordinary  asce- 
ii«-ism.  lack  of  dowry  made  it  very  diffi 
cult  for  her  to  gain  admittance  to  a 
.-lit.  At  last  that  of  St.  Mary 
Magdalene,  of  the  Order  of  St.  Augustine, 
consent' d  t  »  receive  her.  She  had  ecs- 
.'•  was  attackt-d  by  the  devil  in 
visible  shape,  s!.  'iccoured  and 

comforted  |>y  divers  saints,  she  talked 
with  suuls  in  purgatory,  prophesied  future 
<-v.  nts,  and  wrought  miracles.  She  was 
:•  d  prim-ess  of  her  convent,  but  im- 
ni'-diati  Iy  r«  M-jned.  On  her  death  the 
inhabitants  oi'  .Majorca  honoured  her  as 
a  saint  for  fifty  years,  wln-n  a  decree  of 
Urban  VIII.  forhade  the  public  worship 
ainis  not  recognized  by  the  (1huivh. 


An  appeal  was  then  made  to  Rome  to 
have  the  worship  of  Catherine  legalized. 
The  process  went  on  at  intervals  for 
many  years,  until  the  decree  of  her  beati 
fication  was  promulgated  by  Pius  VI.  in 
I  7 '.•!'.  Her  hat,  thimble,  and  other  relics 
are  kept  as  sacred,  and  her  body  is  pre 
served  in  a  marble  sarcophagus  with  a 
glass  front,  and  shown  by  the  nuns  of 
her  convent.  Her  name  is  in  the  Mar 
tyrology  of  her  order,  A.R.M.,  April  1. 
AJLJBS.,  Prxter.,  April  :,.  Bidwell, 
llnl'-tirir  Islands. 

St.  Catherine  ( 1  u)  Cantona.  t  ''• 
1  ."•  <  t,  of  the  rule  of  St.  Charles  Borromeo. 
Represented  holding  a  cross  to  which  a 
nail  is  fastened.  Guenebault. 

B.  Catherine  ( 1 7),  or  CATALINA  CAR- 
]>o\A,May  1  1,  12,  IS,  21.  15111-1577  or 
157!».  A  recluse  of  the  Order  of  our  Lady 
of  Mount  Carmel.  Daughter  of  Don 
Ramon,  a  member  of  the  ducal  house  of 
Cardona,  descended  from  the  kings  of 
Aragou.  She  had  a  vision  of  her  father 
in  purgatory;  he  told  her  his  release 
would  bo  the  fruit  of  her  penance.  She 
mortified  and  disciplined  herself  until 
she  obtained  his  deliverance.  The  Prin 
cess  of  Salerno,  a  near  relation,  who  took 
charge  of  her  on  her  father's  death, 
brought  her  to  Spain,  where  ST.  THERESA 
(7)  was  beginning  her  reform;  and 
Catherine  was  moved  to  undertake  the 
life  of  austerity,  of  which  Theresa  speaks 
with  admiration.  On  the  death  of  the 
princess  of  Salerno,  Catherine  governed 
the  household  of  Ruy  Gomez  do  Silva, 
prince  of  Eboli,  and  had  under  her  care 
the  Princes  Don  Carlos  and  Don  Juan  of 
Austria.  Carlos  she  could  not  influence, 
but  for  Juan  she  always  had  a  most  tender 
all'eetion.  Ruy  Gomez  and  his  wife  went 
to  see  an  estate  he  had  bought.  Cat  la  -rim- 
bi-gged  to  accompany  them.  She  did  so, 
and  from  their  house  in  Estrenn  m. 
dressed  as  a  man,  she  made  her  way  to 
the  desert  of  La  Roda,  where  she  spent 
many  years  in  a  small  cave.  Her  only 
<  •  1 1  •  1 1 1  i  n  g  was  very  coarse  sackcloth .  She 
lived  on  herbs  and  roots,  until  a  poor 
>h«  plu  rd  supplied  her  with  bread  and 
meal.  She  used  the  discipline  of  a  heavy 
chain  for  an  hour  and  a  half  or  two  hours 
at  a  time.  Sometimes  she  went  half  a 
mile  on  her  knees  to  Mass  in  a  monastery 


164 


ST.   CATHERINE 


of  the  Mercenarians.  The  fame  of  her 
devotion  spread  to  such  a  degree  that 
she  suffered  much  from  the  fatigue, 
interruption,  and  crowding  caused  by 
those  who  went  to  see  her.  There  came 
a  day  when  the  whole  plain  was  full  of 
carriages.  The  friars  of  the  neighbour 
ing  monastery  were  compelled  to  raise 
her  up  on  high,  that  she  might  give  the 
crowd  her  blessing,  and  so  get  rid  of 
them.  She  was  so  impressed  by  the 
sanctity  of  St.  Teresa,  and  the  impor 
tance  of  her  reform,  that,  after  eight  years 
of  solitude,  she  left  her  cave  to  found  a 
monastery  of  Barefooted  Carmelites.  In 
ir>  71  she  went  to  Pastrana,  where  the 
Prince  of  Eboli  and  the  Duke  of  Gandia 
had  promised  to  found  a  monastery  for 
her.  She  took  the  habit  of  a  lay-brother, 
fearing  that  if  she  became  a  nun,  she 
would  be  deprived  of  her  solitude  and 
extreme  austerity.  She  had  to  go  to 
Madrid  on  the  business  of  the  foundation. 
While  there  she  continued  to  give  her 
blessing  to  the  people.  A  good  old  man 
did  not  understand  it,  and,  somewhat 
scandalized,  he  told  the  nuncio  that  he 
had  seen  a  Carmelite  lay-brother  in  a 
carriage  with  ladies,  giviug  his  blessing 
to  the  people  like  a  bishop.  The  nuncio 
was  very  angry,  but  on  the  circumstances 
being  explained,  he  left  Catherine  in 
peace.  At  Madrid  and  other  places  the 
people  gave  her  funds,  and  in  1.572, 
when  she  had  obtained  the  licence,  she 
built  a  monastery  over  her  cave.  In  a 
trance  in  that  church,  St.  Theresa  saw 
Catherine  in  glory,  accompanied  by 
angels ;  Catherine  told  her  not  to  grow 
faint,  but  to  persevere  with  her  founda 
tions.  Another  cave,  containing  a  solid 
tomb,  was  made  for  her.  There  she 
lived  five  years,  leaving  it  only  to  be 
present  at  the  divine  office.  She  died 
May  11,  1577.  In  16<>;>  the  monastery 
was  moved  to  Villanueva  de  la  Jara. 
The  friars  took  with  them  the  body  of 
their  founder,  and  three  years  later  they 
laid  it  in  a  distinguished  place  in  the 
church. 

St.  Theresa  calls  her  "the  saintly 
Cardona  "  and  "  that  holy  woman."  She 
is  called  "  Saint "  by  some  authors,  and 
was  so  considered  in  her  own  country 
and  community,  both  before  and  after 


her  death,  but  is  not  canonized.  P.P. 
St.  Theresa,  foundations. 

St.  Catherine  (is),  or  SANDRIVA  DKI 
RICCI,  Feb.  13.  1522-1589.  :5rd  O.S.D. 
Sometimes  represented  with  a  crown  of 
thorns.  Of  an  ancient  family  of  Florence. 
She  was  christened  Saudrina,  and  edu 
cated  in  the  convent  of  Monticelli.  In 
1  .Ml.")  she  took  the  name  of  Catherine, 
and  became  a  novice  in  the  convent  of 
St.  Vincent,  at  Prato.  While  very  young 
she  was  appointed  mistress  of  the  novices, 
and  at  five-and-t \venty,  prioress. 

This  nunnery  was  built  in  K>(>2  by  the 
Dominicans  of  Savonarola's  Convent  of 
St.  Mark,  in  Florence.  The  nuns  of 
Prato  were  distinguished  not  only  for 
holiness,  but  for  skill  in  the  arts  of 
painting,  sculpture,  and  poetry.  The 
Order  of  Preachers — commonly  called 
of  St.  Dominic — were  exempted  from 
strict  seclusion. 

Fra  Angelo  Diacceto,  prior  of  the 
Minerva  in  Rome,  had  a  great  affection 
for  his  niece  Catherine,  and  was  present 
at  her  profession.  He  acted  as  a  medium 
for  the  intense  interest  which  existed  be 
tween  her  and  his  friend  Philip  Neri, 
and  consequently  between  the  holy  com 
munities  of  Dominicans  at  Prato  and 
Rome.  One  of  the  chief  ties  between 
them  was  their  ardent  love  and  admira 
tion  for  Fra  Girolamo  Savonarola.  Ca 
therine  treasured  relics  of  him,  studied 
his  writings,  and  in  a  serious  illness, 
recommended  herself  to  him,  and  was 
cured.  Her  eager  desire  for  the  refor 
mation  of  the  Church  in  general,  and  of 
the  everyday  life  of  Rome,  also  appealed 
strongly  to  the  heart  of  Philip.  She 
used  to  say,  "  That  poor  city  of  Rome ! 
what  sins  are  committed  there !  What 
lives  men  live  there ! "  From  corre 
spondence  by  letter  there  grew  up  in  the 
hearts  of  these  two  saints  a  great  desire 
to  see  each  other;  but  Philip  had  resolved 
never  to  leave  Rome,  and  Catherine  was 
a  cloistered  nun  at  Prato,  and  not  likely 
to  travel.  Yet  they  met  in  spirit,  passed 
some  time  in  holy  converse,  and  each  saw 
the  face  of  the  other  as  plainly  as  if  they 
were  together  in  the  flesh.  This  incident 
is  represented  in  a  picture  by  Antonio 
Marini,  and  is  mentioned  in  the  bull  of 
the  canonization  of  Philip  Xeri.  There- 


U.   CATHERINE 


10." 


remain?  but  one  of  their  many  letters: 
it  is  from  Catherine  to  Philip. 

Such  was  her  reputation  for  sanctity 
ami  wisdom,  that  she  was  visited  by  many 
of  the  great  men  of  the  day,  among  whom 
three  cardinals,  afterwards  popes, 
namely.  Murcellus  II.,  Clement  VIII., 
and  Leo  XI.  She  was  one  of  those 
nit  <li;i val  saints  who  had  tho  stigmata. 
She  had  also  a  red  mark  on  her  linger, 
Bed  by  the  ring  with  which  she  was 
usi  <1  to  Christ.  Many  saints  ap 
peared  to  her  in  her  cell.  She  died 
after  a  long  illness,  Feb.  2,  1">S«»,  and 
was  canonized  by  Benedict  XIV.  in 
1744. 

/.'. M.  M>  'li  ni  Scuntt)  published  by 
the  Fathers  of  the  Oratory.  Capecelatro, 
Lift-  ,,/  St.  Pl'.Hp  Neri,  ii.  2<>7,  etc. 
1 1- T  letters  were  edited  by  Cesare  Guasti 
in  l^(i'l.  CiriHii  Cattolica,  series  iv. 
vol.  ll\  p.  :;7". 

B.  Catherine  (!!>)•  May  <>.  f  i:>9t>. 
A  Dominican  nun  in  tho  convent  of  the 
Mother  of  God  at  Seville,  where  she  was 
m side  sub-prioress  at  a  very  early  age. 
>h"  imitated  the  virtues  of  the  great  ST. 
C.\niri;iNK  Ci)  OF  SIENA,  and  had  a 
special  gift  for  reproving  kindly  and 
effectually.  She  was  sent,  with  others, 
to  the  convent  of  Maria  do  Gracia,  to 
instruct  tho  nuns;  she  was  a  great 
favourite  with  her  pupils,  and  during 
h<  r  various  sojourns  in  that  convent,  was 
time  times  chosen  prioress  by  them, 
l)ii t  the  superiors  of  the  order  annulled 
the  elections,  because  they  wanted  her 
for  work  in  other  places.  She  was  sent 
to  reform  the  convent  of  Ubeda,  to  act 
as  prioress  to  that  of  St.  Florentina  do 
Ecija,  and  to  found  that  of  Gibraleon. 
She  took  with  her  her  dear  friend,  Sister 
INI; try  <>f  tho  Cross,  who  was  first  prioress 
there,  and  died  in  l.V.'.">.  Catherine  died 
«>n  the  eve  of  St.  John  the  Evangelist, 
Dec..  !'•;,  !:,!'•;.  AA.SS.,  Prsetcr.  Ka- 
chack,  l)«niiii'n'ii  a  \nii-. 

B.  Catherine  <-'">,  of  Fingo,  Sept. 
1«>,  M.  P'L'J.  A  widow,  aged  forty-eight, 
beheaded  at  Nagasaki,  in  Japan,  on  the 
same  day  as  Spinola  was  burnt.  It  is 
said  by  I'SIL'-S  that  when  her  head  was 
cut  off  it  rebounded  three  times,  pro 
nouncing  each  time  the  names  Jesus  and 
Mary,  i  ,S"  Lro  FKKITAS.) 


B.  Catherine  -  L'  i  •,  July  r:,  M.  1626, 

Wife  of  a  poor  labour. T  named  John 
Mino  Tanaca.  They  were  imprisoned 
for  six  months,  and  then  condemned  to 
death  for  lodging  the  missionary,  Father 
Torres.  John  was  burnt  and  Catherine 
beheaded  at  Nagasaki,  in  Japan.  When 
his  bonds  were  destroyed  he  walked 
through  the  fire  to  salute  John  Naisen 
and  his  other  fellow-martyrs.  They  all 
expired  invoking  the  Lord  Jesus. 
Authorities,  same  as  for  LUCY  FUEITAS. 

B.  Catherine  (22),  Protector  of 
Canada.  Her  name  among  her  own 
people  was  TKGAHKOUITA.  H)")0-1G7H. 
A  red  Indian  of  the  Iroquois  tribe,  born 
at  Gandahouague  or  Gandehouhague 
( later,  Cauhnawaga,  a  village  in  Mo 
hawk  canon,  New  York  state ).  Left  an 
orphan  very  young,  and  nearly  blind 
from  the  effects  of  small-pox,  she  lived 
in  the  darkest  corner  of  her  aunt's  cabin. 
As  soon  as  she  was  able,  she  did  all  the 
hard  work  of  the  family.  She  first  heard 
of  Christianity  from  some  missionaries 
who,  travelling  through  the  Iroquois 
territory,  lodged  in  her  uncle's  wigwam. 
They  were  hospitably  received,  and 
Tegahkouita  was  ordered  to  wait  upon 
them.  The  fervour  and  abstraction  with 
which  they  prayed  inspired  in  her  tho 
desire  to  join  in  their  worship.  They 
gave  her  what  instruction  they  could  in 
the  short  time  of  their  stay  in  the 
village.  Before  long  her  relations 
thought  it  was  time  she  should  be 
married,  and,  without  consulting  her, 
they  chose  a  young  man,  and  he,  accord 
ing  to  the  custom  of  the  nation,  came 
into  the  cabin  and  sat  down  beside  her. 
She  had  only  to  stay  where  she  was  to 
be  considered  by  her  tribe  tho  wife  of 
this  man,  and  this  her  uncle  expected 
her  to  do.  But  instead  she  got  up 
hastily  and  left  the  wigwam.  Her 
friends  were  very  angry,  and  abused  and 
maltreated  her,  but  she  strongly  objected 
to  marriage.  While  they  were  still 
annoyed  with  her  behaviour,  a  missionary 
named  Father  do  Lambervillo  came  to 
tho  village.  All  tho  women  were  busy 
gathering  in  tho  maize,  and  ho  found  it 
useless  to  attempt  any  preaching  or 
public  instruction,  as  no  one  could  attend. 
Ho  took  tho  opportunity  to  visit  tho 


166 


B.   CATHERINE 


Louses  and  talk  to  the  aged  and  infirm, 
who  could  not  come  to  the  gatherings  of 
the  community.  In  one  of  the  wigwams 
he  found  Tegahkouita,  who  was  pre 
vented  by  a  wound  in  her  foot  from  going 
to  the  fields  with  the  others.  Ever  since 
the  first  visit  of  the  missionaries  she  had 
been  longing  to  become  a  Christian,  and 
now  she  frankly  told  Father  Lamber- 
ville  her  wish.  She  said  she  would  have 
great  obstacles  to  overcome,  but  that 
they  would  not  frighten  her.  He  saw 
in  her  one  chosen  by  God,  but  his  ex 
perience  among  the  Indians  led  him  to 
take  many  precautions  before  admitting 
them  to  the  sacrament  of  baptism.  At 
last,  at  Easter,  ]  070,  he  found  no  further 
cause  for  delay,  and  christened  her  by 
the  name  of  Catherine.  He  was 
astonished  to  find  in  her  so  many  saintly 
qualities.  Those  who  were  least  dis 
posed  to  follow  her  example  were  struck 
by  her  holiness,  and  for  a  time  treated 
her  with  great  respect ;  but  by-and-by 
her  modesty  appeared  to  the  young 
people  of  her  village  to  be  a  reproacli  to 
the  libertine  life  they  led.  They  ridi 
culed  her,  and  threw  stones  at  her  on 
her  way  to  church,  while  her  uncle  and 
aunt  starved  her  and  behaved  very  un 
kindly  to  her.  At  this  time  a  number 
of  converted  Indians  had  withdrawn  to 
the  Prairie  de  la  Magdeleine,  and 
amongst  these  new  settlers  was  a  friend  of 
Tegahkouita's,  whose  husband  helped  the 
missionaries  assiduously.  This  young 
couple  made  a  plan  to  take  her  to  join 
them,  but  her  uncle  was  greatly  incensed 
at  the  depopulation  of  his  part  of  the 
country,  and  tried  to  prevent  any  more 
of  his  people  from  leaving  the  place. 
In  his  absence  the  young  man  with  a 
friend  came  on  a  pretended  hunting 
expedition,  and  took  her  away  with  them. 
The  uncle  soon  heard  of  it,  and  ran 
furiously  after  them,  resolved  to  bring 
her  back  dead  or  alive.  He  overtook 
the  two  hunters,  but  they  had  hidden 
the  young  convert  in  the  wood,  and  after 
some  futile  conversation  he  concluded 
that  he  had  been  misinformed.  Catherine 
arrived  in  the  Prairie  de  la  Magdeleine 
in  October,  I (177.  Her  friends  had  no 
cabin  of  their  own,  but  lodged  with  a 
fervent  Christian  named  Anastasia,  who 


devoted  her  life  to  the  conversion  and 
salvation  of  women,  preparing  them  for 
baptism  ;  and  here  Catherine  gave  her 
self,  without  reserve,  to  God,  and  took 
giant  strides  in  the  path  of  holiness. 
She  had  not  received  her  first  Com 
munion,  and  it  was  the  custom  not  to 
grant  it  to  neophytes,  but  to  prepare 
them  by  long  trial.  She  expected  to 
have  to  wait  like  the  others,  but  her 
director  soon  discerned  her  fitness  and 
her  fervour,  and  granted  her  this  privi 
lege,  to  her  great  comfort  and  to  the 
edification  of  others.  Her  best  friends 
urged  her  to  marry,  as  it  was  until  then 
unheard  of  that  an  Iroquois  girl  should 
remain  unmarried.  Even  the  mission 
aries  had  never  suggested  such  a  thing, 
but  at  last  Catherine  received  permission 
to  make  a  vow  of  virginity,  and  was  the 
first  of  her  nation  who  did  so.  The 
neophytes  were  declared  by  the  other 
Iroquois  to  be  enemies  of  their  country, 
and  they  expected  to  be  frightfully 
tortured  should  they  fall  alive  into  the 
hands  of  their  compatriots. 

Her  mortifications  undermined  her 
health,  and  she  became  very  ill.  After 
a  long  time  of  suffering  she  received 
"  the  holy  oils  "  on  the  Wednesday  before 
Easter,  1078,  and  she  died  the  same 
afternoon,  aged  twenty- four,  at  the  Sault 
St.  Louis.  Her  exemplary  life  and  holy 
death  caused  a  great  increase  of  fervour 
amongst  the  Iroquois  of  the  Sault  St. 
Louis.  Immediately  after  her  death  her 
wasted  features  recovered  their  bloom. 
Her  tomb  was  soon  a  famous  resort  for 
crowds  of  the  faithful,  who  flocked  there 
from  all  parts  of  Canada.  Those  who 
sought  her  intercession  were  singularly 
favoured,  and  miracles  encouraged  the 
general  opinion  which  regarded  and  to 
this  day  regards  her  as  the  protectress 
of  Canada. 

The  inhabitants  of  several  of  the 
neighbouring  parishes  were  in  the  habit 
of  assembling  at  the  Sault  St.  Louis  to 
sing  a  Mass  in  her  honour,  although  she 
had  not  been  canonized.  A  new  parish 
priest  recently  arrived  from  France 
refused  to  conform,  fearing  to  authorize 
by  his  presence  a  public  worship  which 
the  Church  had  not  yet  permitted.  All 
his  hearers  said  he  would  be  signally 


ST.   CECILIA 


16' 


punished  for  slighting  the  saint,  and 
that  very  clay  ho  fell  dangerously  ill. 
He  understood  the  cause,  and  made  a 
vow  to  follow  the  example  of  his  pre 
decessors,  whereupon  he  recovered. 
There  were  martyrs  of  both  sexes  in 
this  persecution,  but  Tegahkouita  is  the 
only  red  Indian  worshipped  as  a  saint, 
and  although  she  is  not  canonized,  it  was 
found  impossible  to  prevent  her  being 
honoured  and  invoked  as  the  patron  of 
Canada. 

Charlevoix,  Hiatoire  H  Description 
<;.'n,'ral  dc  la  Nouvrllc  Fran 

St.  Cattula,  CATULI.A. 

St.  Catula  (  I  ',  March  24,  M.  in 
Africa.  AAJ3S. 

St.  Catula  <  '1  >,  May  7,  M.  in  Africa. 
AAJ38. 

St.  Catula  (  X ),  June  2t>,  M.  at  Home. 
M<irt.  of  Itcichcnau. 

St.  Catula  (4),  CASTULA  (8). 

St.  Catulla,  CATALLA,  or  CATTULA, 
March  :'•!.  Matron  in  Paris.  Buried 
>t.  Uenis  and  his  companions,  A.D.  272. 
Catulla  walked  beside  St.  Denis  while 
he  carried  his  head  to  the  place  of 
burial.  Paul  Lacroix,  from  a  manuscript 
of  the  fourteenth  century,  in  the  Biblio- 
thejin;  Xationale.  AA.SS.,  Prsetcr. 
1 5nt  ler.  Ferrarius  calls  her  "  Virgin." 

St.    Caw,    Welsh.      Mother  of  SS. 

CAIN.     CWYI.LOG,      GWEXAFWY,      PKILLAN, 

TiiiiniKN,  and  several   sons,  all  saints. 

.  280. 

St.  Cazarie,  CASABIA  (1). 
St.     Cebedrude,     or     CEBETKUDE, 

<  il.r.r.TlirnE. 

St.  Cecilia  ( 1  >,  Nov.  22  (OJKHLIAJ 

ChKi.v  ),  Y.  M.  18n  or  2: Jo.  Patron  of 
music,  musicians, and  musical  instrumont- 
makers,  and  one  of  the  four  great  patron 
esses  of  the  Western  Church. 

Represented  '  1  >  with  a  caldron  :  ( '-' ) 
with  an  orpin  <>r  other  musical  instru 
ment  ;  (8)  witli  si  wreath  of  roses  or 
green  leaves;  «4)  with  an  attendant 
angel. 

St.  Cecilia  was  a  noble  Roman  lady, 
probably  of  the  family  of  Cii'cilii  Maximi 
l-';ui>ti.'  Her  parents  wero  secretly 
Christians,  and  brought  her  up  piously. 
She  always  carried  a  copy  of  the  Gospels 
concealed  iu  her  clothes.  She;  c«»n:i 
hymns  and  played  on  all  instruments, 


but  finding  none  worthy  to  express  her 
devotion,  she  invented  the  organ,  and 
dedicated  it  to  the  service  of  God.  Sin 
was  married  at  sixteen  to  Valerian,  whom 
she  converted  to  Christianity.  He  de 
manded  to  see  her  guardian  angel,  and 
she  sent  him  to  St.  Urban,  who  was  con 
cealed  in  the  catacombs  on  account  of 
the  persecution,  and  who  completed  the 
conversion  of  Valerian,  and  baptized 
him.  Valerian,  returning  to  his  wife, 
heard  celestial  music,  and,  entering  the 
room,  saw  an  angel  standing  by  her  side, 
with  two  crowns  of  everlasting  roses, 
which  he  placed  on  the  heads  of  Valerian 
and  Cecilia,  telling  Valerian,  as  the 
reward  of  his  obedience  to  his  wife's  holy 
advice,  that  he  might  ask  what  ho 
would,  and  it  should  be  granted.  Vale 
rian  asked  the  conversion  of  his  brother 
Tibertins.  This  was  promised,  and  was 
brought  about  by  the  persuasions  of 
Cecilia.  All  three  went  about  doing 
good,  until  they  attracted  the  attention 
of  the  enemies  of  Christianity,  when  the 
two  brothers  wero  thrown  into  prison. 
They  converted  their  gaoler  Maximus, 
who  was  put  to  death  with  them,  and 
buried  with  them  by  St.  Cecilia  in  the 
cemetery  of  St.  Calixtus,  on  the  Appian 
Way. 

Almachius,  the  prefect  of  Rome,  con 
demned  her  to  death,  in  the  fear  that 
her    rank,    wealth,    and    charity    should 
promote  the  cause  of  Christianity.     To 
spare  the  ignominy  of  public  punishment, 
an  executioner  was  sent  to  her  house,  a 
common  act  of  courtesy  towards  persons 
of  high   rank  under  sentence  of  death. 
She  was  to  be  stifled  in  her  bath.     She 
suffered  a  whole  day  in  the  heat,  but  as 
it  did  not  even  injure  her,  the  man  tried 
to   behead    her.      His    hand,    however, 
trembled  so  that  when  he  had  inflicted 
three  strokes  with  his  sword,  as  the  law 
did  not  allow  a  fourth,  he  was  obliged 
to    leave    her   mortally    wounded    and 
bleeding.      She    prayed  that  she  miu'ht 
live  until  she  had  bequeathed  her  house 
and  property  to  the  Church.     She  lived 
thus  for  three  days,  receiving  visits  from 
the  faithful,  who  eagerly  collected  her 
blood  as  a  holy  relic,  while  she  conversed 
with  St.  Urban,  and  gave  him  her  final 
directions.      St.    Cecilia's    is    the   only 


168 


ST.   CECILIA 


antique  private  bath  existing  tn  Rome. 
The  bath-room  is  now  a  chapel  in  the 
church  of  Santa  Cecilia,  in  Trastevcre, 
and  here  are  still  seen  the  metal  pipes 
for  bringing  in  the  water,  a  leaden  con 
duit  for  letting  it  off,  and  the  furnace 
underneath  for  heating  the  bath  accord 
ing  to  the  method  then  in  use.  At  her 
request,  Pope  Urban,  it  is  suid,  dedicated 
the  house  as  a  church  before  her  death. 
Around  the  original  building  a  more 
stately  church  was  erected  by  Pope 
Pascal  I.,  when  the  bodies  of  SS.  Cecilia, 
Valerian,  and  Tibertius  were  found  in 
the  cemetery  now  called  by  her  name, 
and  forming  part  of  that  of  St.  Calixtus. 
The  body  of  St.  Cecilia  was  wrapped  in 
a  cloth  of  gold,  or,  according  to  some 
accounts,  a  silken  robe  embroidered  with 
gold,  and  had  linen  cloths  at  the  feet, 
dipped  in  blood.  In  the  same  year  the 
body  of  Urban  was  found  in  an  old 
church  near  the  Appian  Way,  and  was 
translated  to  the  church  of  St.  Cecilia, 
which  is  still  standing,  but  so  modern 
ized  as  to  be  deprived  of  much  of  its 
interest. 

Her  name  is  in  the  Canon  of  the  Mass, 
in  the  oldest  Martyrologies  attributed  to 
St.  Jerome,  in  the  Breviary  and  Missal 
of  the  church  of  Milan  (4th  century j, 
and  the  Sacramcntary  of  St.  Grey  or  i/. 
Her  legend  is  in  every  collection  of  Lives 
of  the  Saints.  Her  Acta  are  not  authen 
tic,  nor  is  there  any  very  old  authority 
for  the  story  that  she  was  a  musician. 

R.M.  Butler,  Lives.  Baillet,  Vies. 
Smith  and  Wace,  Diet.  Christian  J>/<></. 
Mrs.  Jameson,  Sacred  and  Legendary  Art. 
Villegas.  Leyycndario  delle  Sante  Ver- 
yini.  Bede.  Hemans,  Monuments. 

St.  Cecilia  (2),  May  :n,  M.  at  Ge- 
rona,  in  Spain.  AAJSS. 

St.  Cecilia  (8X  M.    :'><>4.    (See  Vic- 

TOKIA  OF  AVITIXA.  ) 

St.  Cecilia  (4),  June  1,  M.  with  ST. 

AUCEGA. 

St.  Cecilia  C>;,  May  8,  M.  at  Con 
stantinople  with  St.  Acacius.  (See 
AGATHA  ('!).)  AA.SS. 

St.  Cecilia  (  6),  June  2.  One  of  227 
Roman  martyrs  commemorated  together 
in  the  Martyrolooy  of  Si.  Jerome.  AA.SS. 

St.  Cecilia  (7;,  or  CKCIKIA,  July  s, 
M.  at  Sirminia,  or  Sirmia,  in  Pannonia. 


Mentioned  in  St.  Jerome's  Martyrolvgy. 
J.  B.  Seller,  in  AA.SS. 

St.  Cecilia  ( S  >,  M.  in  Sardinia. 
Patron  of  Cagliari.  Cahicr. 

St.  Cecilia  (t»)»  companion  of  ST. 
VKSTLA,  honoured  in  Spain. 

St.  Cecilia  M<>),  GKGOHKUCA. 

SS.  Cecilia  (11)  and  Benedicta 
(  l.'Ji,  Nov.  10.  Abbesses  of  Swestrens. 
Bucclinus,  from  Trithemius. 

B.  Cecilia  (12;,  Aug.  4,  o  ;  with  B. 
DIANA,  June  1<>.  O.S.D.  120 1-1 2'. HI. 
First  Dominican  nun.  ( 'ailed  the  first 
plant  of  the  Second  Order,  and  the  first 
born  of  St.  Dominic. 

When,  in  1217,  St.  Dominic  went  for 
the  second  time  to  Rome,  Honorius  III., 
desiring  that  the  Dominicans  should 
have  a  house  there,  gave  him  the  church 
of  St.  Sixtus,  and  had  a  convent  built 
adjoining  it.  At  this  time  there  were 
many  nuns  living  in  Rome,  without 
"  enclosure,"  and  almost  without  regu 
larity — some  in  small  monasteries,  and 
some  in  the  houses  of  their  families. 
Innocent  III.  (  11H8-1216)  had  made 
several  unsuccessful  attempts  to  assemble 
them  all  in  one  house,  under  a  uniform 
rule  of  seclusion.  His  successor,  Hono 
rius  III.,  instructed  St.  Dominic  to  bring 
about  this  reformation,  and,  at  his  re 
quest,  appointed  three  cardinals  to  act 
with  him.  In  order  to  remove  some  of 
the  difficulties,  St.  Dominic  offered  to 
give  up  his  new  convent  of  San  Sisto  to 
the  nuns,  and  to  build  a  new  one  for  his 
friars  at  St.  Sabiua.  The  monastery  of 
Sta.  Maria,  in  Trasteverc,  was  the  prin 
cipal  one  where  the  scandal  had  to  be 
put  down,  and  thither  went  the  great 
preacher  and  his  three  colleagues,  and 
exhorted  the  nuns  with  so  much  charity 
and  eloquence  that  first  the  abbess  and 
then  all  the  nuns  but  one,  volunteered 
to  accept  the  stricter  rule  and  obey  the 
Pope.  No  sooner,  however,  had  the 
ecclesiastics  departed,  than  the  parents 
and  friends  of  the  nuns  came  and  re 
monstrated,  and  told  them  they  were 
doing  that  in  haste  which  they  would 
repent  at  lifelong  leisure,  that  their  house 
was  so  ancient  and  honourable,  their 
conduct  so  irreproachable,  their  privi 
leges  so  important,  that  they  were  by  no 
means  bound  to  accept  new  rules,  which, 


ST.   CECILIA 


169 


they  known  before  they  took  tin- 
veil,  would  have  deterred  them  from 
monastic  life.  Hearing  all  this  from 
their  natural  advisers,  the  nuns  thought 
their  independence  too  precious  to  be 
renounced,  so  they  determined  not  to 
submit.  St.  Dominic  left  them  alone  for 
a  few  days,  during  which  he  fasted  and 
prayed  and  commended  the  cause  to  God. 
He  then  went  back  to  St.  Mary's,  said 
Mass  there,  and  afterwards  addressed  the 
nuns  with  that  wonderful  gentleness 
which  no  one  could  resist,  asking  them 
if  they  could  repent  of  an  ofter  they  had 
made  to  God,  or  refuse  to  give  them 
selves  up  to  Him  with  their  whole  heart 
and  without  reserve.  The  abbess  and 
all  the  nuns  renewed  their  former 
promise  to  him,  and  vowed  to  submit  in 
all  things  to  the  Pope's  wishes.  They 
begged  that  Dominic  himself  would  be 
their  director,  and  give  them  his  own 
rule.  He  agreed,  and  while  the  prepara 
tions  for  their  transfer  to  St.  Sixtus 
were  in  progress,  he  shut  the  gates,  and 
forbade  their  friends  and  relations  to 
come,  with  their  worldly  counsels,  to 
shake  the  pious  resolution  of  the  nuns. 

Early  in  Lent,  1218,  the  abbess  and 
Bomo  of  the  nuns — amongst  them  the 
novice  ( 'ccilia — settled  down  in  the 
convent  of  St.  Sixtus.  St.  Dominic  gave 
them  his  rule  and  his  habit.  They  were 
in  the  chapter  house,  discussing  the 
tempor.il  arrangements  of  the  community 
with  St.  Dominic  and  the  three  cardinals, 
one  of  whom  was  Stephen  of  Fossa  Nuova, 
cardinal-priest  of  the  twelve  apostles, 
when  a  man  came  running,  in  great 
distress,  to  Cardinal  Stephen,  to  tell  him 
that  his  nephew  Napoleon  had  been 
thrown  from  his  horse  and  killed  on  the 
spot.  Stephen  fell  on  Dominic's  breast, 
nimble  to  speak  or  shed  a  tear.  Dominic 
ordered  the  young  man's  body  to  be 
brought  in,  and  prepared  to  say  Mass. 
An  immense  concourse  filled  the  church. 
Dominic,  while  be  held  up  the  host,  was 
himself  raised  in  ecstasy  a  whole  cubit 
from  the  ground,  to  the  wonder  and  edi 
fication  of  all  present.  Mass  being  over, 
he  went  and  stood  by  the  dead  body, 
laid  the  injured  limbs  straight,  shed 
some  tears  over  the  young  man,  and 
then,  after  kneeling  some  time  in  prayer, 


rose  and  made  the  sign  of  the  cross  over 
the  corpse  ;  then,  raising  his  hands  to 
heaven,  and  being  at  the  same  time 
miraculously  raised  from  the  ground  and 
suspended  in  the  nir,  he  cried  aloud, 
"  Napoleon,  in  the  name  of  our  Lord 
Jesus  Christ,  I  say  unto  thee,  Arise !  " 
That  instant  the  young  man  arose, 
healed  of  his  bruises  and  perfectly  well. 
Cecilia  loved  St.  Dominic  with  great 
devotion  ;  he  regarded  her  with  fatherly 
affection,  calling  her  his  eldest  daughter. 
At  the  age  of  seventeen,  she  was  the  first 
nun  who  received  the  veil  from  his  hands. 
She  is  therefore  regarded  as  the  first 
Dominican  nun.  She  was  an  eye-witness 
of  several  of  his  great  works.  The  Nar- 
rativ '  of  B.  Cecilia  is  one  of  the  most 
important  sources  for  the  history  of  St. 
Dominic  (  Mamachi,  Annals  O.P.). 

The  Dominican  nuns  of  San  Sisto 
were  removed  by  St.  Pius  V.  to  the 
stately  monastery  of  Magnanapoli :  it 
became  a  very  favourite  convent  for 
ladies  of  the  highest  rank.  When  the 
convent  of  St.  Agneso  at  Bologna  had 
been  built  by  B.  DIANA  DEGLI  ANDALO, 
Pope  Honorius  went  himself  to  the 
convent  of  San  Sisto,  and,  having  ex 
plained  to  the  nuns  how  much  it  grieved 
him  to  send  any  of  them  out  of  Rome, 
said  that  nevertheless  he  wished  that 
four  of  them  should  go  to  Bologna  to 
instruct  the  new  community  there  in  the 
rule  of  their  blessed  founder.  He 
desired  them,  in  the  name  of  the  Holy 
Spirit  and  of  holy  obedience,  to  hold  a 
council  among  themselves  and  choose 
the  best  among  them  for  this  pious  work. 
They  obeyed,  and  chose  four  who  had 
received  the  habit  from  the  hands  of  St. 
Dominic.  Two  of  these  wore  B.  Cecilia 
and  B.  AMATA.  They  went  to  the  new 
convent  in  Bologna  in  \'2'2'.\,  two  years 
after  the  death  of  their  founder.  (  Veil  in 
did  her  duty  there  with  groat  fervour 
and  energy  for  many  years,  and  at  last 
became  infirm  and  decrepit  and  died, 
being  nearly  ninety  years  of  age. 

Michele  Pio,  Pt;-dicat<>ri.  AA.SS. 
I'.utlei,  tiv<>8  of  tin  l-',ill,,r8,  "St. 
Dominic,"  Aug.  4. 

B.    Cecilia    <i:'»   of  Gubbio.     (See 

f  il-ANAIA.  ) 

St.    Cecilia   (14)   of  Sweden,   Aug. 


170 


B.    CECILIA 


lit).  •("  l.'Ii't'.  Fourth  and 'youngest 
daughter  of  ST.  BRIG  ID  of  Sweden,  and 
sister  of  ST.  CATHERINE  of  Sweden.  Her 
life  and  that  of  her  mother  were  in 
extreme  danger  at  the  time  of  her  birth, 
but,  owing  to  the  direct  intervention  of 
the  Virgin  Mary,  both  were  preserved. 
The  Virgin  Mary  appeared  again  shortly 
afterwards  to  St.  Brigid,  and  exhorted 
her  to  show  gratitude  by  bringing  up 
her  children  piously  and  virtuously. 
Brigid  therefore  contemplated  making 
Cecilia  a  nun  in  the  convent  of  Schening, 
but  Cecilia  married  twice,  and,  as  a 
widow,  spent  her  life,  like  Tabitha,  in 
doing  good  to  the  poor.  Vastovius, 
Vitis  AquUonia. 

B.  Cecilia  ('!.">)  of  Ferrara,  Jan.  2.~>, 
O.S.D.  •(•  l.">07.  Contemporary  with 
another  Dominican,  B.  CECILIA  (  1 G )  of 
Ferrara.  This  Cecilia  was  very  young, 
and  is  said  by  her  biographer  not  to 
have  known  what  sin  was.  She  prayed 
to  have  her  purgatory  in  this  world,  and 
obtained  that  grace  through  the  inter 
cession  of  B.  BEATRICE,  one  of  her  fellow- 
nuns.  Accordingly  she  suffered  much 
from  ill  health.  She  broke  a  blood 
vessel  on  the  chest,  and  was  confined  to 
bed  for  six  months,  and  became  extremely 
thin.  During  her  illness,  she  endured 
great  temptations  of  the  devil,  though 
he  had  never  assailed  her  so  fiercely 
when  she  was  in  health.  She  prayed  to 
St.  Catherine  that  she  might  be  married 
to  Christ,  which  prayer  was  answered, 
for  after  her  death  a  ring  was  seen  on 
her  finger  by  B.  Calimeto  and  another 
holy  friar  of  Spain,  although  by  no  one 
else.  She  was  very  constant  in  the 
devotion  of  the  rosary,  and  the  B.  V. 
MAKY  showed  her  acceptance  of  this 
service  by  causing  her  hands  to  smell 
of  roses  after  her  death.  She  is  not 
canonized.  Serafino  Razzi,  Prwliriitnrt. 
Pio,  Uoinint. 

B.  Cecilia  ( 1  <> )  of  Ferrara,  March  7, 
May  4,  Dec.  !!».'  i:.ll.  O.S.D.  At 
the  beginning  of  the  K>th  century  there 
were  two  Cecilias,  in  two  convents  of 
St.  Catherine  at  Ferrara ;  they  were  both 
of  the  Order  of  St.  Dominic,  and  both 
considered  saints  in  their  own  city  and 
order.  One  convent  was  under  the 
patronage  of  ST.  CAT^ERINK  ( 1  ) ;  the 


other  of  ST.  CATIIKKIXE  ($).  To  dis 
tinguish  one  set  of  nuns  from  the  other, 
those  of  the  convent  of  St.  Catherine  (1  ) 
the  Martyr  were  called  "Le  Martiri," 
and  those  of  the  great  mediaeval  Siennese 
were  called  "  Le  Sanesi."  The  elder  of 
these  two  Blessed  Cecilias  was  born  about 
the  middle  of  the  J  .">tb  century,  and  had 
in  her  early  years  no  thought  of  becoming 
a  nun  until  a  holy  man  foretold  to  her 
that  such  was  her  destiny.  Believing 
his  words,  she  opposed  her  parents'  wish 
for  her  marriage  until  they  insisted  so 
much  that  she  had  to  give  way.  She 
married  a  good  young  man,  rich  in  virtues 
as  well  as  in  worldly  goods.  After  eight 
years  of  married  life,  in  1 4S(>,  they  parted 
by  mutual  consent.  He  became  a  monk 
in  the  convent  of  St.  Dominic,  and  she 
a  nun  in  that  of  St.  Catherine  the  Martyr. 
She  lived  there  thirty  years,  and  was 
three  times  prioress.  She  set  an  example 
of  great  virtue  and  piety  during  her  life, 
and  wrought  miracles  after  her  death. 
During  part  of  the  time  that  Cecilia  was 
one  of  the  Martiri,  the  community  was 
ruled  by  B.  ANTONIA  OF  BRESCIA,  in 
whose  Life  Cecilia  is  mentioned,  Oct.  27. 
AA.SS.,  P.B. 

St.  Ceciliana,  Feb.  l  ti,  M.  in  Africa. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Cecilus,  CELEDONIA. 

St.  Ceciria,  CECILIA  (7). 

St.  Cecra,  Oct.  1<>  (CACRA,  CEREA, 
ETERE  ).  3rd  or  4th  century.  M.  with 
27<>  others  in  Africa,  or  at  Tripoli  in 
Asia.  AA.SS. 

St.  Cectamaria,  ETHEMBRIA. 

St.  Cefronia.  FEHKOMA  is  honoured 
by  the  Ethiopians  under  this  name. 

St.  Ceinwen.  Granddaughter  of 
Brychan.  Possibly  same  as  ST.  KEYS  A. 
Some  churches  in  Anglesea  are  dedicated 
in  the  name  of  Ceinwen.  (  Sec  ALMHEDA.) 
Rees. 

St.  Celadoine,  CHELIDONIA. 

St.  Celedonia,  or  CECILUS,  May  7, 
M.  in  Africa.  AA.SS. 

St.  Celerina  (D,  Feb.  .">,  M.  at 
Carthage,  early  in  the  :>rd  century,  with 
her  son,  St.  Laureutinus,  and  his  brother- 
in-law  and  fellow-soldier,  St.  Ignatius. 
These  martyrs  are  mentioned  in  several 
of  the  epistles  of  St.  Cyprian,  bishop  of 
Carthage,  to  Celerina's  grandson,  St. 


ST.   CERCYHA 


171 


Celerinus,  deacon  ami  confessor.     There 

was  a  church  at  Carthago  early  in  tlio 

;>th  century,  whose  dedication  was  in  the 

name  of  St.  Celerina.      .11. XX.     Baillet, 

Smith  and  Waco,  Christian  R'H«J. 

St.  Celerina  <  -'  >,  Sept.   -js,  M.   in 

Africa.      -1.1.  XX. 
St.  Celesta,  April  Hi,  M.  at  Rome. 

.1.1.  NX. 

St.  Celestina  ( 1 ).  DIGS  A  ( 1). 

St.  Celestina  i  •_'  >,  April  •'>,  V.  M. 
<  Commemorated  with  eight  hundred  other 
martyrs  in  the  collegiate  church  of  St. 
Mary  at  Utrecht.  Henschenins.  AA.^  ^ 

B.  Celestina  (3),  one  of  the  nine 
sisters  of  ST.  IXAINFIIKIU:. 

B.  Celeswintha,  GALSWIXTHA. 

St.  Celine,  CII.IMA  <  I  i. 

B.  Celsa.    (8eeJhnax*Km 

St.  Cenburg,  QUENBURGA. 

St.  Cenedlon,  a  saint  on  the  moun 
tain  of  Cymorth,  probably  near  New 
castle,  in  Kmlyn.  Daughter  of  Brychan. 
S  Ai.MiiKi'A.  i  Rees. 

St.  Cenen,  KEYNA. 

St.  Centolla,  August  18,  V.  M. 
•1'robably  time  of  Diocletian.  St.  Cen 
tolla  was  put  to  the  torture  to  induce 
her  to  renounce  the  Christian  faith.  ST. 
Jh:ii:\  (  '2 )  (called  in  some  accounts  a 
widow )  came  and  stood  by,  and  com 
forted  and  encouraged  her  in  her  deter 
mination.  Centolla  answered,  "  See  that 
you  also  bo  of  good  courage,  for  you  are 
soon  to  bo  put  to  death  for  Christ's  sake." 
And  so  it  happened,  for  these  things 
lii-ing  told  to  the  governor,  ho  had  them 
both  beheaded,  lest  the  number  of  the 
Christians  should  increase.  Some  ac 
counts  say  Centolla  was  a  native  of 
T.  >ledo.  In  the  1 :5th  century  their  bodies 
were  translated  with  great  honour  into 
tin-  cathedral  of  Burgos.  KM.  vLl.s\ 
I  'ollandi. 

St.  Cephinia,  TKYPHONIA. 

St.  Cera,  Jan.  .">,  Oct.  10  (Cm-:i:\, 
<'HIKI:,  ClABA,  CYI:\  .  '_'  ,  KI\I:\  ,  V. 
Ahh.-s.  i;th  or  7th  century. 

I'ndi-r  thcso  nix  names,  and  perhaps 
inure,  and  at  dates  a  century  apart,  two 
famous  virgins  of  the  early  Irish  Church 
an-  hiiiniiin-d.  They  are  often  confounded 
'her,  and  it  may  be  that  only  one 
saint  is  commemorated,  and  that  mis 
takes  in  the  monastic  records  have  placed 


her  sometimes  in  one  century,  sometimes 
in  another.  Supposing,  with  Lanigan, 
that  there  were  two,  the  accounts  are  as 
follows : — 

I.  At  Muscraig,  in  Momonia,  a  great 
fire,  with    a    horrible  smell,   broke    out 
from  the  earth.     The  people  applied  to 
St.    Brendan    to   save    them    from    this 
plague  and  terror.     He  told  them  to  go 
to  ( 'era,  by  whoso  prayers  they  should 
be  delivered.     They  went  to  her.     She 
prayed,  and  the  fire  disappeared. 

II.  The  other  St.  Cora,  or  Cyra,  was- 
the  daughter  of  Duibhre,  or  Dubreus,  of 
the  blood  of  the  kings  of  Connor.     When 
St.  Muniia,  or  Fintan  Munnu,  had  lived 
five  years  at  Heli,  a  virgin  named  Chierr 
attended  by  live  other  virgins,  came  to 
him,  and  asked  for  a  place  where  they 
might  serve  God.     He  and  his  monk& 
gave  up  their  abode  and  the  work  of  the 
place  to  the  nuns,  and  went  away,  taking 
necessaries    for   the  journey  in  a  cart 
with  two  oxen.     He  gave  his  blessing  to 
Cera,  but  told  her  the  place  should  not 
be  called  by  her  name,  but  by  that  of  the 
man  who,  on  that  day,  made  three  jubi 
lations  in   Agro  Miodhluachrec,   /.<'.   St. 
Telle,  the  son  of  Segen.     The  place  was 
called  Tech  Tello.     Cera  died  i»7'.;.     <  >m 
of  these  SS.  Cera  founded  and  governed 
a  famous  monastery  of  nuns  at  Kilchere, 
or  Kilcren.   Colgan,  Irish  Saints.   AA.SS. 
/;/•/'/.     Xancta.      Bucelinus,    Men.    Ben. 
Lanigan. 

St.  Cercyra,  April  2'.»,  V.  M.,  c.  100, 
at  ( 1orfu.  SS.  Jason  and  Sosipater  con 
verted  many  of  the  people  of  Corfu  to 
Christianity,  and  were  therefore  cast 
into  prison,  with  seven  robbers  who  were 
among  their  converts.  The  robbers 
were  then  thrown  into  a  caldron  full  of 
burning  sulphur  and  pitch.  CKIU  M;  \. 
the  daughter  of  Cercilinus,  king  or 
governor  of  ( )orfu,  looked  secretly  out  at 
the  gate  to  see  the  torments  of  the 
Christian  martyrs.  She  was  BO  impressed 
that  she  immediately  embraced  the  same 
faith.  Her  father,  enraged,  gave  her  to 
a  savage  Kthiopian,  from  whom  she  was 
•  Irl'rmk'd  by  a  bear.  Whereupon,  the 
Kthiopian  was  converted,  and,  declaring 
himself  to  bo  a  Christian,  was  put  to  the 
sword.  St.  Curcyra  was  suspended  over 
a  lire  until  she  was  nearly  choked  with 


172 


ST.  CEREA 


smoke,  and  was  then  pierced  with  arrows 
and  crushed  with  stones.  She  is  com- 
memorated  with  St.  Saturninus,  the  chief 
of  the  seven  thieves.  Men.  of  Basil. 

St.  Cerea,  CKCKA. 

St.  Cerentia,  Aug.  in,  M.    AA.SS. 

St.  Cereta,  April  27.  f  c.  1324. 
Nun,  O.S.A.  Disciple  of  B.  CLARA  OF 

Mo.NTKFAlJ'O.       AA.SS. 

St.  Cerille,  or  CICERCULA,  honoured 
from  time  immemorial  in  a  church  of 
Berry.  Migne,  Die.  Hag.  Chatelain, 
French  Mart.  Possibly  one  of  the  SS. 


St.  Cerona  (1  ),  CORONA. 

St.  Cerona  (2),  Nov.  10,  Feb.  3. 
•f  400. 

Eepresented  in  a  nun's  dress,  holding 
ii  book  in  her  left  hand,  to  imply  that 
she  brought  the  gospel  to  the  district 
where  she  settled. 

Cerona  was  born  at  the  village  of 
Cornillan,  near  Beziers.  She  fled  with 
her  brother  Sophronius  from  the  house 
of  their  heathen  parents.  With  great 
fatigue  and  trouble  they  arrived  at 
Bordeaux,  where  they  got  the  bishop  to 
instruct  and  baptize  them,  and  in  time 
to  confer  holy  orders  on  Sophronius  and 
the  sacred  veil  on  Cerona.  They  were 
maligned  by  some  wicked  people,  who 
said  they  were  not  brother  and  sister, 
tut  concealed  an  unholy  love  under  the 
pretence  of  relationship.  So  they  decided 
to  separate.  Sophronius  went  to  Rome 
to  visit  the  tombs  of  the  Apostles,  and 
died  in  odour  of  sanctity.  Cerona  went 
northward,  and,  after  many  dangers, 
arrived  in  the  diocese  of  Seez  about  440. 
Here  she  built  a  little  cell,  in  a  solitary 
wooded  place  near  Mortagnc,  between 
the  ancient  town  of  Mont  Cacune  and 
the  hill  of  Mont  Komigny.  Some  pious 
women  gathered  round  her,  and  with  the 
•consent  of  Hile,  bishop  of  Seez,  she 
founded  for  them  the  first  monastery  in 
that  diocese.  She  built  two  chapels  or 
oratories  near,  one  of  them  on  the  spot 
where  now  stands  a  church  called  by 
her  name.  She  worked  very  assiduously 
at  the  conversion  of  the  inhabitants  to 
Christianity,  building  one  of  her  chapels 
on  a  spot  where  they  used  to  practise 
heathen  rites  as  part  of  their  funeral 
ceremonies.  In  her  old  age  she  became 


blind.  To  help  her  to  visit  her  two 
oratories  every  day,  she  had  wire 
stretched  from  one  to  the  other,  that  she 
might  guide  herself  by  taking  hold  of  it. 
Children  and  shepherds  several  times 
mischievously  broke  this  wire  ;  it  was 
as  often  miraculously  joined  again.  She 
died  Nov.  1 :,,  41»n.  P.B. 

St.  Cerose,  SICILDIS. 

St.  Cerota,  or  CKI;<>TK,  SICILDIS. 

St.  Cesarea,  May  i:>,  V.  Born  at 
Villa  Franca,  in  Calabria.  Her  father 
was  a  rich  man  named  Aloysius.  His 
beautiful  wife,  Lucretia,  on  her  death 
bed,  obtained  from  him  a  promise  that  if 
he  married  again,  he  would  choose  a 
wife  equal  to  her,  not  only  in  beauty  but 
in  piety.  None  such  could  be  found, 
except  her  daughter  Cesarea,  whom 
accordingly  Aloysius  wished  to  marry. 
Cesarea,  like  ST.  DYMPXA  of  Gheel,  fled 
from  her  home  to  avoid  so  horrible  a 
crime,  and  took  refuge  in  a  cavern  near 
the  sea,  which  could  only  be  approached 
in  calm  weather,  and  even  then  was  very 
difficult  of  access.  Here  she  lived  in 
holy  seclusion  and  performed  miraculous 
cures,  before  and  after  her  death,  by 
means  of  a  sulphurous  fountain  in  the 
cave.  AA.SS. 

St.  Cesaria  (l),  Nov.  1,  at  Rome. 
Mart.  Rcichenau. 

St.  Cesaria  (2),  March  25,  M. 
Migne. 

St.  Cesaria  (a),  Jan.  1 2,  V.  Abbess. 
•J"  c.  r>3<>.  Sister  of  St.  Cesarius,  arch 
bishop  of  Aries,  a  man  of  great  holiness 
and  charity.  Cesaria  was  born  late  in 
the  fifth  century,  and  brought  up  in  a 
nunnery  at  Marseilles,  probably  that 
founded  by  Cassian.  Cesarius  became 
archbishop  of  Aries  in  ,">ol,  and  soon 
afterwards  built  a  monastery  there,  with 
a  very  large  church,  for  his  sister  and  a 
community  of  nuns,  of  which  he  ap 
pointed  her  the  head.  He  worked  at  the 
building  with  his  own  hands.  The  house 
was  at  first  called  St.  John's,  but  after 
wards  came  to  be  called  by  the  name  of 
its  first  abbess,  St.  Cesaria.  In  r>07 
Aries  was  besieged  by  Theodoric,  king 
of  Italy.  Cesaria  and  her  nuns  fled  to 
Marseilles,  and  their  house  was  destroyed. 
When  peace  was  restored,  Cesarius  re 
built  the  convent.  The  nuns  returned, 


ST.  CHELIDONIA 


173 


and  there  Cesaria  dietl,  in  :»:!M.  Slio 
was  succeeded  by  another  Cesaria,  who 
was  living  twelve  years  afterwards,  at 
the  time  of  the  death  of  the  good  arch 
bishop.  By  his  will,  which  is  extant, 
he  left  all  his  property  to  the  nunnery. 
The  rule  which  St.  Cesarius  drew  up  for 
the  nuns  may  be  read  in  his  Life,  by  the 
Bollandists.  It  was  afterwards  changed 
in  this  monastery  for  that  of  St.  Benedict. 
Butler,  "  St.  Cesarius,"  Aug.  27.  Bariug- 
<!ould.  AA.SS.  Baillet. 

St.  Cesaria  (4),  CASARIA  (1). 

St.  Cessia,  Nov.  1,  M.  at  Terracina, 
with  seven  women  and  eight  men,  at  the 
en  1  of  tho  1st  century.  Mentioned  in 
th"  old  martyrologies.  AA.SS. 

St.  Cetamaria,  ETHEMBRIA. 

St.     Cethuberes,     or     CETHUBRIS, 

Km  KM  I-.IMA. 

St.  Cetumbria,  ETHKMBKIA. 

St.  Chaphte,OrClIAPTHE,AGATHA(l). 

SS.  Chariessa,  or  CARIESSE,  Chris 
tiana  <  1  ),  or  CHRISTINA  ( 2  i,  Basilissa 
( -i  i.  Galla,  Gallena,  Lota,  Nunechia, 
Calis,  Nice,  Tertia,  and  Theodora, 
April  lt».  :>rd  century.  These  saints 
were  taken  to  Corinth  and  made  to  walk 
to  the  seashore.  Chariessa  sang  psalms 
and  hymns  loudly  the  whole  way.  They 
were  put  on  board  ship  and,  when  thirty 
stadia  from  the  land,  a  stone  was  fastened 
t  >  the  neck  of  each,  and  they  were  all 
thrown  into  tho  water.  AA.SS. 

St.  Charis,  or  CARIS,  Jan.  2H,  M. 
Tin  TO  is  a  Greek  distich  saying  that 
wh'-n  her  feet  were  cut  otf  she  ran  to 
li»  uven,  her  soul  being  more  nimble 
when  her  body  was  lame.  Date  unknown. 
AA.S8. 

St.  Charisia,  CARIBIA  (1). 

St.  Charissima,  CARISSIMA. 

St.  Charitana,  or  CAHITAINE,  June 
12,  M.  sit  Koine. 

St.  Charitina  <  I  i,  Oct.  .">,  Jan.  15, 
M  ;it  Amisus,  in  Pontus,  about  304. 
J 'at ron  of  Venice  and  Carthagena. 

Represented  i  I  i  with  an  angel  extin 
guishing  a  funeral  pile  ;  (  2 )  with  a  pair 

of  tollgs. 

Charitina  was  servant  to  a  Christian, 
nani<:d  Claudius,  who  was  much  grieved 
when  In.-  was  ordnvd  to  deliver  her  up 
to  J)oinitius.  0DM6I  under  Diocletian; 
but  .she  comforted  him,  and  said  she 


would  offer  her  life  as  a  sacrifice  for  his 
and  her  own  sins.  He  begged  her  to 
pray  for  him  in  the  heavenly  kingdom. 
Burning  coals  were  strewn  on  her  head, 
and  after  other  tortures  she  was  thrown 
into  the  sea.  She  considered  that  would 
stand  in  the  place  of  baptism.  She  was 
not  drowned  but  came  safely  out  of  tho 
water  and  stood  before  her  persecutor, 
who  inflicted  various  tortures  ;  finally 
her  teeth  were  pulled  out  and  her  fingers 
and  toes  cut  off,  and  she  died  of  exhaustion. 

E.M.,  Get  .5.  Men.  Basil,  Jan.  15. 
.1.1. NX.  Tin-  Bollandists,  in  t  In -ir  sir-count 
of  this  saint,  say  there  is  another  ST. 
CHARITIXA,  Sept.  4.  Husenbeth,/Jm6/t'ms. 

St.  Charitina  (  2  ),  Oct.  .">.  A  mem 
ber  of  the  family  of  the  dukes  of  Poland. 
Married  Theodore,  a  Russian  prince. 
After  his  death  she  became  a  nun  in  the 
convent  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul.  Date 
uncertain.  Annual  commemoration  in 
some  places  in  the  province  of  Novgorod. 
Grseco-Slav.  Calendar.  AA.SS. 

St.  Charito,  June  1,  V.  M.  c.  167, 
Scourged  and  beheaded  at  Rome,  with 
St.  Justin  and  two  other  Christians.  A 
short  account  of  their  trial  and  execution 
is  given  in  Greek  and  Latin  by  Pape- 
broch,  from  ancient  judicial  Acts.  Tho 
narrative  differs  from  many  of  its  class 
in  that  it  contains  no  miracles,  no  theo 
logical  argument,  no  denouncing  of  the 
judge  or  officers  of  justice  by  the 
prisoners,  no  wholesale  conversion  or 
destruction  of  spectators  or  executioners. 
AAJS3. 

St.  Charity  (1>  See  FAITH,  HOPE, 
and  CHARITY. 

St.  Charity  (2),  Dec.  2:>.  Abbess  at 
Bethlehem.  Ferrarius. 

St.  Chatte,  AGATHA. 

St.  Chelidonia,  Oct.  i:J  (CELADOINE,. 
CHKI.ADOINA,  CLARIDONIA,  CLERIDONA), 
V.  Anchorite.  "f  1 1  ~>2.  One  of  tho 
patrons  of  Subiaco.  Born  of  a  good 
family  in  the  Abruzzi,  singularly  pious 
from  her  earliest  childhood,  she  lived 
nearly  sixty  years  as  a  recluse  among 
the  mountains  near  Subiaco.  After  sho 
had  begun  her  solitary  life,  she  made  a 
pilgrimage  to  Rome.  On  her  return,  sho 
took  tho  voil,in  tho  convent  of  St.  Scholas- 
tica,  at  Subiaco.  Instead  of  remaining 
there,  sho  spent  the  rest  of  her  life  iu 


174 


ST.   CHELIXDRA 


her  hermitage.  People  used  4o  send  her 
food,  and  when  they  neglected  her  she 
was  fed  by  ravens,  like  Elijah.  Many 
persons  resorted  to  her  to  be  cured  of 
•divers  diseases.  At  the  hour  of  her 
death,  a  great  light  appeared  around  the 
place,  so  that  people  thought  there  was 
ft  frightful  conflagration,  and  some  feared 
the  convent  was  on  fire.  Bucelinus  says 
she  was  born  at  Cellis,  in  Calabria  ;  ho 
calls  her  Claridonia,  abbess  of  Subiaco. 
There  is  a  fresco  of  her  in  the  monas 
tery  ;  on  the  dress  is  a  curious  inscrip 
tion,  scratched  apparently  by  a  chaplain 
of  Pope  Pius  II.  (  14:>S-14(J4),  when  he 
was  celebrating  Mass  there.  jR.Jf. 
AA.SS.  Hare,  Cities  of  Italy,  p.  43. 
Bucelinus,  Men.  Ben. 

St.  Chelindra,  or  QUELIXDRIS,  V.  M. 
Formerly  honoured  at  Utrecht.  Guerin. 

St.  Chendechildis,  THEODECHILD. 

St.  Chera,  CERA. 

St.  Cherie,  PULCHERIA. 

St.  Chiara  ('  1  ),  Italian  for  CLARA. 

St.  Chiara  (2;,  CERA. 

B.  Chiaretta.   (See  ILLUMINATA  (2).) 

St.  Chier,  CERA. 

St.  Childechinda,  CHILDECHINDIS,  or 
€HILDERADA.  "f  080.  Daughter  of 
Chilperic  I.  by  his  first  wife,  ST.  AUDO- 
VERA.  Banished  in  her  infancy,  with 
her  mother,  to  the  monastery  of  Le 
Mans,  where  she  spent  nine  years  very 
piously,  and  was  put  to  the  sword  by 
order  of  the  wicked  Queen  Fredegund. 
Her  murder  is  supposed  to  have  procured 
her  the  crown  of  martyrdom.  The  snow 
of  her  innocence,  adorned  with  the  blood 
of  her  martyrdom,  was  more  glorious 
than  the  purple  robes  of  royalty.  Buce 
linus,  Men.  Sen.  Wion,  Lignum  Vitse, 
lib.  iv.  cap.  28. 

St.  Childemara,  HILDKMAR. 

St.  Childerada,  CHILDECHINDA. 

St.  Childomerga,  HILDEMAR. 

St.  Chilsuinta,  GALSUINTHA. 

St.  Chimoia,  Feb.  .">,  M.  in  Japan. 
AA.SS. 

St.  Chinedrithae,  KYXEDKIDK. 

St.  Chinesdre,  KYXEDUIDK. 

St.ChinreachaDercain,V.  Abbess. 
Mentioned  in  Life  of  ST.  ITA.  Identified 
with  KAIRECHA,  called  also  DERCAIN. 
Erroneously  identified  with  Kuxi;i;.\. 
O'Hanlon. 


St.  Chionia,  sister  of  A<;APE  ( :j)  and 
IKKXE. 

St.  Chlodsendis,  GI.«U>MSIXD. 
Chlotichilda,  CLOTILDA  (  I  i. 
St.  Chonta,  QI-IXTA. 

St.  Choticlia,  COTII.I  \. 

St.  Chottia,  COTII.IA. 

St.  Chreme,  CARISSIMA. 

St.  Chresta,  CHRISTA. 

St.  Chrischona.  (See  CUNIGUND  (1).) 

St.  Christa  (  1  ).    (See  CALLISTA  (  1  ). ) 

St.  Christa  ( 2 ),  CHRESTA,  or  CRASTA, 
June  4.  M.  in  Cilicia,  or  Sicilia,  i.e. 
Sicily.  AA.S8. 

St.  Christeia,  CHRISTIE. 

St.  Christes,  V.  Daughter  of  ST. 
THERMANTIA  (q.v.). 

St.  Christeta,  M.  (See  SAHIXA  and 
CHRISTETA.) 

St.  Christiana  (1).  {See  CHARIESSA.) 

St  Christiana  (2),  Feb.  <;,  M. 
AAJ38* 

St.  Christiana  0*)»  Dec-  J'~»  (CHRIS 
TIANA  -  ANCILLA,  CHRISTIANA  -  ESCRAVA, 
CHRISTIANA-CAPTIVA,  etc.).  4th  century. 
A  Christian  captive  who  converted  the 
Iberians.  R.M.  Butler.  She  seems  to 
be  more  generally  called  Xixo. 

St.  Christiana  (4 ).    EM.    EUMA. 

St.  Christiana  (">),  or  CHRISCHONA. 
( Ser  (  VXKCUXD  ( 1 ).) 

B.  Christiana  ( «>.),  ORINOA. 

St.  Christiancie,  companion  of  ST. 
URSULA.  Baillet. 

St.  Christicola,  June  ii»,  V.  M. 
Companion  of  ST.  URSULA.  Her  /- /<' 
held  at  Prague  this  day.  AA.SS. 
Prfcter. 

St.  Christie,  or  CHRISTEIA,  honoured 
in  the  diocese  of  Auch.  P.B. 

St.  Christina  ( 1 ),  July  24,  V.  M. 
c.  3(»2.  Patron  of  Torcello  in  Venice, 
the  Venetian  States,  Bolsena,  Paternio, 
of  children  at  Orleans. 

Represented  (  1 )  holding  arrows  or  a 
book  and  an  arrow,— a  square  furnace  with 
flames  coming  out  of  it  stands  near  her, 
in  the  distance  a  tower  on  a  hill,  sepa 
rated  from  her  by  a  lake ;  (2 )  tied  to  a 
pillar  and  shot  with  arrows  ;  ( •'> )  a  mill 
stone  by  her  side;  (4)  with  serpents. 

Christina  was  so  called  after  her  con 
version  to  Christianity  ;  her  former  name 
is  unknown.  She  was  the  daughter  of 
Urbanus,  a  Roman  patrician,  governor 


ST.    CIIKISTIXA 


17.- 


of  the  town  of  Tyro,  which  stood  on  an 
i-lund  in  the  Lake  of  Vulsiniura,  m»w 
Bolsena.  Urbanus  shut  her  up  in  a  tower 
with  twelve  maids,  who  were  charged  to 
bring  her  back  to  the  worship  of  the 
gods.  Having  no  money,  she  broke  her 
father's  gold  and  silver  idols,  and  gave 
the  pieces  to  the  beggars.  Her  father 
therefore  ordered  her  to  be  beaten  and 
thrown  into  a  dungeon,  where  angels 
comforted  her  and  healed  her  stripes. 
She  was  next  thrown  into  the  lake  with 
n  millstone  round  her  neck.  Angels 
held  up  the  stone,  and  floated  her  safe 
to  land.  UrbanuR  had  a  fire  lighted,  and 
put  her  iu  it.  She  remained  five  days 
unharmed,  singing  praises  to  God.  He 
then  had  her  head  shaved,  and  dragged 
her  to  the  temple  of  Apollo,  intending 
to  compel  her  to  sacrifice.  As  soon  as 
she  looked  upon  the  statue  of  the  god, 
it  fell  down  before  her,  and  her  father 
fell  dead  from  wonder  and  rage.  His 
successor,  Julian,  heard  Christina  sing 
ing  in  her  prison.  He  had  her  tongue 
cut  out,  whereupon  she  sang  better 
than  ever.  Then  ho  shut  her  up  in  a 
dungeon  with  serpents,  but  they  could 
not  harm  her,  so  ho  had  her  bound  to  a 
tree  and  shot  with  arrows  ;  and  thus  she 


The  Spanish  version  of  the  story  of 
St.  Christina  contains  horrid  details  of 
her  martyrdom,  and  fierce  reproaches 
interchanged  between  her  and  her  father. 
When  Julian  had  her  tongue  cut  out, 
she  took  it  and  threw  it  in  his  face  and 
put  out  his  eye. 

It  has  been  believed  in  some  times  and 

places  that  (  'hristina  had  the  privilege 

of  restoring  one  person  to  health  each 

<lay.     Consequently  it  was  the  custom  to 

commend  a  sick  person  to  her  as  soon  as 

ihle  after  midnight,  that  her  favour 

might   not  bo  already   bespoken.      The 

Church  of  K'ome  retains  the  worship  of 

this  saint,  but  condemns    this   practice 

.1:1    i-lhr  superstition,  and  forbids  the 

;id  t..  b<-  r.-ad  in  the  churches. 

Sin  i>  said  to  have  been  only  eleven 
years  old  at  the  time  of  her  martyrdom. 
This  is  doubtlea  the  reason  she  is  con- 
sid.-re.l  one  of  the  patron  saints  of  chil- 
dn-n,  and  adopted  as  the  patron  of  the 
Congregation  of  Ste.  Chretienne  for 


I  Mucation,  founded  at  Metz  in   l>i»7  by 
IConatigneai  Jaufi'ret,  bishop  of  M»  t/. 

JR.Jf.    AA.SS.    Mrs.  Jameson.  >'<//,,,/ 
innl    L>,/<>nd(iry   Art.       Fl<>*    S'nirtnrm,,. 
Villegas,   who   quotes    Bede,    Ado.    and 
Usuaidus.      Baronius,  Annales.       V 
Jiasil.   llutler.  Baillet.   Leytjendario  <L-l'l, 
Siuttr  \',-niini.     Thiers,  Traite  den  &//.• 
siitinni,  i.  2.">S  i  1  777  ).      ( 'ahier.     Hus.-n- 
beth. 

St.  Christina  i  *l 1.    ( Set'  CHARIKSSA.  ) 

St.  Christina  ( •'» ),  May  :>n,  M.  burned 
at  Nicomedia.  with  a  great  multitude  of 
Christians.  Papebroch,  in  AA.SS. 

St.  Christina  (4),  March  i:j,  V.  M. 
in  Persia.  li.M. 

St.  Christina  (•">)  of  Brittany,  June 
17.  tlth  century.  Called  TIXAIK  KKISTNA, 
or  SANK  TE  CHKISTIKXNE  DE  BKETAGNK, 
devoted  servant  and  disciple  of  the  blind 
St.  Hervey  or  Houarne  ( June  I  7  >.  Mas 
Latrie  and  Guerin  call  her  his  sister; 
but,  according  to  Villemarque,  Letfrude 
Celtique,  she  was  still  young  when,  in 
his  extreme  old  age,  he  gave  her  his  last 
commands  and  blessing,  and  died  before 
the  altar,  in  his  own  little  church.  <  'hris 
tina  served  and  obeyed  him  to  the  last 
moment  of  his  life,  and  then  she  lay 
down  at  his  feet  and  died. 

St.  Christina  <  <'»,  July  i>:>,  i_'<;.  stb 
century.  Patron  of  Dendermond,  in 
Brabant,  where  her  relics  are  kept  in 
the  collegiate  church.  Legend  says  she 
was  the  only  child  of  Migranimus,  a 
heathen  king  of  England,  and  his  Scotch 
wife  Marona.  They  had  been  childless 
for  many  years  when  this  daughter  was 
born.  She  grew  up  good  and  beautiful. 
Her  father  built  a  temple  of  Venus  and 
placed  her  in  it,  with  seven  maids  to 
take  care  of  her.  One  day  a  pilgrim 
beggod  for  alms  in  the  name  of  Christ. 
She  asked  who  Christ  was;  this  led  to 
her  conversion  and  baptism.  The  French 
Mdrtyrology  says  she  was  taken  across 
the  sea,  by  an  angel,  to  Dickelven  on 
tin-  S<  lieldt,  to  lead  a  solitary  life;  was 
martyred  and  buried  there,  and  trans 
late!  to  Dendermond  in  the  following 
erntury.  The  Amihrtti  ,//'/•/*  /',.„/ 
iii.  p.  |s;j4,  calls  her  daughter  of  King 
Ti -i^aminus,  and  says  she  was  led  by  an 
angel  into  Scotland,  and  tbciico  to  !'•«  1- 
ginm,  where  she  could  worship  God 


170 


ST.   CHRISTINA 


better  in  a  poor  little  but  tbafl  in  marble 
halls.  AA.SS.  Brit.  Sane.  Martin. 
Guerin. 

St.  Christina  (7),  Nov.  2<>,  Sept.  7, 
Dec.  .">,  Aug.  1 1 ,  March  JJ,  V.  "f  about 
1100.  Abbess  of  liomsey.  Daughter  of 
Prince  Edward,  and  of  Agatha,  who  was 
a  nun  with  her  at  Eomsey.  Grand 
daughter  of  King  Edmund  II.  of  Eng 
land.  Sister  of  ST.  MAHGAKET,  queen  of 
Scotland.  She  educated  her  nieces  EDITH 
or  MATILDA,  queen  of  England,  and  Mary, 
countess  of  Boulogne.  She  compelled 
them  to  wear  the  dress  of  nuns,  but  they 
did  not  take  monastic  vows.  Memorial 
of  Ancient  British  Piety.  Bishop  Forbes, 
Kalendars :  Anahcta,  iii.  col.  1 8M4.  Buce- 
linus,  Men.  Ben.,  Aug.  11.  Ferrarius. 
Wion,  Lignum  Vitse.  Eckenstein. 

St.  Christina  (8),  May  18.  12th 
century.  Queen  of  Sweden.  Of  the 
Stenkil  family;  her  father  was  Biorn 
of  Denmark;  her  mother,  Catherine, 
daughter  of  St.  Ingo  IV.  and  ST.  KAGN- 
HILD,  king  and  queen  of  Sweden  (1118- 
1129).  Christina  married  first,  Jarislav 
Haraldson,  prince  of  Holmgard ;  and 
secondly,  Eric  IX.,  called  "  The  Saint," 
and  "The  Lawgiver"  (1155-1161  ac 
cording  to  Haydn  ;  1141-1151  according 
to  Butler) ;  also  called  Henry,  a  Swedish 
nobleman,  son  of  lad  ward.  He  assisted 
Ingo  to  conquer  the  Finns,  and  sent  St. 
Henry,  bishop  of  Upsala,  an  Englishman 
and  friend  of  Nicholas  Breakspear,  to 
instruct  the  people  and  convert  them  to 
Christianity.  Henry  is  therefore  called 
the  Apostle  of  Finland,  where  he  fell  a 
martyr  to  his  mission.  On  the  death  of 
King  Swerker,  or  Smercher,  Eric  was 
chosen  king  on  account  of  his  virtues 
and  prowess.  Eric  was  content  with  his 
own  property;  he  levied  no  taxes,  and 
would  not  even  accept  the  third  of  the 
confiscations,  which  belonged  to  the  kings. 
He  collected  the  laws  into  a  code  for  his 
people,  and  won  their  lasting  affection 
by  his  wise  and  upright  rule.  His 
cousin,  Henry  Scateler,  son  of  Sueno, 
king  of  the  Danes,  claimed  to  be  heir  to 
the  throne  of  Sweden  through  his  mother, 
and  having  raised  troops  and  bribed  some 
influential  persons  among  the  Swedes, 
devised  the  death  of  the  unsuspecting 
saint.  While  Eric  was  hearing  Mass  on 


Ascension  Day,  his  attendants  came  an<3 
told  him  that  the  hostile  army  was 
near,  but  he  would  not  go  out  to  battle 
until  the  Mass  was  ended.  Then  he 
went  bravely  against  the  enemy,  and  was 
killed  or  taken  alive,  fighting,  and  be 
headed  next  day.  On  the  spot  where  ho 
fell,  a  spring  of  water  arose,  which  works 
marvellous  cures.  He  is  regarded  as  a 
martyr  of  justice  and  order.  He  was 
the  chief  patron  saint  of  Sweden  until 
the  Reformation,  and  is  still  remembered 
with  affection.  His  tomb  is  preserved 
undefaced,  and  King  Eric's  code  is  re 
garded  with  respect.  Christina  survived 
many  years  in  great  sanctity.  She  left 
two  sons  and  two  daughters,  of  whom 
Knut  was  afterwards  king  of  Sweden, 
and  Margaret  was  queen  of  Norway. 
Vastovius,  Vitis  Aquilonia.  Butler  and 
Baillet  each  give  the  Life  of  St.  Eric, 
but  do  not  call  Christina,  or  her  parents 
or  grandparents,  saints.  Her  worship  is 
probably  local ;  it  is  mentioned  in  Ana- 
lecta  Juris  Pontificii,  iii.  1884.  Benzel- 
stierna's  History  of  Sweden,  by  Olof 
Dalin,  ii.  p.  127,  Dahnert's  German  ver 
sion.  Vita  S.  Erici,  in  Fant  and  Anner- 
stedt,  Script.  Her.  Suecicarum. 

St.  Christina  d»),  July  24,  "the 
Wonderful."  f  c.  1224,  V.  Sometimes 
represented  in  a  font.  She  was  the 
youngest  of  three  sisters  living  at  St. 
Trudonopolis  (St.  Tron),  in  Brabant, 
On  the  death  of  their  pious  parents  the 
three  divided  their  labours  thus:  the 
eldest  was  to  pray,  the  second  to  keep 
the  house,  and  the  third  to  keep  the 
sheep.  Soon  Christina,  the  shepherdess, 
fell  ill  and  died.  Next  day  she  was 
carried  to  the  church  amid  the  lamenta 
tions  of  her  sisters  and  the  sympathy 
of  their  friends.  While  the  Mass  was 
being  said  for  her  repose,  she  sat  up  on 
the  bier,  and  then  went  like  a  bird  on 
to  the  rafters  of  the  church.  All  fled 
in  terror  except  her  eldest  sister.  At 
the  end  of  the  Mass,  Christina  was  com 
pelled  by  the  priest  to  come  down.  She 
returned  home  with  her  sisters,  and  was 
refreshed  with  food.  She  told  her 
friends  that  immediately  after  her  death 
she  was  taken  by  angels  to  purgatory, 
where  she  saw  souls,  many  of  which 
were  those  of  persons  she  knew,  suffering 


ST.    ClimsTINA 


177 


such  dreadful  pains  that  she  thought 
tin's  must  be  hell.  She  was  then  shown 
hell,  where  also  she  recognized  some  of 
her  friends.  Afterwards  she  was  taken 
to  paradise,  where  God  welcomed  and 
oongntelftfted  her  on  her  arrival,  and 
bade  her  choose  whether  she  would 
remain  with  Him  in  heaven  for  ever, 
or  return  to  earth  for  some  years  and 
suffer,  that  her  sufferings  might  avail  to 
release  all  the  souls  she  had  seen  and 
pitied  in  purgatory,  and  also,  by  a  life 
of  penanco,  convert  many  persons  still 
living  in  the  world.  She  chose,  with 
out  hesitation,  to  go  back  and  suffer. 
She  added  that  her  friends  must  not  bo 
astonished  at  the  wonderful  things  that 
would  happen  to  her,  as  they  were 
ordained  by  God. 

From  this  time  Christina  fled  from 
the  presence  of  her  fellow-creatures  with 
horror,  and  abode  in  desert  places,  in 
trees,  or  on  the  tops  of  towers  or  churches. 
People  thought  her  possessed  of  devils, 
and  caught  and  bound  her  repeatedly, 
Imt  in  vain  ;  she  always  escaped  again. 
When  she  was  suffering  from  hunger 
she  would  on  no  account  return  home, 
but  prayed  God  to  mitigate  her  suffer 
ings.  In  answer  to  her  prayer  she  was 
enabled  to  live  on  milk  from  her  own 
breast  for  nine  weeks.  She  used  to  go 
into  hot  ovens,  and  scream  as  if  in  tor 
ments,  but  always  came  out  uninjured. 
She  threw  herself  into  boilers  full  of 
boiling  water,  and  while  remaining 
there  some  time  she  screamed  and 
groaned,  but  no  trace  of  scalding  or 
burning  was  visible  on  her  body  after 
wards.  She  held  her  hand  in  the  fire, 
spent  days  in  icy  water,  she  was  bitten 
by  dogs,  went  round  in  a  mill-wheel, 
hung  herself  on  a  gibbet  under  the 
corpses  of  robbers,  and  spent  some  time 
in  graves.  Once  in  an  ecstasy  she  span 
round  like  a  wheel,  uttering  an  inarticu 
late  song.  She  ran  so  fast  that  a  man, 
who  was  employed  to  catch  her,  had  a 
v«-ry  long  run,  and  at  last  knocked  her 
down  witlt  a  blow  of  a  stick,  which 
broke  her  shin.  Sometimes  she  wonld 
roll  herself  up  in  a  ball  like  a  hedgehog. 
When  her  clothes  were  worn  out  she 
begged  others  of  any  one  she  met;  if 
her  gown  wanted  a  sleeve,  she  begged 


a  sleeve,  and  did  not  mind  if  it  was  of 
another  colour.  If  she  received  bread 
bought  with  unjust  gains  it  caused  her 
the  most  agonizing  pain.  If  any  on. 
in  the  town  died  whom  she  believed  to 
be  damned,  she  screamed  and  howled, 
and  twisted  her  arms  and  hands  as  if 
there  were  no  bones  in  them.  People 
thought  there  was  something  demoniacal 
in  her  wish  for  death,  and  her  horror 
of  her  fellow-creatures.  Her  sisters  had 
her  chained  to  a  pillar,  believing  her 
to  be  mad  or  possessed  of  devils.  When 
she  had  broken  loose  repeatedly,  and  was 
tied  tighter,  and  had  sores  from  the 
tightness  of  her  chains,  oil  that  flowed 
from  her  breasts  made  a  healing  oint 
ment  for  her  wounds,  and  also  served 
her  for  food.  Then  her  sisters  wept, 
and  thought  only  the  special  inter 
ference  of  God  could  have  wrought  this 
miracle.  They  prayed,  and  so  did  many 
persons  who  came  to  see  the  miracle, 
that  Christina  might  bo  able  to  live 
amongst  other  people.  Their  prayers 
were  heard.  Soon  after,  she  went  into 
a  church,  and,  finding  the  baptismal  font 
open,  she  immersed  herself  entirely  in 
it;  after  this  she  was  better  able  to 
endure  the  presence  and  the  smell  of 
human  beings. 

One  day,  being  providentially  con 
ducted  by  extreme  thirst  to  the  table  of 
a  very  wicked  man,  who  was  sitting  at  a 
sumptuous  banquet,  she  asked  for  some 
thing  to  drink.  The  sinner  was  moved 
with  a  feeling  of  unwonted  pity  and 
charity,  and  entreated  her  to  drink  some 
wine.  She  then  foretold,  much  to  the 
surprise  of  all  who  knew  the  man,  that 
ho  would  die  penitent  and  pardoned. 
She  had  a  kind  of  second  sight,  by  which 
she  saw  battles  and  deaths  that  wn-e 
happening  at  a  great  distance,  and  con  Id 
discern  good  people  from  bad.  She 
foretold  the  fall  of  a  nun  of  the  convent 
in  her  native  town,  also  the  taking  of 
Jerusalem  by  Saladin. 

Alter  a  time  she  left  her  own  people 
and  joined  a  recluse,  named  Ivetta, 
Vetta,  or  Juera,  at  Los,  or  Loen,  on  tho 
borders  of  Germany.  There  she  fre 
quented  the  church,  singing  like  ;m 
tingel  at  night,  when  all  the  other  people 
bud  gone  away.  She  knew  if  the  clergy 


178 


B.   CHRISTINA 


of  that  church  had  any  secretrfault,  and 
she  used  to  reprove  them  with  respect 
ful  childlike  affection.  Louis,  count  of 
Los,  had  a  great  reverence  for  her,  and 
called  her  "  mother."  When  he  was  guilty 
of  any  injustice  she  afflicted  herself  about 
it  as  if  ho  were  her  own  son,  went  to 
his  palace,  remonstrated  with  him,  and 
obtained  a  reversal  of  his  unjust  decree. 
When  he  was  dying  ho  sent  for  her, 
confessed  to  her  all  his  sins  from  the 
time  he  was  eleven  years  old,  and  en 
treated  her  to  pray  for  him;  he  then 
disposed  of  his  worldly  goods  according 
to  her  advice.  He  died,  and  she  saw 
his  soul  taken  to  purgatory  and  horribly 
tormented.  His  spirit  returned  to  en 
treat  her  help,  and  she  promised  to  take 
some  of  his  suffering  for  him.  She 
visited  the  places  where  he  used  to  sin, 
and  those  where  he  amused  himself  with 
the  vanities  of  the  world,  and  wept 
bitterly  for  him. 

Towards  the  end  of  her  life  she  again 
took  to  living  in  desert  places,  only 
coming  at  rare  intervals  among  her 
fellow-creatures  to  get  food.  No  one 
dared  to  ask  her  any  questions.  At  last 
she  returned  to  St.  Tron,  and  made  the 
convent  of  St.  Catherine  her  usual  abode. 
The  venerable  Thomas,  priest  of  St. 
Tron,  watched  her  secretly  when  she 
thought  herself  alone  in  the  church. 
He  saw  her  throw  herself  like  a  bag 
of  dry  bones  before  the  altar,  and  beat 
herself,  and  heard  her  revile  her  body 
and  lament  with  tears  and  sobs  that  she 
was  joined  to  it.  After  an  interval  of 
silence  she  began  to  laugh,  and,  taking 
her  feet  in  both  her  hands,  she  kissed 
them,  and  said,  "Oh,  sweet  body,  why 
did  I  abuse  and  maltreat  you,  who  have 
suffered  so  many  torments  with  so  much 
patience  in  obedience  to  the  spirit  ? " 
Then  she  kissed  h«rself  all  over.  She 
continued  her  life  of  grief,  lamentation, 
and  privation  until  very  shortly  before 
her  death,  when  her  strength  was  ex 
hausted,  and  she  was  wasted  to  a  shadow. 
At  her  request,  Beatrice,  one  of  the  nuns 
of  St.  Catherine's,  made  a  little  bed  for 
her  in  her  room.  There  she  remained 
for  a  time,  and  then,  feeling  death 
approaching,  she  asked  for  the  sacra 
ments.  After  she  had  received  them, 


Beatrice  fell  at  her  feet,  and  begged 
that  before  she  died  she  would  reveal 
certain  things  to  her.  As  she  did  not 
reply,  1  Beatrice  thought  she  was  medi 
tating  on  something  else,  and  presently 
left  Christina  alone  in  the  room.  Be 
fore  she  returned  Christina  died.  Bea 
trice  threw  herself  on  the  body,  asketl 
Christina  why  she  had  departed  without 
taking  leave  of  the  sisters,  and  conjured 
her,  by  the  obedience  she  had  always 
shown  her  in  life,  to  return  and  answer 
her  questions.  Christina  therefore  re 
turned  to  life,  and,  after  affectionately 
reproaching  Beatrice  for  recalling  her 
from  the  realms  of  bliss,  bade  her  make 
haste  and  say  what  she  had  to  say,  that 
she  might  depart  finally  to  her  rest. 
When  Christina  had  answered  all  Bea 
trice's  questions,  the  nuns,  who  had 
meantime  gathered  round,  took  leave  of 
her,  and  consigned  her,  with  prayers 
and  blessings,  to  her  third  death.  Her 
body  was  translated  a  few  years  after 
wards,  and  miracles  were  wrought  at 
her  tomb. 

AA.SS.  Her  Life  by  Thomas  Canti- 
pratano,  O.S.D.  Preger,  Dcutsclic  Myxtik. 
Azvedo.  Vaughan. 

B.  Christina  (KM,  or  CHRISTIANA, 
Jan.  21.  -f  1 258.  Daughter  of  Bernardo 
di  Suppone,  a  nobleman  of  Assisi.  A  girl 
friend  of  ST.  CLARA  (2)  of  Assisi,  living  in 
the  same  house.  Christina  went,  in  121 :}, 
to  St.  Francis,  who  was  living  in  the 
convent  of  St.  Mary  of  the  Angels,  and 
received  from  him  the  habit  of  the 
Minors.  She  joined  Clara  at  S.  Damiano, 
outside  Assisi,  and  went  with  her,  in 
1210,  to  build,  at  the  Fontc  di  Carpello, 
a  village  near  Foligno,  a  convent  called 
Sta.  Maria  di  Caritate  (St.  Mary  of 
Charity),  or  della  Salute  (of  Salvation), 
and  after  two  years  she  returned  to  St. 
Damian's,  where  she  lived  for  forty-four 
years  with  the  saint,  and  survived  her 
five  years.  Jacobilli,  Santi  ddl'  Umbria, 
iii.  44n. 

St.  Christina  i  1 1 ),  daughter-in-law 
of  ST.  AGATHA,  grand-princess  of  Russia. 

St.  Christina  <  1 2  i,  June  22,  V.  Of 
Stumbela,  or  Stommeln,  in  the  diocese  of 
Cologne.  O.S.D.  Born  c.  1240;  t  !•"!- 
or  i:;i:>,  aged  seventy.  Daughter  of 
Heinrich  Bruso,  a  peasant.  At  ten 


B.   CHRISTINA   VISCONTF 


17!) 


years  old  Christ  appeared  to  her  in  a 
dream,  and  bade  her  belong  to  Him 
only.  She  was  so  impressed  with  the 
splendour  of  her  vision  that  she  lost  all 
bodily  feeling  for  three  days,  and  novel- 
rested  until  she  joined  the  I'.eg nines. 
At  thirteen  she  went  to  Cologne,  un 
known  to  her  parents.  When  her  mother 
found  her,  and  entreated  her  to  return 
1 101  no,  she  would  not.  The  Beguines 
advised  her  to  go,  but  she  said  she  pre 
ferred  to  sutler  hunger  and  poverty  alone 
with  ( 'hrist  rather  tban  live  in  comfort 
with  her  parents.  She  fasted  rigorously 
and  prayed  much.  After  two  years  of 
this  life,  wonderful  temptations  befell 
her.  The  devil  used  to  take  the  form  of 
St.  Bartholomew,  and  advise  her  to  kill 
herself.  For  six  months  she  suffered 
from  a  constant  desire  to  commit  suicide, 
to  which  succeeded  temptations  to  doubt 

tin  points  of  the  Catholic  faith. 
Her  doubt  of  the  presence  of  Christ  in 
the  sacrament  of  the  altar  was  removed 
by  a  miracle  in  answer  to  her  prayer,  for 
ut  the  elevation  of  the  Host  she  saw  in 
the  hands  of  the  priest  a  little  child, 
who  said  to  her,  <;  I  am  Jesus." 

Next  came  illusions.  When  she  was 
going  to  eat  she  saw  a  toad,  a  serpent, 
or  a  spider  on  the  bread  or  other  food. 
Her  disgust  at  it  was  such  that  she  could 
not  eat.  In  this  way  she  suffered 
severely  from  hunger.  A  priest,  fearing 
she  would  die  of  inanition,  advised  her 
to  put  the  food  in  her  mouth,  notwith 
standing  her  disgust.  As  soon  as  she 
did  so,  she  felt  on  her  tongue  the  cold 
body  of  a  reptile,  and  excessive  sickness 
was  the  consequence.  If  she  had  broth, 
she  fancied  it  was  full  of  worms,  and 
when  she  was  going  to  drink,  she  heard 
a  voicj  from  the  cup  saying,  "If  you 
drink  me,  you  drink  the  devil."  Her 
parents  wi  re  angry  with  her  for  leaving 
them  against  their  will.  The  Beguines 
thought  she  was  mad  and  epileptic,  and 

tantly  ridiculed  her,  thinking  she 
an'ueti-d  to  be  considered  pious.  When 
she  had  been  with  them  for  five  years, 
they  sent  her  back  to  Stommeln,  where 
she  lived  lor  many  years,  still  wearing 
the  dress  of  a  Beguinc.  She  had  bleed 
ing  from  the  nose  and  mouth,  and  other 
bodily  ailments,  and  used  to  remain 


rigid  and  apparently  insensible  for  days 
and  sometimes  weeks  together,  during 
which  she  had  visions,  sometimes  of  the 
Passion  of  Christ.  She  was  tempted  by 
the  devil  with  false  consolations,  and 
with  persuasions  to  longer  fasts  and 
severer  penances  than  it  was  possible 
for  so  fragile  a  creature  to  endure. 

Her  Life  is  one  of  the  longest  in  the 
T.ollandist  Collection,  and  is  chiefly 
taken  up  by  her  extraordinary  tempta 
tions  and  her  combats  with  devils. 

In  1261*  she  was  marked  with  the 
stigmata,  which  her  biographer,  Peter  of 
Dacia,  a  Dominican  friar  of  Cologne, 
declares  that  ho  and  other  credible  per 
sons  saw.  She  had  many  ecstasies.  By 
her  sufferings  she  released  the  soul  of 
her  mother  and  several  others  from  pur 
gatory.  Christina's  body  was  translated 
to  Nideck,  and  afterwards  to  Jiilich. 
She  is  commemorated  at  Jiilich,  in  the 
diocese  of  Cologne,  and  claimed  by  the 
Dominicans  as  a  member  of  their  order. 

Her  Life  in  the  AA.SS.,  from  con 
temporary  authors,  and  partly  dictated 
by  herself.  Her  Life,  by  Peter  von 
Dacieu,  brought  out  in  German  by  Wol- 
lersheim,  from  the  MS.  preserved  at 
Jiilich,  and  extensively  quoted  in  Preger's 
Deutsche  Nijxlil;  <hr  j////'  l<tlter. 

B.  Christina  (i:>)  Visconti,  Feb. 
14.  Of  the  Third  Order  of  Hermits  of 
St.  Augustine,  f  c.  14."):;.  Of  the  noblo 
family  of  the  Visconti  of  Milan.  To 
avoid  marrying,  she  fled  from  homo  with 
a  confidential  maid-servant.  She  assumed 
the  black  habit  of  the  Augustinians,  which 
did  not  wear  out  in  ten  years  of  very 
hard  usage.  After  living  several  years 
hidden  in  the  woods,  eating  what  they 
could  find,  they  stayed  some  time  in 
Rome,  and  visited  the  holy  places  ami 
sacred  relics  with  great  delight  and 
devotion.  They  then  went  to  Assi^i, 
where  a  great  festival  was  to  be  held, 
and  an  indulgence  granted  in  the  church 
of  the  Portiunctila.  There  the  crowd 
was  so  great  that  Christina  was  pushed 
and  crushed,  and  could  hardly  get  away, 
and  lost  her  companion.  She  sought  her 
in  vain  all  over  Assisi,  Spoleto,  Moutc- 
falro,  Rome,  and  many  other  places. 
SI ie  spent  nearly  a  year  at  Spoleto  with 
a  pious  woman,  from  whom  she  had 


180 


B.   OR   ST.   CHRISTINA 


received  hospitality  on  her  first  jfturney to 
Assisi.  Christina  helped  her  to  tend  the 
sick,  all  the  time  macerating  her  own 
body  for  penance.  She  drove  a  nail 
through  her  foot,  that  she  might  feel  the 
sufferings  of  Christ.  She  tied  her  head 
to  the  wall,  that  if  it  nodded  during 
sleep  she  might  immediately  be  awak 
ened.  She  died  of  fever,  aged  twenty- 
two.  She  was  credited  with  miracles 
both  before  and  after  her  death.  Hen- 
schenius,  AA.SS.,  says  that  a  contempo 
rary  Life  of  Christina  was  written  by 
Coriolanus.  Her  Life,  by  Cornelius 
Curtius,  1630. 

B.  or  St.  Christina  (14),  Feb.  12, 
Jan.  18.  Of  Aquila.  "f  1543.  Of  the 
Order  of  Hermits  of  St.  Augustine. 

Matthia  Licarelli  was  born  of  humble 
parents  at  Lucolo,  in  the  territory  and 
diocese  of  Aquila.  Pious  and  self-deny 
ing  from  her  earliest  years,  she  would 
not  wear  ornaments  or  have  any  trim 
ming  on  her  clothes.  She  disfigured 
herself  with  long  fasts,  and,  thinking 
herself  still  too  pretty,  she  would  not 
wash  her  face  for  months.  In  14i»6,  by 
special  direction  of  Christ,  she  took  the 
veil  in  the  convent  of  St.  Lucy,  of  the 
Order  of  the  Hermits  of  St.  Augustine, 
and  with  it  the  name  of  Christina.  She 
had  a  little  picture  of  St.  Mark,  which 
she  prized  very  much.  One  of  the  nuns 
asked  for  it.  Christina  was  very  sorry 
to  part  with  it,  but  thought  it  would  be 
wrong  to  refuse.  A  few  days  afterwards 
St.  Mark  appeared  to  a  painter  named 
Silvester,  who  was  painting  a  picture  of 
that  apostle.  He  bade  him  finish  it  with 
great  care  and  diligence,  and  give  it  to 
Christina,  and  it  was  kept  in  her  convent 
long  after  her  death,  and  called  B.  Chris 
tina's  picture.  She  was  a  very  fervent 
novice,  and  was  chosen  prioress  at  an 
unusually  early  age.  Gregory  XVI. 
approved  her  immemorial  worship.  Her 
Life,  by  Cornelius  Curtius,  Cologne, 
1636.  Torclli,  Sccoli  Auyustiniani,  viii. 
L'67.  P.B. 

B.  Christina  (i.">)  Lubomirska. 
17th  century.  A  beautiful  Polish  lady 
of  the  same  noble  family  as  B.  SOMHA 

LlTBOMIUSKA. 

In  the  family  gallery  of  the  Lubo- 
mirski  at  Jauow,  near  Warsaw,  Christina 


is  represented  ( I  )  as  a  child,  with  her 
foot  tied  to  the  leg  of  a  table  as  a  punish 
ment  or  to  keep  her  out  of  mischief; 
(  L'  i  as  a  girl,  kneeling  in  an  ecstasy 
before  an  altar  in  her  room. 

She  was  sister  of  Stanislaus  Lubomir- 
ski,  called,  on  account  of  his  learning, 
the  Polish  Solomon ;  and  of  Jerome 
Lubomirski,  who  was  a  companion  of 
King  John  Sobieski  in  his  victory  over 
the  Turks  in  168.V  She  married  Felix 
Potocki.  Christina  had  a  rare  talent  for 
music  and  great  skill  in  needlework. 
She  pricked  her  finger  with  a  golden 
needle,  and,  gathering  up  the  blood  on  a 
pen,  she  wrote  with  it  her  resolution  to 
lead  a  saintly  life.  She  founded  several 
convents,  and  was  distinguished  for 
charity  and  all  other  virtues.  Her  con 
fessor  wrote  her  Life,  and  called  her  a 
saint.  Journal  of  Countess  Krasin^Jci. 

Ven.  Christina  (\  <> ),  Jan.  31.  Born 
at  Cagliari,  JS1'2;  -f  1S30.  Queen  of 
Naples. 

Mary  Christina  Caroline  Josephine 
Gaetana  Ephisia  of  Savoy,  daughter  of 
Victor  Emmanuel  I.,  king  of  Sardinia. 
Wife  of  Ferdinand  II.,  king  of  the 
Two  Sicilies.  Mother  of  Francis  II., 
last  Bourbon  king  of  Naples.  She  had 
been  married  nearly  four  years  when  she 
died,  fifteen  days  after  the  birth  of  her 
only  child,  and  was  buried  in  the  Francis 
can  church  of  St.  Clara  in  Naples.  Very 
pious  and  amiable  all  her  life,  she  dis 
tinguished  herself  by  two  reforms  in  the 
society  over  which  she  presided.  She 
would  not  suffer  any  detraction,  swear 
ing,  improper  stories  or  conversation  at 
her  court,  nor  would  she  allow  any  lady  to 
appear  there  in  the  excessivelylow-necked 
dresses  which  were  then  too  fashionable. 

Pope  Pius  IX.,  in  18.V.>,  declared  her 
Venerable,  and  signed  the  decree  intro 
ducing  the  cause  of  her  canonization. 
In  18<)r>  the  Congregation  of  Rites  ap 
proved  the  fame  of  sanctity  attached  to 
the  virtues  and  miracles  of  this  venerable 
servant  of  God,  and  the  Pope  confirmed 
their  judgment.  The  cause  was  again 
before  the  congregation  in  1S73. 

A  short  Life  of  her  written  in  Italian 
and  translated  into  English  and  French. 
Dlario  dl  ll<»n«.  (ii«rna1e  di  JKomo, 
Civilta  Cattolica. 


ST.   CINTHIA 


181 


St.  Christschon,  CUNIGUSD  •  i;. 
St.  Chrothildis,  CLOTILDA. 
St.  Chrysai  l  i,  or  CHI^HDA,  Aug.  24, 
V.   M.   at   < 'stilt.       Also    called    AVKKA. 

AAJB& 

St.  Chrysa  (  2 ),  ZLATA. 

St.  Chrysanthiana,  Feb.  IT,  M.  at 
llonn-  with  many  others.  .  I.  !.>'>'. 

St.  Chrysida,  CHKYSA  i  I  i. 

St.  Chuchannic,  SUSANNA. 

St.  Chunegund,  CUNEGIM-. 

St.  Chunhild,  GUNTILD. 

St.  Chuniha,  CI-NEGUND  (3). 

St.  Ciara,  CKRA. 

St.  Cibba,  TIBBA. 

St.  Cicely,  CECILIA. 

St.  Cicercula,  CEUILLE. 

St.  Cilinia  <  i  »,  Oct.  21  (Cm. INK. 
CM. ISA  .  .">th  century.  Wife  of  Emilius. 
They  were  of  noble  family  among  the 
Gauls,  and  of  great  piety.  They  had 
three  sons — St.  Principus,  bishop  of 
-ons ;  another,  who  was  father  of  St. 
Loup,  bishop  of  Soissons  after  his  uncle  ; 
and,  in  their  old  age,  St.  Remi,  arch 
bishop  of  JJheims,  who,  in  41M5,  baptized 
<  'lovis,  the  first  Christian  king  of  the 
Franks.  (Sec  CLOTILDA  (1).)  R.M. 
Baillet,  Vieg.  AA.SS. 

In  the  Chronicle  of  Baldwin  of  Ninove, 
it  is  related  that  Montanus,  a  blind 
monk,  foretold  the  birth  of  Remi,  and 
when  his  prophecy  was  fulfilled,  he  re 
ceived  sight  by  having  his  eyes  washed 
with  the  milk  of  Ciliuia.  Chron.  Belycs, 
ii.  i '•!'."•. 

St.  Cilinia  <  2  ),  Oct.  21  (('KLINE,  cor 
rupted  into  1-iin.MA),  V.  Born  at  Meaux, 
about  4:;:>;  •(•  before  530.  Confided  to 
ST.  (iKNKYii.vi:  her  wish  to  lead  a  re 
ligious  life.  A  young  man  to  whom  she 
was  betrothed  would  not  release  her  from 
her  engagement.  One  day,  when  the  two 
saints  were  walking  together,  ho  pursued 
tin-in.  They  took  refuge  in  a  church. 
On  his  following  them  there,  the  doors 
of  the  baptistery  opened  at  the  prayers  of 
(M  nevirve,  and  closed  again  the  moment 
the  two  girls  had  entered,  leaving 
( 'ilium's  lover  terrified  and  converted. 
( 'ilinia  led  an  exemplary  life  in  Gene- 
vi.  vi •'-  Msterlioo.l.  .l.l.X.s'.  Lomaire, 
\'if  >!<  >'/. .  (i.  ,i<  r /'//•/ .  I'.J!. 

St.  Cillonia,  May  2>,  M.  at  Home. 
AAJ38. 


SS.Cineria  <>r  Kr.NNi:u/,or  KMKKM  >. 
V.,  Triduana,  and  Potentia  accom 
panied  St.;  Iirgulus  from  Coloese,  when 
he  took  the  relics  of  St.  Andrew  to  Scot 
land.  8th  century.  Forbes,  Knl<  //'/"/> 

St.  Cinna,  Fob.  1  (CINNE-\<>I:M.  i.«. 
Holy  Cinne,  CINNIA,  KINNA,  KINMA, 

Ul«  HELLA,  RlCHINNE,  Rl-ClNNE,  i.e.  Royijl 

(.'in ne).  ">th  century.  ST.  HINNA  ( '_'  i 
is  perhaps  the  same.  Only  daughter  of 
Helm,  or  Echadius,  king  of  Orgiel,  or  the 
land  of  Neil,  in  Ireland.  Her  father 
would  only  consent  to  her  taking  the  veil 
on  condition  that  St.  Patrick  promised 
him  eternal  life  without  compelling  him 
to  be  baptized.  St.  Patrick  promised, 
and,  about  480,  Ciuna  was  placed  under 
the  care  of  ST.  CETAMAUIA,  at  Druim- 
cluehan,  co.  Tyrone.  She  lived  there 
many  years,  and  wrought  miracles  both 
during  her  life  and  after  her  death. 

King  Echu,  being  at  the  point  of  death, 
sent  for  St.  Patrick,  and  gave  strict 
orders  that  he  should  not  bo  buried  until 
after  the  arrival  of  the  saint.  St.  Patrick 
lived  at  Sabal,  near  Down,  two  days' 
journey  from  Echu's  residence,  but  was 
miraculously  informed  of  his  death,  and 
set  out  to  visit  him  before  the  messenger 
arrived  at  Sabal.  Ho  was  distressed 
that  the  king,  to  whom  ho  had  promised 
eternal  life,  should  have  died  unbaptized, 
but  he  prayed  in  faith,  and  the  dead  man 
returned  to  life,  was  instructed  in  tho 
Christian  religion,  and  baptized.  Ho 
told  Patrick  that  ho  had  seen  the  happy 
place  prepared  for  him  in  heaven,  but 
had  not  been  allowed  to  enter  because 
he  had  not  been  christened.  Patrick 
then  asked  him  whether  he  would  remain 
longer  in  tho  world  to  which  ho  had 
been  miraculously  restored,  or  go  at 
once  to  tho  place  of  the  blessed.  Ho 
chose  the  latter,  and  died  again  in  p< 
having  received  the  Eucharist.  St.  Cinna 
is  sometimes  said  to  bo  sister  of  St. 
Patrick,  but  this  opinion  is  rejected  by 
tho  best  authorities.  Colgan,  AA.SS. 
Lanigan,  Eccl.  Hist.  Ii-<l«u<l. 

Cinnenum,  KIUIKI.LA,  or  KICHENNA. 

Mother  of  several  bishops,  priests,  and 

«1«  aeons.     Called  a  sister  of  St.  Patrick. 

DAHEHCA  (1;.;     Compare  with  ST. 

CKNNA. 

St.  Cinthia,  Feb.  s,  V.    M.  in  one 


182 


ST.   CIONIA 


of  the  early  persecutions.  Represented 
(  1  )  being  killed  with  a  sword ;  (  2  ) 
crowned  with  thorns,  and  holding  a  lily, 
— near  lier  a  cross  and  a  skull.  Guriic- 
bault.  Diet.  Icon. 

St.  Cionia  (  1  >,  July  :\  M.  at  Constan 
tinople  ;  supposed  in  the  time  of  the 
Emperor  Yalens.  AA.SS. 

St.  Cionia  ( 2  ),  CHIOMA,  etc.  (Sec 
AGAPE.) 

St.  Cipia,  perhaps  ST.  COPPA. 

St.  Ciwg,  KEW. 

St.  Clara  (1),  GEGOBEUGA. 

St.  Clara  (21  or  CHIARA,  Aug,  12,  V. 
c.  11!>2-1  "2 .">:>,  called  the  Seraphic  Mother. 
First  nun  of  the  2nd  O.S.F.,  known  as 
Clarissans.  Patron  of  the  O.S.F. ;  of 
Iglesias,  in  Sardinia ;  of  gilders,  em 
broiderers,  washerwomen,  and  ironers. 
Invoked  against  sore  eyes. 

Represented  ( 1 )  as  a  mm  holding  a 
pyx  or  a  lily  ;  (2)  on  the  rood  screen  in 
North  Elmham  Church,  with  a  chaplet 
of  flowers  in  her  hand,  and  a  crown  of 
lilies  on  her  head.  Husenbeth  mentions 
a  French  engraving,  in  which  she  ap 
pears  trampling  on  a  scimitar,  while  a 
Turk  lies  at  her  feet,  a  cross  planted  in 
his  turban.  She  is  the  symbol  of  piety ; 
ST.  CATHERINE  (\)  of  wisdom,  and  ST. 
MARY  MAGDALENE,  of  penitence. 

Clara  was  one  of  three  or  more  beau 
tiful  daughters  of  Favorino  Sciffo,  or 
Ciffi,  and  B.  ORTOLANA  his  wife,  wealthy 
citizens  of  Assisi.  She  was  at  the  most 
impressionable  age  when  the  preaching 
of  Francis  of  Assisi,  his  numerous  con 
versions,  and  his  love  of  poverty  were 
attracting  a  great  deal  of  attention  and 
beginning  to  revolutionize  religious  life. 
She  longed  to  see  and  speak  with  the 
man  who,  in  the  bad  and  frivolous  world, 
was  pointing  out  a  new  way  of  salvation. 
He  had  heard  of  her  angelic  qualities, 
and  wished  to  see  her.  She  already 
wore  a  cilicium,  and  gently  but  success 
fully  opposed  the  plans  of  her  parents 
to  settle  her  in  marriage.  The  two 
saints  met  and  consulted,  with  the  result 
that  Clara  resolved  to  be  a  nun.  On 
the  night  of  Palm  Sunday,  1212,  in  gala 
dress,  she  left  her  home,  by  a  door  that 
had  long  been  unused,  and  was  barri 
caded  with  wood  and  stone.  Accom 
panied  by  a  woman,  she  went  to  the 


Portiuncula,  where  Francis  and  his 
monks,  in  solemn  order,  met  her  with 
lighted  lamps  in  their  hands.  Francis 
gave  her  the  rough  woollen  gown  and 
rope  of  the  order,  in  token  of  the  poverty 
to  which  she  was  henceforth  dedicated, 
and  then  gave  her  into  the  charge  of  the 
Benedictine  nuns  of  St.  Paul's.  Her 
friends  and  relations  tried  to  persuade 
her  to  return.  She  answered  that  Christ 
had  called  her  to  His  service,  and  showed 
them  that  her  hair  was  cut  off,  in  proof 
of  her  determination  to  take  the  veil. 
They  then  tried  to  drag  her  away  by 
force,  but  she  held  so  fast  by  the  altar 
that  their  efforts  were  unsuccessful. 
They  regarded  the  poverty  and  lowuess 
of  a  mendicant  order  as  degradation  to  her 
and  disgrace  to  themselves.  But  Clara 
had  caught  the  spirit  of  her  teacher,  and 
shared  his  admiration  for  poverty,  and 
her  resolve  was  not  to  be  shaken. 

St.  Francis  soon  removed  her  to  an 
other  Benedictine  nunnery — St.  Angelo 
of  Pansa,  near  Assisi.  There  she  was 
joined  by  her  sister  AGNES  (17).  St. 
Francis  gave  them  a  poor  little  new 
house  close  to  the  church  of  St.  Damian, 
outside  the  walls  of  Assisi,  and  ap 
pointed  Clara  the  superior.  Soon  the 
action,  which  had  at  first  provoked 
scandal  and  universal  reprobation,  was 
regarded  as  a  holy  example,  and  the 
twro  sisters  were  joined  by  their  mother 
and  sixteen  other  ladies  of  their  kindred 
and  acquaintance,  three  of  whom  were 
of  the  great  family  of  the  Ubaldini  of 
Florence. 

Abstinence,  silence,  and  extreme 
poverty  were  the  distinctive  features 
of  the  Order  of  Poor  Clares.  When 
St.  Clara  inherited  great  wealth  from 
her  father,  she  distributed  it  all  to  hos 
pitals  and  poor  persons,  and  kept  nothing 
for  her  sisterhood,  desiring  to  live  on 
charity.  She  washed  the  feet  of  the  lay- 
sisters  when  they  returned  from  begging. 
All  the  nuns  went  barefooted,  and  slept 
on  the  bare  ground.  So  great  was  the 
sympathy  and  friendship  between  the 
brethren  of  St.  Francis  and  the  sister 
hood  of  St.  Clara,  that  Francis  warned 
his  monks  lest,  God  having  deprived 
them  of  wives,  the  devil  should  be  found 
to  have  given  them  sisters. 


ST,   CLARA 


IV, 


'  St.  Francis  often  visited  ( 'lara.  teach 
ing  and  advising  her,  while  ho  lived  at 
the  Portiuncula,  and  she  and  her  nuns 
at  St.  Damian's.  Sim  often  entreated 
him  to  dine  with  her.  He  always  re 
fused,  until  his  disciples  remonstrated, 
representing  to  him  that  Clara  had  re 
nounced  the  world  through  his  preach 
ing,  and  was,  therefore,  his  spiritual 
daughter,  and  that  he  ought  to  do  this 
little  kindness  to  one  BO  holy  and  so 
evidently  beloved  of  (iod.  Francis 
therefore  confuted  to  invite  Clara  to 
dine  with  him.  He  thought  she  would 
like  to  see  »g:iin  the  church  of  St.  Mary 
of  the  Angels,  where  she  had  made  her 
monastic  vows,  so  ho  ordered  a,  feast  to 
be  prepared  there.  On  the  appointed 
day  scjme  of  the  brothers  went  to  St. 
1 ) . Lillian's  to  fetch  (Mara  and  one  of  her 
companions: "Before  dinner  they  looked 
at  the  church.  The  table  was  spread 
on  the  ground,  according  to  St.  Francis' 
custom.  Clara  sat  beside  him,  and  her 
friend  sat  beside  one  of  the  brethren, 
i  Francis  began  to  speak  of  God  so 
well  and  so  sweetly  that  they  forgot  the 
things  of  the  earth.  The  people  of 
Assisi  and  the  surrounding  villages  saw 
that  the  church  and  the  wood,  which 
then  came  close  up  to  it,  were  wrapped 
in  flames,  but  when  they  came  to  the 
place  they  found  nothing  burning  and 
nothing  injured.  They  went  into  the 
church,  and  saw  Francis  and  Clara  and 
their  companions  sitting  round  their 
humble  table.  Then  they  understood 
that  the  fire  was  the  love  of  God  burn 
ing  in  the  hearts  of  His  saints.  Clara 
returned  to  her  nuns,  to  their  great 
comfort ;  for  they  had  begun  to  fear  that 
Francis  might  have  sent  her  to  preside 
over  some  other  convent,  as  ho  had 
already  sent  her  sister  Agnes  to  Monti- 
<-elli,in  Florence;  they  remembered  that 
ho  had  once  bidden  Clara  prepare  her 
self,  lest  he  should  want  her  elsewhere, 
and  she  had  said  she  was  ready  to  go 
wherever  he  might  wish.  Clara  was 
twenty-seven  at  this  time,  ami  Francis 
about  ten  y.-ars  ol.I'-r. 

When  Francis  die<l.  ho  was  carried 
from  the  I'ortiuncula  to  the  cathedral. 
The  multitude — who  gloried  in  having 
their  fellow-citi/.en  honoured  as  a,  saint. 


and  his  holy  relics  buried  amongst  them 
—were  more  glad  to  possess  the  body  of 
a  saint  than  sorry  that  his  gentle  spirit 
had  departed.  When  the  procession 
camo  to  the  church  of  St.  Damian's,  the 
bier  was  set  down  in  the  chancel,  that 
Clara  and  her  companions  might  once 
more  look  upon  the  face  of  their  Father 
Francis.  Clara  kissed  his  hands,  saying, 
"  Father,  father,  what  will  become  of  us 
now?  Who  will  comfort  us?"  The 
nun  who  owed  her  conversion  to  him, 
and  who  had  sympathized  in  his  troubles, 
could  not  join  in  the  exultation  of  the 
people. 

Clara's  austerity  destroyed  her  health 
and  deprived  her  of  the  use  of  her  limbs. 
She  ruled  her  convent  forty-two  years, 
during  twenty-eight  of  which  she  was 
paralyzed,  and  used  to  sit  and  spin  flax 
of  wonderful  fineness.  She  died  Aug. 
11,  IL'.V'.. 

Her  wisdom  and  piety  were  widely 
known.  Among  the  miracles  recorded 
of  her,  it  is  told  that  once  when  she  had 
only  one  loaf,  she  gave  half  of  it  to  the 
friars,  and,  on  her  blessing  and  dividing 
the  remainder,  it  was  found  to  be  enough 
to  feed  her  whole  community.  Her 
convent  was  once  attacked  by  a  baud  of 
Saracens,  who  formed  part  of  the  army 
of  the  Emperor  Frederick.  The  nuns 
came  in  terror  to  their  .Mother,  who  was 
now  old,  and  had  not  walked  or  stood 
up  for  years.  She  instantly  rose  up, 
took  the  pyx  from  tho  altar,  placed  it 
on  the  threshold,  and,  kneeling  before  it, 
sang  with  a  loud  voice  tho  psalm, "  Thou 
hast  rebuked  the  heathen."  The  terrified 
Moors  throw  down  their  arms  and  fled. 

Innocent  IV.  visited  her  immediately 
before  her  death,  and  finding  she  had 
already  received  tho  last  sacraments, 
gave  her  tho  apostolic  benediction  and 
plenary  absolution,  lie  and  all  his  court 
attended  her  funeral  service,  contrary  to 
tho  custom  of  Popes.  Tho  Franciscan 
monks  wore  beginning  to  sing  tho  usual 
Mass  for  tho  dead,  but  tho  Tope  stopped 
them,  and  suggested  that  the  Mass  of  a 
sainted  virgin  would  be  more  appropriate. 
Tho  Cardinal-bishop  oi  (  >stiu  represented 
that  it  would  bo  ^irregular,  and  a  bad 
precedent  thus  to  canonize  her  immedi 
ately  after  her  death.  He  preached  her 


184 


B.   CLARA 


funeral  oration,  and  when  he  succeeded 
to  the  pontificate  as  Alexander  IV.,  he 
canonized  her  in  due  form  two  years 
after  her  death. 

She  was  first  buried  at  St.  Damian's, 
but  in  1  20i »  was  translated  to  St.  George's, 
within  the  walls  of  Assisi,  where  the 
Pope  had  built  a  new  convent  for  her 
nuns.  In  120.")  a  new  church  was  built 
there ;  her  body  lies  under  the  high 
altar,  which  was  consecrated  in  her  name 
by  Clement  V. 

She  is  regarded  as  the  founder  of  more 
than  twelve  monasteries  of  her  order  in 
Italy,  and  of  many  built  during  her  life 
in  Germany  and  other  countries.  Many 
princesses  became  Poor  Clares.  ST. 
AGNES,  daughter  of  the  King  of  Bohemia, 
consulted  her  about  a  nunnery  of  the 
order,  which  she  built  at  Prague,  and 
where  she  took  the  veil. 

For  extracts  from  Clara's  letters,  see 
AGNES  OF  BOHEMIA. 

Branches  of  her  order  are  The  Urban- 
ists,  or  Mitigated  Clares,  so  called  in 
distinction  from  the  Poor  Clares,  Capu- 
chinesses,  Annunciades,  Conceptionists, 
Cordeliers,  or  grey  sisters,  Recollects, 
and  the  austere  reformation  in  Paris 
called  the  Ave  Maria. 

There  are  eighty-five  canonized  saints 
of  the  three  orders  of  Franciscans, 
besides  St.  Francis  himself;  of  these, 
five  are  Clarisses — St.  Clara,  St.  Agnes 
of  Assisi,  St.  Catherine  of  Bologna,  St. 
Colette,  St.  Veronica. 

The  commemoration  of  all  saints  of 
the  Order  of  St.  Francis  is  on  the  2(,»th 
of  November. 

R.N.  Butler,  Lives.  Baillet,  Vies. 
Mrs.  Jameson,  Sacred  and  Legendary 
Art,  and  Let/ends  of  the  Monastic  Orders. 
Montalembert,  Moincs  d1 Occident.  Vil- 
legas.  Vogt,  Franciskus.  Magliano, 
Franciscan  Order.  Wadding,  Annales. 
Adam  King.  Mrs.  Oliphant,  Francis  of 
Assisi.  Little  Flowers  of  St.  Francis, 
edited  by  Cardinal  Manning. 

The  family  of  the  Counts  of  Fiumi  of 
Assisi  still  exist,  and  are  proud  of  their 
relationship  to  St.  Clara. 

B.  Clara  (3)  Ubaldini,  Feb.  27, 
called  in  the  world  MADONNA  AVVEG- 
NENTE.  j-  1 204.  Abbess  of  Monticelli. 
Daughter  of  Azzo  degli  Ubaldini.  This 


ancient  and  literary  family  were  lords 
of  the  greater  part  of  the  province  of 
Mugello,  and  gave  twelve  Saints,  Blesseds, 
and  Venerables  to  the  Church.  Clam 
married  the  Count  Gallura  dei  Visconti, 
of  Pisa,  brother  of  Ubaldo,  the  archbishop 
who  founded  the  Campo  Santo  at  Pisa, 
in  12(  H>.  She  had  several  children,  one 
was  Nino,  mentioned  by  Dante.  On  the 
death  of  her  husband,  she  left  her  children 
to  some  relations,  who  promised  to  take 
care  of  them.  She  took  the  veil  at 
Florence,  in  the  convent  of  Sta.  Maria 
di  Monticelli,  then  ruled  by  ST.  A<;xi:s 
SCIKFO.  Clara  had  given  the  land  on 
which  this  convent  was  built,  in  121(.», 
in  the  village  of  St.  Vito.  Many  noble 
ladies,  following  her  example,  retired 
from  the  world,"  among  the  rest  her  two 
nieces,  BB.  JANE  and  LUCY  UBALDINI. 
Avvegnente  took  the  name  of  Clara,  and 
succeeded  Agnes  as  abbess  when,  in 
12f)o,  she  was  recalled  to  Assisi  to  help 
her  sister  CLARA  (2),  who  was  ill.  St. 
Francis  spent  a  whole  Lent  in  a  cell  not 
far  from  this  convent,  and  left  his  old 
gown  to  the  nuns,  as  they  made  him  a 
new  one.  St.  Clara  (2)  left  them  her 
veil  at  her  death.  Both  were  kept  with 
great  veneration. 

The  country  was  in  a  state  of  war, 
and  the  sisters  found  themselves  too  far 
from  town  to  get  alms  or  protection,  so- 
it  was  resolved  to  build  them  a  better 
house  nearer  the  city.  It  was  built  near 
Porta  Romana  alle  Fonti.  Fifty  nuns 
were  taken  there  in  procession,  with  the 
mantle  of  St.  Francis,  the  veil  of  St. 
Clara,  and  the  stole  in  which  St.  Francis, 
as  deacon,  had  read  the  Gospel.  Bells 
rang  of  themselves,  and  continued  ring 
ing,  until  the  bones  of  the  nuns  from  the- 
old  cemetery  had  been  deposited  in  the 
new  one.  One  day  there  were  no  pro 
visions.  The  cellarer  came  in  distress 
to  Clara,  and  by  her  advice  knelt  before 
the  cross  and  said,  "Lord,  for  love  of 
you  I  took  these  keys,  having  denied  my 
own  will  to  follow  yours,  trusting  that 
you  would  always  give  me  what  was 
necessary.  Now  I  have  nothing.  .  .  » 
Do  you  provide  for  us."  While  she  was 
yet  speaking,  a  knock  was  heard  at  the 
door,  and  twenty-five  pounds  of  silver 
were  presented  by  an  unknown  person, 


ST.   CLARA 


185 


immediately  disappeared.  Clara 
was  abbess  for  about  ten  years,  and  died 
Feb.  L'7.  1L'»>4.  Brocchi,  Santi  e  Bwiti 
I-'"i-' nt in /.  Razzi,  Etruscan  Saint*.  She 
is  mentioned  in  all  the  accounts  of  the 
rise  of  the  Order  of  St.  Francis,  and  in 
the  Life  of  St.  Clara  of  Assisi.  Hen- 
schenius,  AA.SS.  Boll.,  Pru-tn-..  writing 
in  the  17th  century,  did  not  consider  her 
worship  authorized. 

St.  Clara  <4),  Aug.  IS,  V.,  called 
Si.  CLARA  op  THE  CROSS,  and  OF  Axiui. 
U7.*)-i:i08.  Abbess  and  patron  of 
Montofalco.  Of  the  Order  of  Hermits 
of  St.  Augustine. 

I  i'i -presented  (1)  holding  a  pair  of 
scales,  and  a  heart  pierced  with  three 
wounds  or  cut  open  and  showing  the 
instruments  of  the  Passion  of  our 
Saviour  J  (2)  with  a  lily  in  one  hand, 
and  three  balls  or  coins  on  the  palm  of 
the  other, — sometimes  the  balls  arc  on 
the  scales,  two  on  one,  and  one  on  the 
other. 

She  was  born  at  Monte  Falco,  a  little 
town  about  ten  miles  north  of  Spoleto. 
Her  father's  name  was  Damian,  her 
mother's  Jacquelina.  She  had  an  elder 
sister  Jane,  who,  though  scarcely  more 
than  a  child,  was  leading  the  life  of  a 
nun  at  a  place  called  St.  Leonardo,  with 
a  company  of  young  girls  whom  she  had 
leathered  around  her,  spending  all  their 
time  in  devotional  practices,  though  not 
attached  to  any  order.  From  her  earliest 
childhood  Clara  was  religions  and  self- 
denying,  and  longed  to  join  her  sister's 
little  community.  At  six  she  was  allowed 
to  do  so,  and  prepared  herself  for  the 
privilege  by  excessive  austerities.  At 
9t  Leonard's  she  fasted  rigorously,  slept 
on  a  plauk  on  the  ground,  wore  a  hair 
shirt  and  the  roughest  and  coarsest 
clothes,  and  used  a  scourge.  Her  sister 
gave  her  a  small  oratory,  and  there  she 
had  several  visions.  This  community 
of  devout  children  grew  until  its  first 
habitation  was  too  small.  The  girls  on. 
day  saw  a  cross  of  li^'ht  shining  over  St. 
Catherine's,  a  neighbouring  hill,  and  a 
procession  of  nuns  passing  over  the 
summit.  They  therefore  built  a  humble 
monastery  on  the  spot,  which  they  c<>n- 
:«•<!  was  pointed  out  to  them  by  the 
linger  of  God.  They  were  in  the  diocese 


of  Spoleto,  and  they  requested  the  bishop 
to  Ljive  them  a  rule  ;  he  gave  them  that 
of  St.  Augustine.  As  they  had  spent  all 
their  money  in  building,  they  were 
obliged  to  live  by  begging.  Clara 
volunteered  to  be  one  of  the  mendicants, 
notwithstanding  her  extreme  repugnance 
to  the  task.  She  never  would  pass  the 
threshold  of  a  house  where  she  begged, 
but  stood  outside  the  door,  whatever  the 
weather  might  be.  This  was  partly  lest 
she  should  be  tempted  to  break  the  rule 
of  silence.  The  sisters,  finding  her  worn 
out  with  the  fatigue  of  her  expeditions, 
changed  her  duties,  and  kept  her  in  the 
house.  She  sought  the  hardest  and 
lowest  work,  she  helped  any  overworked 
sister.  She  became  more  and  moro 
detached  from  the  world.  She  imposed 
severe  penances  on  herself  for  every  sin 
into  which  she  fell ;  for  instance,  having 
spoken  without  sufficient  necessity,  sho 
punished  herself  by  standing  barefooted 
in  ice-cold  water  while  she  repeated  the 
Lord's  Prayer  a  hundred  times.  Jane 
fell  ill,  and  was  restored  to  health  for  a 
while  by  the  prayers  of  Clara.  Eight 
years  after  the  building  of  the  monastery 
on  St.  Catherine's  Hill,  Jane,  who  had 
been  its  superior  all  that  time,  died. 
Clara  saw  in  a  vision  that  her  sister  had 
entered  into  eternal  life.  Clara  was 
chosen  abbess  in  her  sister's  place.  Sho 
abated  nothing  of  her  self-mortification, 
nor  of  her  dislike  and  avoidance  of  the 
parlour,  though  this  was  very  grievous 
to  the  ladies  of  tho  neighbourhood,  who 
loved  to  come  and  gossip  to  the  nuns. 
I  hit  sho  provided  well  for  the  bodily 
needs  of  her  nuns,  lest  their  spiritual 
life  should  suffer  from  earthly  cares  and 
the  fear  of  too  great  privation.  Once 
when  that  part  of  Umbria  was  suffering 
from  famine,  angels  in  visible  forms 
brought  baskets  of  bread  to  tho  sister 
hood,  and  this  supply  lasted  until  tho 
famine  was  over.  Her  charity  to  tho 
poor  and  tho  sick  was  unbounded,  and 
for  love  of  tho  faithful  departed  not  yet 
resting  in  peace,  sho  had  tho  OUice  of 
the  Dead  recited  daily  in  the  choir.  Her 
devotion  to  the  Passion  of  our  Lord  was 
the  ruling  motive  of  her  life.  It  was 
always  in  her  thoughts  and  in  her  in 
structions  to  her  nuns.  She  prayed  that 


186 


ST.   CLARA 


she  might  see  in  spirit  all  tha't  He  had 
suffered  on  Calvary  and  on  the  road  to 
Calvary.  Her  wish  to  realize  what  lie 
had  undergone  was  fulfilled.  She  felt 
the  thorns  piercing  her  head  with 
agonizing  sharpness,  the  taste  of  vinegar 
and  gall  was  in  her  mouth,  she  felt  the 
nails  tearing  through  her  hands  and 
feet,  the  pain  and  weariness  of  the 
scourging,  the  shame  of  nakedness,  the 
shrinking  from  death.  All  these  she 
realized,  so  that  more  than  any  other 
saint  she  bore  about  in  her  body  the 
marks  of  the  death  of  Jesus  Christ. 

Once  a  nun  interrupted  Clara's  exhor 
tation  by  saying,  "  You  promised  that  if 
we  would  meditate  diligently  on  the 
Passion,  we  should  have  the  comfort  of 
realizing  the  sufferings  of  our  Lord  ;  but 
I  have  never  experienced  anything  of 
the  sort."  Upon  this,  Clara  had  a  mo 
mentary  feeling  either  of  vanity  or 
impatience.  She  did  not  consent  to  the 
temptation,  but  she  did  not  repel  it  so 
instantly  and  entirely  as  one  so  favoured 
ought  to  have  done.  That  moment  her 
Lord  withdrew  from  her  the  grace  she 
had  for  a  moment  abused.  An  appalling 
spiritual  desolation  took  possession  of 
her  soul;  she  was  beset  by  scruples, 
weariness,  suggestions  of  the  devil,  blas 
phemous  or  unclean.  In  vain  she  re 
doubled  her  austerities.  In  vain  she 
begged  the  prayers  of  pious  souls.  God 
seemed  to  have  forsaken  her.  She  took 
no  delight  in  prayer,  she  had  no  visions, 
she  had  no  certainty  that  she  was  not  a 
lost  soul.  This  went  on  for  eleven 
years,  and  then  her  punishment  was  over, 
and  there  was  a  great  calm  in  her  soul. 
Visions  and  revelations  were  granted  to 
her ;  she  wrought  miracles ;  she  pro 
phesied  events  which  afterwards  occurred. 
She  lived  for  months  entirely  without 
food.  She  again  had  those  ecstasies 
which  had  ceased  for  so  many  years. 
One  of  them  lasted  for  twenty-seven 
days.  Sick  and  even  dead  persons  were 
brought  to  be  restored  by  her  prayers. 
Such  was  the  fame  of  her  sanctity,  her 
miracles,  and  the  wonders  she  saw  in 
heavenly  visions,  that  numbers  of  persons 
came  from  all  parts  of  the  country  to 
see  her.  Christ  told  her  He  would  plant 
His  cross  in  her  heart,  and  she  told  her 


nuns  they  would  find  the  cross  of  Jesus 
engraven  there.  She  was  told  in  her 
visions  that  her  years  of  anguish  had 
preserved  many  persons  from  impenitent 
death,  and  that  her  repentance  had  washed 
away  all  stain  of  sin.  In  August,  l.'lus, 
she  lay  dying  for  many  days,  happy  at 
the  gates  of  Paradise.  Twice  during 
her  life  she  received  the  Holy  Com 
munion  from  the  hands  of  Christ  Him 
self. 

After  her  death  her  dead  body  was 
opened,  and  the  heart  was  found  to  have 
a  skin  of  unnatural  hardness.  On  being 
cut  open,  it  displayed  on  the  right  side 
a  little  picture  of  Christ  on  the  cross, 
about  the  size  of  a  thumb ;  on  the 
left,  miniature  effigies  of  the  other 
instruments  of  the  Passion,  not  mere 
pictures,  for  the  lance  was  quite  sharp. 
Berengarius,  the  vicar-general,  commis 
sioned  by  the  Bishop  of  Spoleto  to  assist 
at  the  examination,  pricked  his  finger 
with  it.  In  her  intestines  were  found 
three  globules  of  equal  weight.  This 
phenomenon  showed  her  devotion  to  the 
Holy  Trinity,  as  the  state  of  the  heart 
showed  her  constant  contemplation  of 
the  Passion  of  our  Lord. 

She  was  locally  worshipped  as  a  saint 
from  the  time  of  her  death.  Her  canoni 
zation  was  begun  in  the  14th  century, 
by  John  XXII.  Urban  VIII.  (HJi>:J- 
1644)  published  the  bull  for  her  beatifi 
cation.  Her  canonization  was  only  com 
pleted  in  1  (SSI,  under  Pius  IX.,  nearly 
(500  years  after  her  death.  Her  body  lies 
in  a  shrine  behind  the  high  altar  of  the 
church  dedicated  in  her  name  at  Monte- 
falco,  where  the  sacristan  will  allow  the 
devout  traveller  to  see  her  thin  form  in 
the  black  dress  of  her  order,  the  face 
visible,  beautiful,  and  peaceful,  with  eyes 
closed  as  if  in  living,  breathing  sleep. 
The  miraculous  heart  and  other  relics 
are  also  shown.  Whenever  a  great 
calamity  threatens  the  Church,  her  blood, 
which  is  dried  up  in  a  bottle,  liquefies 
and  bubbles — the  greater  the  calamity, 
the  longer  it  boils.  This  happened  at 
the  beginning  of  the  Reformation  of 
Luther  and  Calvin,  and  at  the  beginning 
of  the  He  volutions  of  1847-41". 

In  the  process  of  her  canonization 
under  Pius  IX.,  it  was  proved  that  she 


Ji.    CLAKA 


lius  moved  her  bead,  hands,  and  feet  of 
lato  years. 

11. M.  Baronins,  Annali-s,  !:;«'-.  Cup»-r. 
in  .!.!.».  I'M »11.  Butler,  Lives.  Aim- 
/trtft.  i.  p.  150U.  Vaughan.  Neligan, 
>'(!/«////  C/i'iracters  recently  presented  for 
fioii,  1859.  Collier.  Husenboth, 
A'//////'  /i, x.  Rev.  William  Lloyd,  Saint* 
//  L881.  Cornhill  Mayazine,  Oct.,  1881, 
"May  in  Umbria,"  'by  Mr.  Y.  A. 
Symunds. 

B.  Clara  (5)  (CHIAIIKTTA,  CHI  AIM  •  - 
<  IA  i  and  B. ILLUMINATA  i>i  (imv  \S\KI.I.O, 
\\ere  lay-sisters  under  ST.  CLAKA  OF 
ICoNTKFALOO.  Jacobilli,  S<inti  iti'ir  I'ni- 
bria. 

B.  Clara  «>),  Jan.  22,  of  Rimini. 
•f  Feb.  1",  L32&  :5rd  O.S.F.  A  very 
young  widow,  frivolous  and  ambitious, 
beautiful,  selfish,  luxurious,  accom 
plished.  She  seemed  to  have  no  heart. 
The  misfortunes  of  her  family  and 
country  were  matter  of  indifference  to 
JUT  ;  she  only  cured  to  amuse  and  indulge 
herself.  One  day,  passing  the  church  of 
tin  Franciscans,  she  felt  an  impulse  to 
enter,  contrary  to  her  custom.  With 
her  beautiful  hand,  she  took  holy  water 
as  a  matter  of  course.  An  interior  voice 
said,  "  Clara,  say  one  Pater  and  one  Ave 
from  your  heart,  without  thinking  of  any 
thing  else."  She  did  so,  and  began  to 
repent.  She  did  not  tell  anybody  that 
she  was  converted,  but  shut  the  door  on 
her  admirers,  left  off  her  gay  clothes, 
fed  on  bread  and  water,  but  first  roasted 
a  nasty  creature,  and  compelled  herself 
it  it,  saying  to  herself,  "  Now,  glut 
ton,  eat  this  tit-bit."  She  went  bare 
footed,  and  wore  cords  of  iron  around 
her  neck,  arms,  and  knees.  A  cuirass 
«•!'  in  in  worn  by  her  is  still  preserved  at 
Rimini.  She  spent  whole  nights  in 
prayer.  In  Lent,  for  thirty  years,  she 
prayed  in  a  hole  in  an  old  wall 
to  rain  and  cold.  She  carried 
wood  to  the  poor.  Her  earnest  prayer 
and  deep  contrition  were  rewarded  by  a 
great  power  of  converting  sinners;  one 
of  h«-r  (•••nvi-rts  was  a  widow  whoso  life 
had  IM  en  like  ('hint's;  one  was  a  usurer 
of  Rimini.  Her  sanctity  In-came  so  well 
known  that  <1<  -voiit  persons  desired  to 

be   dirert.-d    l,y   her.      Slio  built  thelllol.:is 

of  our  Lady  of  the   Angels.     She 


did  not  shut  herself  up,  but  went  about 
working  as  a  charwoman.  She  was  dis 
tinguished  for  wisdom  in  her  life,  and 
miracles  after  death.  She  was  buried 
in  her  monastery. 

Pius  VI.  approved,  in  17S4,  the  wor 
ship  already  paid  to  her  at  Rimini. 

Bussy,  Cour  tisanes  Dewnues  Suintes. 
Civilt't  Cnttolica,  v.  277.  Ordcmka- 
l>  a  ilar.  Prayer-book  of  the  Order  of 
St.  Francis. 

St.  Clara  (  7  )  of  India,  or  THACLKAI- 
M  \NOTH,  July  2.  14th  century.  When 
India  was  divided  into  forty-seven  Chris 
tian  kingdoms,  King  Seiosaflam  reigned 
over  one  of  them,  and  lived  at  Scova,  the 
capital  of  all  India.  He  spent  a  glorious 
life  fighting  against  all  unbelievers  and 
heretics,  and  won  the  palm  of  martyrdom 
on  the  field  of  battle.  He  had  a  beautiful 
daughter,  named  Zemedemarea,  which 
means  Fair,  Clear,  Illustrious.  Under 
very  wonderful  circumstances  she  became 
a  Dominican  nun,  translating  her  name 
to  Clara.  She  lived  in  her  convent  for 
fifty  years,  never  eating  or  drinking 
except  on  Sundays,  always  sleeping  on 
ashes,  never  seeing  her  own  skin,  and 
never  washing.  She  preached  to  the 
people  in  the  Chaldean  language.  Sin- 
died  about  1,'Wo,  and  was  highly  vene 
rated  all  over  India.  Pio,  Vom&HGt* 
Saints.  Razzi,  Predicatori,  Florence, 
i:>77.  The  Bollandists  allude  to  the 
story  as  an  absurd  fable. 

B.  Clara  (s),  April  17.  t  14l!l- 
Daughter  of  Peter  Gambacorta,  governor 
of  Pisa  for  twenty-four  years.  She  had 
a  brother,  B.  Peter  of  Pisa,  founder  of  a 
congregation  of  the  Order  of  St.  Jerome. 
She  was  christened  TIIOKA  or  Tin -.01  M.I:  \, 
and  married  at  six  or  seven  to  Simon  de 
Massa.  Her  voluntary  fasts  were  so 
strict  that  she  suffered  excessive  pain 
from  hunger.  When  she  was  twelve, 
her  charity  and  liberality  were  so  ex 
treme  that  her  father-in-law  locked  up  all 
his  goods,  lest  she  should  give  them  to 
the  poor.  She  accompanied  her  father 
when,  in  1^7">,  ho  wont  with  the  arch 
bishop  and  the  principal  citizens  of  Pisa 
t<>  receive  ST.  CATHKUINK  OF  SIENA, 
whom  they  had  invited  to  nurse  and 
convert  in  the  plague-stricken  city  of 
Thora  was  much  impressed  and 


188 


B.   CLARA 


influenced  by  this  great  saint,  and  was 
destined  to  effect  the  reform  of  the 
Dominican  convent  life  so  much  desired 
by  Catherine.  When  she  was  fifteen,  she 
was  dangerously  ill  in  the  absence  of  her 
husband.  He  died,  and  no  one  in  the 
house  dared  to  tell  her.  She  anticipated 
the  tidings  by  telling  her  father  she 
heard  an  unusual  sound  of  bells,  and 
knew  they  were  tolling  for  her  husband's 
death.  She  soon  recovered,  and  betook 
herself  to  the  Franciscan  convent  of  St. 
Martin,  without  consulting  her  family. 
They  were  very  angry,  and  her  brothers 
went  with  a  number  of  armed  men  and 
broke  open  the  gate.  The  terrified  nuns 
immediately  gave  up  their  novice,  and 
carried  her  into  the  church.  It  was 
then  found  that  she  had  lost  the  use  of 
her  limbs,  but  this  was  restored  on  her 
being  allowed  to  remain  a  nun.  To 
prevent  her  going  to  one  of  the  Francis 
can  convents  at  Rome,  her  brothers  shut 
her  up  in  a  small  room  without  a  bed  or 
the  commonest  comforts.  In  course  of 
time,  her  father  permitted  her  to  join  a 
sisterhood  of  Dominican  nuns,  where  she 
took  the  veil  and  the  name  of  Clara. 
He  afterwards  founded  a  small  convent 
of  the  same  order,  at  Pisa,  of  which 
she  became  prioress.  Her  sanctity  was 
attested  by  miracles,  both  during  her 
life  and  after  her  death.  Her  imme 
morial  worship  was  confirmed  by  Pius 
VIII.  R.M.  Dominican  Martyrology. 
Papebroch,  in  AA.SS.  From  MS.  by  a 
contemporary  nun.  Pio,  Hist.  Dom. 
Saints.  Mrs.  Drane,  Catherine  of  Siena. 
The  important  part  taken  by  her  family 
in  the  history  of  Pisa  is  told  by  Sismondi, 
Italian  Republics,  iv. 

B.  Clara  (!>;,  Sept.  in.  Put  to  death 
in  1(>22,  at  Nagasaki,  in  Japan,  with 
her  husband,  Domingo  Xamada,  or  Ya- 
manda,  on  the  same  day  as  BB.  Spinola 
and  LUCY  FREITAS. 

SS.  Clara  (10)  and  Magdalene, 
MM.  17th  century.  Beheaded  in 
Japan  for  the  Christian  faith,  with  their 
father  and  mother,  Michael  and  Ursula, 
and  a  little  brother.  Honoured  in  the 
Mcnoloyy  of  Lahcrius,  but  not  by  the 
authority  of  the  Church.  AA.SS. 

B.  Clara  (11),  Dec.  2:>.  f  i»;4s. 
B.  CLARA  BOURRELIKRE,  or  CLARA  OF  THE 


CROSS.  O.S.D.  A  native  of  Dijon. 
When  she  was  seven  years  old,  the 
Child  Jesus  appeared  to  her  with  a  heavy 
cross,  and  wanted  her  heart  to  plant  the 
cross  in,  as  He  meant  to  make  her  a  new 
Job.  When  very  ill,  she  was  very  pious  ; 
when  better,  she  became  lukewarm  in 
her  love  of  God.  The  company  of  other 
young  ladies  distracted  her.  St.  John 
the  Evangelist  appeared  to  her  with  a 
bandage  on  his  eyes,  because  he  had 
wept  so  much  about  her  relapse.  She 
became  a  nun  in  the  monastery  of  St. 
Catherine  of  Siena,  at  Dijon.  The  devil 
afflicted  her  with  frightful  temptations 
against  innocence,  faith,  etc.  She  had 
the  gift  of  prophecy,  and  foretold  the 
birth  of  Louis  XIV.  long  before  the 
queen  had  any  expectation  of  becoming 
a  mother.  Lima,  Agiologio  Dom. 

Ven.  Clara  (12;  of  Jesus,  Jan.  20 
(TREVOR  HANMEU,  LADY  WARNER;.  IGtfG— 
107o.  O.S.F.  Baptized  by  the  name  of 
Trevor,  after  her  godfather.  Her  father, 
Thomas  Ilanmer,  held  a  good  appoint 
ment  at  the  court  of  Charles  I. ;  her 
mother,  Elizabeth  Baker,  was  maid  of 
honour  to  Queen  Henrietta  Maria.  Both 
were  of  the  Anglican  Church.  After 
their  marriage,  they  lived  at  his  country 
house,  Hanmer,  in  Wales,  and  there 
Trevor  was  born.  When  Cromwell 
usurped  the  power,  and  persecuted  the 
royalists  and  the  Anglican  Church,  the 
Hanmers  were  obliged  to  emigrate. 
They  lived  for  some  time  in  a  Roman 
Catholic  family  in  Paris,  where  Mrs. 
Hanmer  died.  Thomas  Haumer  then 
brought  his  daughter  back  to  England, 
and  married  her,  in  lt>.V.>,  to  Sir  John 
Warner,  of  Parham,  in  Suffolk,  who, 
like  themselves,  was  of  the  Anglican 
reform.  Trevor  had,  however,  imbibed 
Catholic  ideas,  and  her  brother,  who  had 
fled  to  Lisbon,  had  abjured  the  doctrines 
of  the  Reformation,  and  kept  exhorting 
her  to  do  the  same.  In  1GG4  Sir  John 
Warner,  and  his  wife  Trevor,  Lady 
Warner,  became  Roman  Catholics,  and 
from  that  time  lived  a  pious  and  ascetic 
life,  and  resolved  to  become  monk  and 
nun  as  soon  as  they  had  set  their  affairs 
in  order.  This  they  did.  He  became  a 
Jesuit ;  she  joined  the  English  Clares  at 
Gravelines,  and  took  the  name  of  Clara 


ST.   CLEOPATRA 


IS!) 


of  Josus.  She  died  in  the  convent  at 
the  age  of  thirty-three,  Jan.  2ii,  h>7". 
She  had  a  niece,  Elizabeth  Warner,  a 
nun  in  the  same  convent,  under  the  name 
of  Marie  Claire,  who  died  in  the  odour 
of  sanctity,  Feb.  28,  1(>H2.  P.  F.  X.  de 
Ram,  Jluijinhyie  National*,  Vies  des 
/  .  '  tc.,  daw  les  Ancicns  Provinces 
Bulges. 

St.  Claridonia,  CHELIDOSIA. 

Clarissa  Mariscotti,  ST.  HYA 
CINTH. 

St.  Clarissima,  Jan.  i:>,  M.  in 
Greece,  under  Diocletian.  Probably 
same  as  EPIPHANIA,  July  12. 

St.  Claudia  (1),  Aug.  7  false  called 
PKISCII  i.  \.  K'rriNA,  SABINKI.LA  ).  *f  9<». 
Of  noble  birth  in  Britain,  she  was  sent 
tlu  nee  as  a  hostage  to  Rome,  with  her 
Christian  parents,  in  the  reign  of  Clau 
dius.  There  she  married  Aulns  Pudons, 
a  senator  of  birth  equal  to  her  own. 
They  received  St.  Peter  in  their  house, 
where  he  baptized  Pudcns.  Claudia 
was  the  mother  of  SS.  Novatus,  Timothy, 
PRAXKDIS,  and  PUPENTIANA.  After  a 
long  and  virtuous  life,  she  died  at  an 
estate  of  her  husband's  at  Sabinum,  in 
Umbria ;  her  body  was  taken  to  Rome 
by  her  children,  and  laid  in  the  tomb  of 
their  father  Pudens.  AA.SS.  Wilson, 
English  Mart.  Broughton,  Eccl.  Hist,  of 
Brit. 

By  another  account  her  husband's 
name  was  Rtifus  Pudens,  who,  being  a 
Christian,  was  sent  away  from  Rome, 
and  ordered  to  live  in  Britain.  He 
there  married  a  fair  princess,  named 
Claudia.  After  a  time,  Pudens  was 
recalled  to  Kome  ;  Claudia  accompanied 
him,  [and  took  the  name  of  RUFINA. 
They  wero  in  Rome  when  St.  Paul  was 
1  >r<  night  before  Nero  the  second  time, 
and  they  sent  greetings  to  St.  Timothy 
Tim.  iv.  21  ).  The  Pudens  and 
Claudia  of  St.  Paul  are,  however,  not 
necessarily  man  and  wife,  as  both  names 
were  common. 

St.  Claudia  ,(2),  Jan.  2,  M.  in  Ethi 
opia    or   Jerusalem,    with   AUBIGA    and 
Uriii.A.       AA.SS.    from     St.    Jer< 
Marty  rology. 

St.  Claudia  < :;  >,  Jan.  2,  M.     AA.SS. 

St.  Claudia  (4),  March  2<>,  M. 
Companion  of  AI.KX  \MUIA  (•'*).  R.M. 


St.  Claudia  (:.),  May  2S,  M.  in 
Galatia.  AA.SS. 

St.  Claudia  («'.),  May  is,  V.  M. 
with  ST.  THECUSA. 

St.  Claudia  (7),  Dec.  14,  V.  M.  at 
Rome.  Her  body  is  preserved  in  the 
church  of  the  Twelve  Apostles  there. 
History  unknown.  Ferrarius. 

St.  Claudia  (H),  Jan.  12,  Dec.  27. 
Mother  of  ST.  EUGENIA.  AA.SS.t  Jan. 
12,  Prseter.  P.P. 

St.  dementia  (1),  April  12,  M. 
AAJ3S. 

St.  dementia  (2),  May  2H,  March 
21.  "fin*).  Daughter  of  Adolphus, 
count  of  Hohenberg  (Bucelinus  says 
Homberg).  Married  Crafton,  son  of 
Meginhardt,  count  of  Spanheim,  and, 
with  his  consent,  took  the  veil  in  the 
convent  of  Horres,  at  Treves ;  died  in 
great  reputation  for  sanctity.  Her  name 
is  in  several  monastic  martyrologies,  but 
she  is  not  canonized.  Crafton  became 
abbot  of  Spanheim.  Bucelinus  calls 
him  "  Venerable,"  and  dementia  "  Saint." 
AA.SS.,  Pr&tcr.,  March  21. 

St.  Clementiana,  Dec.  17.  Formerly 
honoured  at  Carthage. 

St.  Cleomata,  a  companion  of  ST. 
UKHULA. 

St.  Cleopatra  (1),  Oct.  19.  f  c.  319. 
In  the  persecution  under  Diocletian  and 
Maximian,  seven  holy  men  were  im 
prisoned  in  Egypt.  St.  Varus,  a  soldier 
of  Maximian's  army,  ministered  daily 
to  their  wants.  One  of  them  died,  and 
Yarns  took  his  place,  that  ho  might  be 
numbered  with  the  martyrs.  Maximian, 
hearing  of  it,  had  him  beaten  and  tor 
tured  to  death.  A  certain  woman  of 
Palestine,  named  Cleopatra,  not  daring 
openly  to  confess  herself  a  Christian, 
went  by  night,  with  her  son  of  twelve, 
and  her  servants,  took  away  the  body  of 
Varus,  embalmed  it,  and  dug  a  grave 
under  her  bed,  and  buried  him  there. 
When  the  persecution  ceased,  and  the 
Christians  had  peace,  Cleopatra  pur 
posed  to  return  to  her  own  country. 
MM-  went  to  the  governor,  and  said, 
"  My  husband  was  a  very  distinguished 
soldier,  and  did  good  service  in  the  wars, 
but  he  is  dead,  and  lies  here,  and  has 
never  yet  received  the  funeral  honours 
due  to  him.  Therefore  1  pray  your 


190 


ST.   CLEOPATRA 


highness  that  I  may  take  him  away  and 
give  him  proper  burial."  Tfle  governor 
granted  her  request,  in  consideration  of 
a  large  sum  of  money.  St.  Cleopatra, 
however,  left  her  husband  in  Egypt, 
took  St.  Varus  out  of  the  ground,  put 
more  spices  and  a  rich  robe  round  him, 
and  put  him  in  a  sack,  with  a  quantity 
of  wool,  so  that  no  one  might  suspect 
what  she  was  carrying  off,  or  attempt 
to  steal  the  martyr's  body.  For  at  this 
time  the  Christians  were  beginning  to 
take  courage  to  collect  the  remains  of 
the  saints,  and  place  them  in  the  mon 
asteries  and  raise  monuments  in  their 
honour.  She  buried  him  in  the  tomb 
of  her  fathers,  near  Mount  Tabor,  and 
adorned  the  sepulchre  with  lamps.  It 
very  soon  appeared  that  a  saint  was 
buried  there,  for  whoever  went  to  the 
tomb  was  cured  of  whatsoever  disease 
he  had,  so  that  great  multitudes  came, 
and  there  was  no  room  for  them  in  the 
tomb.  Then  Cleopatra  determined  to 
build  a  church  on  the  spot.  She  made 
arrangements  to  send  her  young  son  to 
the  Emperor's  court,  that  he  might  be 
brought  up  as  a  soldier.  This  cost  her 
a  great  sum  of  money,  but  still  she  had 
enough  to  build  a  church.  When  it 
was  finished,  she  invited  all  the  bishops 
and  clergy  she  could  collect,  and  a  great 
number  of  other  Christians  ;  they  made 
a  grand  religious  ceremony.  She  dressed 
her  son  for  the  occasion  in  a  robe  and 
girdle  which  had  been  laid  on  the  body 
of  St.  Varus.  Cleopatra  prayed  to  the 
martyr  that  he  would  remember  her 
and  her  child  before  God,  and  that,  as 
she  had  suffered  much  in  the  persecu 
tion,  and  had  taken  so  much  trouble  to 
hide  his  sacred  body  and  to  honour  him 
by  building  a  church,  he  would  impute 
her  good  works  to  her  boy,  and  obtain 
for  him  health  and  salvation  and  favour 
with  the  Emperor.  As  the  guests  de 
parted,  the  child  was  smitten  with  fever. 
The  distracted  mother  did  her  utmost 
to  revive  him,  but  without  avail.  She 
took  him  in  her  arms,  and  held  him  in 
her  lap  until  midnight,  when  he  died. 
She  then  took  him  to  the  church,  and 
reproached  the  saint  for  giving  such  an 
unkind  return  for  her  good  works,  and 
such  a  disappointing  answer  to  her 


prayers.  She  told  him  that  God  had 
raised  many  dead  persons  to  life,  and 
conjured  him  to  procure  also  the  resus 
citation  of  her  son,  or  else  to  take  her 
also.  The  boy  was  a  great  favourite. 
The  servants,  priests,  and  neighbours 
wept  all  day  with  the  bereaved  mother, 
and  grieved  that  she  had  not  received 
a  worthy  reward  for  her  piety.  At  mid 
night  she  sank  exhausted  over  her  child, 
and  fell  asleep.  St.  Varus  appeared  to 
her,  leading  her  boy  by  the  hand ;  they 
were  both  girt  with  golden  bands,  and 
wore  cloaks  that  seemed  to  be  made  of 
light.  Their  brooches  shone  like  stars, 
and  they  had  crowns  of  stars  on  their 
heads.  Cleopatra  was  frightened,  and 
prostrated  herself  at  their  feet.  St. 
Varus  bade  her  arise.  He  reproached 
her  for  supposing  him  ungrateful  for 
all  her  care,  and  tho  risks  she  had  run 
for  his  sake,  and  told  her  that,  in  grati 
tude  for  her  having  placed  him  in  the 
tomb  of  her  family,  he  had  obtained 
salvation  from  God  for  her  and  her  son. 
Then  he  went  on  to  say,  "  Why  do  you 
reproach  me  ?  Did  you  not  entreat  me, 
when  you  bnilt  your  church,  to  pray 
that  God  would  write  your  son's  name 
among  those  of  His  firstborn  ?  Did  you 
not  pray  that  he  might  have  an  illus 
trious  rank  in  the  army?  Have  I  not 
obtained  him  a  place  in  the  grandest  of 
all  armies  ?  Did  not  you  ask  peace  and 
glory  for  him,  and  do  you  not  see  that 
he  has  them  ?  And  now  take  him  back 
if  you  will."  The  child  entreated  that 
he  might  not  be  sent  back  to  the  sinful 
world.  To  his  mother  he  said,  "  Can 
a  mother  envy  her  child,  and  wish  to- 
take  him  out  of  the  royal  court  and 
place  him  in  poverty  and  darkness  ? " 
Cleopatra  besought  them  to  take  her 
with  them.  They  answered,  "  You  are 
still  with  us  while  you  remain  in  your 
place,  and  we  will  come  for  you  when 
God  wills."  Tho  child's  body  was  still 
in  her  arms.  They  bade  her  bury  it 
beside  the  martyr.  She  awoke,  and  told 
her  dream  to  her  friends  and  servants, 
took  a  white  robe  and  spices  and  em 
balmed  her  child,  and  laid  him  beside 
St.  Varus.  All  her  female  friends 
advised  her  to  dress  him  in  the  cloak 
he  had  worn  at  the  dedication  of  tho 


ST.   CLOTILDA 


191 


church,  for  they  said,  if  she  kept  it,  it 
would  bo  a  melancholy  reminiscence  of 
her  loss.  But  she  would  not.  She 
begged  them  to  be  present  the  next  day, 
that  she  might  celebrate  a  festival  in 
honour  of  her  son's  assumption  into  the 
army  of  angels.  After  the  ceremony 
she  waited  on  her  guests  with  great 
appearance  of  joy.  The  two  saints 
again  appeared  to  her  on  Sunday.  After 
seven  years,  during  which  they  fre 
quently  visited  her  in  divers  manifesta 
tions  of  glory,  Cleopatra  died,  and  was 
buried  1>.  -id.-  her  child  and  St.  Yarns. 
Benjamin  Bossue,  in  AA.SS. 

St.  Cleopatra  i  -'),  Oct.  2<».  Nun  in 
Muscovy. 

Represented  in  a  nun's  dress,  with  a 
little  boy  in  the  dress  of  a  nobleman. 
But  possibly  the  picture  represents 
( 'i.i:<»r\n;A  (  1). 

It  is  conjectured  that  the  Russian 
( 'hopatra  was  martyred  by  the  Tartars, 
who  made  depredations  in  Russia,  under 
liattus,  or  Batyrus,  in  1241.  She  ap 
pears,  Oct.  2o,  in  a  Russian  calendar 
given  AA.SS.,  Maii,  vol.  i.  See  note  to 
Ci.Koi-ATKA  i  1  ),  Oct.  1S».  AA.SS.,  Prseter. 

St.  Cleopatronia,  March  8  (CLEO- 
I'ATKiNA,  Kri-ATKoMA  ),  V.  Beginning